Etymologie, Etimología, Étymologie, Etimologia, Etymology
@_ Welt, Mundo, Monde, Mondo, World
Conlangs - Konstruierte Sprachen, Lengua construida, Langue construite, Lingua artificiale, Constructed Languages

A

Aletodon mellon (W3)

(E?)(L?) http://www.curioustaxonomy.net/etym/fiction.html

"Aletodon mellon" (Van Valen, 1978) (Paleocene mammal) "mellon," Elvish for "friend", was the password into Moria.


(E?)(L?) https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liste_skurriler_wissenschaftlicher_Namen_aus_der_Biologie




Erstellt: 2017-04

angelfire.com
Colloquial Black Speech for Orcs, Trolls and Men
Orcish Lexicon
English to Orcish Dictionary

(E?)(L?) http://www.angelfire.com/ia/orcishnations/orcishphrases.html
A Few Helpful Phrases in Orcish
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B

C

Conlang (W3)

Die Kurzbezeichnung engl. "Conlang" steht für engl. "Constructed language". "Conlang" wurde etwa 2014 in das "Oxford English Dictionary" ("OED") aufgenommen.

(E?)(L?) http://www.kith.org/logos/words/lower3/uuui.html

Conlang (constructed languages) mailing list: uuui

uuu: mi tavla do

(10 October 1999)

Pidgins are created when people who don't share a language try to communicate with each other. Pidgins do have grammar, of course, but they tend not to be carefully constructed; they're created on an ad hoc basis, to serve the needs of their speakers.

Many people have taken a more systematic approach to the creation of artificial languages. Some such languages (such as "Quenya" or "Klingon") are created for fictional societies to speak; others (such as "Esperanto") are intended to serve noble goals of international communication; still others (such as "Loglan") are experiments designed to test certain claims or hypotheses; and many others are designed by hobbyists and linguists as an exercise or an entertainment.
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(E?)(L?) http://listserv.linguistlist.org/pipermail/ads-l/2012-June/subject.html




(E?)(L?) http://www.macmillandictionary.com/buzzword/entries/conlang.html

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The term "conlang", derived from a combination of truncated words constructed and language, refers to a language which has not evolved via natural processes of human use and culture, but has been deliberately invented, the work of an individual who has carefully crafted a unique new vocabulary and syntax. For many years, the activity of inventing languages, or "conlanging", was often ridiculed as a useless hobby, but has edged into the public radar in the last couple of years, largely because of the burgeoning popularity of TV series such as HBO's "Game of Thrones", which features the fictional language "Dothraki". Created by linguist David Peterson, "Dothraki" has a vocabulary of over 3,600 words, 23 consonants and 4 vowels, subject-verb-object word order, two noun classes (animate and inanimate) declined in five cases, and a range of verb inflections reflecting various tenses. Other examples of conlangs in popular culture include JRR Tolkien's "Middle-Earth languages" in the "Lord of the Rings" trilogy, "Na'vi", created by linguistics professor Paul Frommer for the 2009 film Avatar, and of course "Klingon", first appearing in the script of a 1979 Star Trek movie and subsequently developed by linguist Marc Okrand into a fully-fledged language. "Klingon", whose popularity has translated into a published dictionary and latterly even a dedicated Apple keyboard, is still thought to be one of the most widely spoken conlangs.
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(E?)(L?) http://www.odlt.org/

"conlang"

Definition - A language invented by an individual or a group, i.e. one that hasn't evolved naturally.

Example - "Esperanto", "Basic English", "E-prime", and "Newspeak"

Etymology - The word was coined by contracting the phrase "constructed language".


(E?)(L?) https://www.waywordradio.org/constructed-languages/

Constructed Languages

Posted by Grant Barrett on May 19, 2012 · Add Comment

Did the movie Avatar make you imagine creating an entirely new language, like "Na’vi"? "Conlang.org" and the Language Creation Society have plenty of information on how to go about it and what others, including J.R.R. Tolkein have tried. Mark Rosenfelder’s book "The Language Construction Kit" is a great resource for getting started.

This is part of a complete episode.


(E?)(L?) https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Conlang

"Conlanging" is the art of creating languages. People create languages — "conlangs" — for all sorts of reasons: practical, theoretical, and artistic. This book will show you how. There are three parts, each aimed at a different level of experience; they are intended to be read in order, but more proficient readers may skip earlier sections.
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(E?)(L?) http://www.worldwidewords.org/nl/cobf.htm

4. Book Review: In the Land of Invented Languages

"Cu vi parolas Esperanton?" If you're able to say "jes" in reply, you're a member of a smallish group who knows that it means "do you speak Esperanto?", the language that was created by Dr Ludwig Zamenhof in Poland in the 1880s. I learned a little as a teenager, to the extent that - to my own mild surprise - I could still today write that sentence without having to look it up.

Arika Okrent's experience began with the very different "Klingon". It was invented so that the aliens in Star Trek could speak in a macho warrior tongue that sounded sufficiently unEarthly. If you know that "tlhIngan Hol Dajatlh'a'?" means "do you speak Klingon?", you are also a member of a minority group, one irretrievably and rather sadly tarred with the brush of ultra-geekdom. I must confess to at least semi-geekdom, since I have a copy of The Klingon Dictionary on my shelf, written by Marc Okrand; he built on a few words invented by James Doohan (Scotty) for Star Trek: The Motion Picture to make a detailed language for Star Trek III: The Search for Spock.

"Klingon" and "Esperanto" are, of course, utterly different in form and purpose, the one created as a way merely to make an entertainment more linguistically plausible (albeit one that has achieved a life beyond Star Trek), the other designed with the deeply serious - if naive - intent to promote world peace by helping people to talk to each other (English has become widely used internationally in the century since Zamenhof, but conflict hasn't noticeably reduced). They are perhaps today the two most widely known examples from an astonishingly large collection of invented languages. More than 500 of them are listed in an appendix to this book. "Europal", "Simplo", "Geoglot", "Volapük", "Ulla", "Novial", "Ehmay Ghee Chah", "Basic English", "Tutonish" - the vast majority are now just footnotes in obscure scholarly texts.

Early created tongues arose out of the scientific rationalism of the seventeenth century. Natural languages were criticised, fairly enough in one way, for their design flaws: they're irregular, full of idioms that make no sense to a learner and contain words with more than one meaning while sometimes lacking words for concepts we need. How much better it would be, philosophers felt, if one could be designed from scratch on logical principles. Many have tried, as Arika Okrent explains. Her main example is that of John Wilkins, a member of the Royal Society, who published his detailed attempt, A Philosophical Language, in 1668. All such languages were rooted in attempts to classify the whole of human knowledge, which their inventors only gradually came to realise was an impossible endeavour. A similar idea, but based on modern mathematical logic, surfaced in the 1960s as "Loglan" (and its successor "Lojban"), a language designed to test the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, that the structure of a natural language influences the way its speakers think about the world.

Another type appeared as a result of a more pragmatic attitude in the nineteenth century. This focused on creating languages that were easy to learn and would help people to communicate. "Esperanto" is the classic example but there are dozens of others. A third class of invention grew up in the twentieth century - languages based on pictorial symbols, such as "Blisssymbolics" or "aUI", which sought to avoid what their authors saw as the tyranny of words. Yet a fourth kind was the result of a personal artistic and linguistic impulse - to create a tongue that was satisfyingly complex and complete. The most famous examples here are J R R Tolkien's elven tongues "Quenya" and "Sindarin" in his "Lord of the Rings" trilogy. Interest in making artificial languages is currently high through Internet discussion groups specialising in "conlangs" ("constructed languages") and "artlangs" ("artistic languages" invented to give aesthetic pleasure).

Arika Okrent wittily tells the stories of many of these invented languages, as well as of one natural language - "Hebrew" - that in effect was recreated in the twentieth century some two millennia after it vanished as a native spoken language. She focuses as much on the men who created the languages and the cultures in which their creations were born (and almost invariably soon died) as on the languages themselves, though she discusses a number in enough detail for readers to get a good feel for them. Her personal and entertaining book wears her research lightly. It will be a good read for anyone with even a general interest in this aspect of linguistics.

[Arika Okrent: In the Land of Invented Languages; published under the Spiegel & Grau imprint by Random House, New York, May 2009; hardback, 341pp, including index; publisher's list price $26.00; ISBN13: 978-0-385-52788-0; ISBN10: 0385527888.]


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/




(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=Conlang
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "Conlang" taucht in der Literatur nicht signifikant auf.

(E?)(L?) http://corpora.informatik.uni-leipzig.de/


(E?)(L?) http://www.wordmap.co/#Conlang

This experiment brings together the power of Google Translate and the collective knowledge of Wikipedia to put into context the relationship between language and geographical space.


Erstellt: 2017-04

conlang.org
Language Creation Society

(E?)(L?) http://www.conlang.org/

Conlanging is the creation of "constructed languages" or "conlangs", such as "Esperanto", "Lojban", or "Klingon". A conlanger is someone who creates or constructs languages or conlangs.

"Conlang.org" is a site for conlangers, would-be conlangers, those interested in or curious about conlangs, and anything else to do with conlanging.


Erstellt: 2017-04

conlangery.com/
Conlangery

(E?)(L?) http://www.conlangery.com/

About

"Conlangery" is a weekly podcast created by conlangers, for conlangers.  Every week, George, William, and our guests talk about a conlanging - or linguistics-related topic or feature a conlang or natlang to discuss in-depth.

The term "conlang" stands for "constructed language", that is a language that has been artificially constructed, usually by a single author, as opposed to "natural languages" ("natlangs"), which originated far back in human prehistory and evolved naturally from then on. If you’d like to learn more about conlangs and conlanging, feel free to have a listen.
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(E?)(L?) http://www.conlangery.com/episode-list/

Episode List


Erstellt: 2017-04

D

E

elvish.org
Elvish names

(E?)(L?) http://www.elvish.org/

The Elvish Linguistic Fellowship

A Special Interest Group of the Mythopoeic Society

The Elvish Linguistic Fellowship (E.L.F.) is an international organization devoted to the scholarly study of the invented languages of J.R.R. Tolkien.

The primary activity of the E.L.F. is carried out in the pages of its two print journals, Vinyar Tengwar (available by subscription ) and Parma Eldalamberon, and in its online journal, Tengwestië. The E.L.F. also sponsors the Lambengolmor mailing list.
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(E?)(L?) http://www.elvish.org/elm/names.html

It seems that almost everyone who interested in Tolkien and particularly in his invented languages played with an idea to have his/her own name in an Elvish language. Some use names taken from Tolkien's books, while the others try to coin their own Elvish nickname. It seems to be a common habit. Sometimes people create their own poetic Elvish name and sometimes they try to translate the meaning of their real name into Elvish.
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Erstellt: 2017-04

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herr-der-ringe-film
Tolkien-Enzyklopädie
Ardapedia

(E?)(L?) http://www.herr-der-ringe-film.de/

Tolkien, John Ronald Reuel

Alles über die Verfilmung der Tolkien-Triologie "Der Herr der Ringe"; mit Trailern zum herunterladen


(E?)(L?) http://ardapedia.herr-der-ringe-film.de/




Erstellt: 2017-04

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J

K

kli.org
The Klingon Language Institute

(E?)(L?) http://www.kli.org/

About Klingon KLI Activities
About the KLI
Resources
Members Only

Welcome to the Klingon Language Institute. That’s right, Klingon. Those bumpy headed aliens of Star Trek really have their own language, one which has far outgrown mere television and film. That’s what we’re about. We’re here to promote and support this unique and exciting language. So, whether you’ve just stumbled in here by accident, or lost a bet, or have sought long and hard for people who share your passion for the warriors’ tongue, come on in. Our site has information and resources to interest both skeptic and enthusiast alike. Join us in our exploration of the galaxy’s fastest growing language.


(E?)(L?) http://www.kli.org/about-klingon/klingon-history/

Development and Use of the Klingon Language

The Klingon language was originally created to add realism to a race of fictional aliens who inhabit the world of Star Trek, an American television and movie franchise. Although Klingons themselves have never existed, the Klingon language is real. It has developed from gibberish to a usable means of communication, complete with its own vocabulary, grammar, figures of speech, and even slang and regional dialects. Today it is spoken by humans all over the world, in many contexts.

Klingons first glowered from television screens in 1968. These aggressive warriors were scripted speaking only English until the 1979 release of Star Trek: The Motion Picture, when viewers heard guttural shouts from the crew of a doomed Klingon spaceship. Only the subtitles knew what they were saying: the actors themselves put emotion into what were then meaningless sounds. Then, two Star Trek movies later, the producers called on professional linguist Dr. Marc Okrand to create authentic speech for the Klingons. His task was to make their language as alien as their ridged prosthetic foreheads, while still remaining pronounceable by human actors and consistent with the battle cries from the first movie.
...


Erstellt: 2017-04

Klingon (W3)

Bisher konnte ich keinen Hinweis finden, wie es zur Bezeichnung "Klingon" kam. Die Bezeichnung wurde im Jahr 1968 und wurde anscheinend von G. L. Coon in "Errand of Mercy" geprägt. Wenn sich "Klingon" nur und ursprünglich auf die Sprache Bezeiehen würde könnte man die Bezeichnung als Zusammensetzung aus "konstruiert" und engl. "lingo" = dt. "Kauderwelsch", "Jargon", "Fremdsprache" interpretieren.

(E?)(L?) http://www.atlasobscura.com/places/nettle-cave-tour-in-klingon

Jenolan, Australia

Nettle Cave Tour in Klingon

The first tourist attraction to offer tours for interstellar tourists 

With up to 200,000 visitors a year, people are boldly going where many have gone before. Just to make sure their bases are covered, they offer self-guided tours in 13 languages - and just to make sure their bases are REALLY covered, they offer tours of one of their caves in the debatably fictional language of Klingon.
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(E?)(L?) http://boingboing.net/2009/11/18/klingon-as-a-first-l.html

Klingon as a First Language


(E?)(L?) http://pedroiy.free.fr/alphabets/klingon.htm

L'aphabet Klingon


(E?)(L?) http://pedroiy.free.fr/chiffres/klingon.htm

Klingon - Chiffres


(E?)(L1) http://www.google.com/intl/xx-klingon/

Suche - Klingonisch


(E?)(L1) http://h2g2.com/dna/h2g2/alabaster/A744860

'Star Trek' - the Klingon Language

There have been several attempts to create an artificial language, the most famous of which is probably Esperanto. Such languages are usually planned in such a way as to be as easy as possible to learn and speak, and borrow heavily from existing languages.

However, there is one recent example of an artificial language which has a rather different purpose - and as a result is quite different from almost all other 'created' languages.

The Beginning - Grunts and growls
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(E?)(L?) http://www.jessesword.com/sf/list/?page=6

Klingon (n.)

antedating 1968 G. L. Coon 'Errand of Mercy'

a member of a fictional humanoid alien race featuring in the U.S. television series Star Trek and in subsequent associated series, films, publications, etc. Also in extended use. Also the language of this race.


(E?)(L?) http://www.jessesword.com/sf/view/315

Full record for Klingon n.

Definition

a member of a fictional humanoid alien race featuring in the U.S. television series Star Trek and in subsequent associated series, films, publications, etc. Also in extended use. Also the language of this race.

OED requirements: antedating 1968

Earliest cite: G. L. Coon 'Errand of Mercy'

Comment: New Entry in the OED in September 2003, with earliest dates of: 1968 (race), 1985 (language), 1968 (adjective)

Last modified: 6 July, 2008

Citations for Klingon n.
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(E?)(L?) http://www.kith.org/logos/words/lower3/uuui.html

uuu: mi tavla do (Klingon)
(10 October 1999)

Pidgins are created when people who don't share a language try to communicate with each other. Pidgins do have grammar, of course, but they tend not to be carefully constructed; they're created on an ad hoc basis, to serve the needs of their speakers.

Many people have taken a more systematic approach to the creation of artificial languages. Some such languages (such as "Quenya" or "Klingon") are created for fictional societies to speak; others (such as "Esperanto") are intended to serve noble goals of international communication; still others (such as "Loglan") are experiments designed to test certain claims or hypotheses; and many others are designed by hobbyists and linguists as an exercise or an entertainment.

Most such languages have their devotees. Enough Tolkien fans are interested in his invented Elvish languages "Quenya" and "Sindarin" (and the "Tengwar" and "Cirth" letters they're written in) to have formed the TolkLang mailing list; some people write poetry in various forms of "Elvish". The sounds of the language are lovely. At the other end of the aesthetics scale is "Klingon", created for Star Trek by Mark Okrand; it's a harsh, guttural language, suitable for warriors, and has attracted widespread public attention with the publication of a translation dictionary (and a project to translate the Bible and Shakespeare into Klingon, by the Klingon Language Institute).
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(E?)(L?) http://www.loc.gov/standards/iso639-2/php/English_list.php

Klingon - Alpha-3 codes
English Name of Language	All English Names 	All French Names 	ISO 639-2 	ISO 639-1
Klingon 			Klingon; tlhIngan-Hol 	klingon 		tlh
tlhIngan-Hol 		Klingon; tlhIngan-Hol 	klingon 		tlh



(E?)(L?) http://www.nytimes.com/2002/11/12/international/europe/12OXFO.html

Oxford Journal; Latest Word: 'Klingons' In, 'Muggles' Not Quite

By WARREN HOGENOV. 12, 2002

Heard the one about the fashionista and his arm candy who live in parallel universes, prefer chat rooms and text messaging to snailmail, suffer sticker shock at the cost of pashminas and like chick lit or airport novels?
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(E?)(L?) http://ksearch.proz.com/search/

Klingon - Translation


(E?)(L?) http://www.spiegel.de/kultur/gesellschaft/0,1518,248464,00.html
Klingonisch als Fremdsprache

TaH pagh taHbe' - Sein oder nicht sein - Von Mario Sixtus

Die aus dem "Star Trek"-Kosmos stammende Phantasiesprache der Klingonen erfreut sich weltweit immer größerer Beliebtheit. Ein Landkreis im US-Bundesstaat Oregon war nun sogar kurzzeitig auf der Suche nach einem Dolmetscher, der das kehlige Idiom beherrscht. Die Verwaltungsbeamten wollten sich für extreme Fälle psychischer Störung wappnen.
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(E?)(L?) http://corpora.informatik.uni-leipzig.de/de?corpusId=tlh_wikia_2011

Suche in 263 korpusbasierten monolingualen Wörterbüchern in 236 Sprachen.

Korpus: Klingon (tlh_wikia_2011)

tlhIngan-Hol corpus based on material from 2011

Sätze: 103 · Types: 1,184 · Tokens: 3,026


(E?)(L?) http://memory-alpha.wikia.com/wiki/G.L._Coon

G.L. Coon was the author of "A Concise History of the Klingon Empire", an important book about Klingon history by 2293. (Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country)


(E?)(L?) http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Klingon

This Wikibook teaches the reader to speak the Klingon Language. It supplies a fast yet complete method of learning tlhIngan Hol, by providing auditory aid and structured information for fast absorption by the reader.
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(E?)(L?) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Klingon

Klingons (Klingon: tlhIngan) are a warrior race in the fictional Star Trek universe. They are recurring villains in the 1960s television show Star Trek: The Original Series, and have appeared in all five spin-off series and seven feature films. Initially intended to be swarthy antagonists for the crew of the USS Enterprise, the Klingons ended up a close ally of humanity and the United Federation of Planets in later television series.

As originally developed by screenwriter Gene L. Coon, Klingons were darkly colored humanoids with little honor, intended as an allegory to the then-current Cold War tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union. With a greatly expanded budget for makeup and effects, the Klingons were completely redesigned in Star Trek: The Motion Picture (1979), gaining ridged foreheads that created a continuity error not explained by canon until 2005. In later films and the spin-off series Star Trek: The Next Generation, the militaristic traits of the Klingons were bolstered by an increased sense of honor and strict warrior code.

Among the elements created for the revised Klingons was a complete language, developed by Marc Okrand off gibberish suggested by actor James Doohan. Since its appearance, Klingon became the first fictional language to break into popular culture; the works of William Shakespeare and even the Bible have been translated into the guttural language. Several tutorials and dictionaries have been published and according to Guinness World Records, Klingon is the most popular fictional language by number of speakers.
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(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=Klingon
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "Klingon" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1870 / 1970 auf.

(E?)(L?) http://corpora.informatik.uni-leipzig.de/


(E?)(L?) http://www.wordmap.co/#Klingon

This experiment brings together the power of Google Translate and the collective knowledge of Wikipedia to put into context the relationship between language and geographical space.


Erstellt: 2017-04

L

linguifex.com
Linguifex, the free wiki for conlangs

(E?)(L?) https://www.linguifex.com/

Linguifex, the free wiki for conlangs that anyone can edit!

Currently detailing 526 articles and languages: 17.5 % of our goal.


(E?)(L?) https://linguifex.com/wiki/Category:Languages




Erstellt: 2017-04

Lord of the Rings (W3)

"Lord of the Rings" ("LOTR") ist der Titel eines Fantasy-Romans des englischen Philologie-Professors "J. R. R. Tolkien". Ursprünglich als Fortsetzung der Kindererzählung "The Hobbit" (1937) angelegt, entwickelte es sich zu einem großen eigenständigen Werk (1937 - 1949). Der erste Teil des Fantasy-Romans erschien am 19.07.1954.

Merkwürdige Worte sind in der Kinoverfilmung von J.R.R. Tolkiens Fantasy-Trilogie "Der Herr der Ringe" zu hören: untertitelte oder gar nicht übersetzte, aber meist durchaus nett klingende Texte in nie gehörten Sprachen - Tolkiens Sprachen. J.R.R. Tolkien war nicht nur Geschichtenerzähler, sondern hauptberuflich Sprachwissenschaftler, nämlich zuletzt Professor für Englische Sprache und Literatur am Merton College in Oxford. Er beschäftigte sich dort hauptsächlich mit den älteren Sprachstufen des Englischen, war aber auch in anderen europäischen Sprachen bestens bewandert.

Wörter und ihr Klang standen am Anfang von J. R. R. Tolkiens grandioser Fantasy-Saga

Wie muss eine ideale Sprache sein?

Elbenlatein

Die Sprache Saurons

Though we know him today as the author of "The Hobbit" and "The Lord of the Rings" the creator of the fantastic "Middle Earth", the inventor of "hobbits" and "orcs" and "Elvish", indeed the "father of modern fantasy literature", Tolkien, was also a respected medieval scholar and professor. He worked briefly for "The Oxford English Dictionary", taught at Leeds University and then Oxford, and produced a landmark lecture on "Beowulf".

(E?)(L1) http://www.atlasobscura.com/places

Atlas Results for "lord of the rings"


(E?)(L?) http://bigthink.com/strange-maps/423-flow-charting-the-ring-trilogy

Designed by J.R.R. Tolkien’s son Christopher and included in most editions of the Lord of the Rings trilogy, the map of Middle-Earth is one of the best-known examples of fantasy cartography. The iconic map shows the fictional continent in which the action of the three books takes place, from Forodwaith in the north to Haradwaith in the south, and the Gulf of Lune in the west to the Sea of Rhûn in the east (was Middle-Earth deliberately framed to rhyme?)
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(E6)(L1) http://www.chris.com/ascii/index.php?art=books/lord of the rings

The Lord of the Rings


(E?)(L?) http://www.culture24.org.uk/sitemap/search%20results?q=lord+of+the+rings

Your search for "lord of the rings" found 38 items


(E?)(L?) http://blog.dictionary.com/hobbit-tolkien/

Where Does the Word Hobbit Come From?

J.R.R. Tolkien (John Ronald Reuel Tolkien) was born on January 3, 1892. In honor of the author’s beloved "Lord of the Rings" series of books, we pay tribute to his fantastic creation, the hobbit. Hobbits are similar to humans, but they are short and have hairy feet. "Bilbo Baggins", "Samwise Gamgee", and "Frodo Baggins" are the most-well known hobbit examples. In J.R.R. Tolkien’s fiction, they’re the peaceful folk who reside in Middle Earth.
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As you may have guessed, hobbits are a fictional race born in Tolkien’s imagination. He even created an etymology for the word; "hobbit" derives from the word "Holbytla", which means "hole-dweller" in Old English. Tolkien invented three groups of hobbits. The "Harfoots" were the smallest of all the hobbits and also the first to enter "Eriador", a large region of Middle Earth. The "Fallohides" are the least numerous of the Hobbits and tall and fair. The "Stoors" were the last to enter Eriador. They stand out as being the only hobbits that are willing to swim.

Now here’s the fascinating and slightly spooky detail. There are no references to "hobbits" before Tolkien’s publication, except for one. In 1895, the folklorist Michael Aislabie Denham published a long list of supernatural creatures. Here’s an excerpt: “. . . "nixies", "Jinny-burnt-tails", "dudmen", "hell-hounds", "dopple-gangers", "boggleboes", "bogies", "redmen", "portunes", "grants", "hobbits" . . .”

While Tolkien was a masterful adapter of mythology and folklore, there isn’t the slightest suggestion that he was aware of this list. Synchronicity, coincidence, or serendipity? Tolkien’s interest in language predates his career as a professional writer. After World War I, the Oxford English Dictionary was Tolkien’s first employer. His job at the dictionary involved working on the history and etymology of Germanic words that begin with "W".
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.dummies.com/education/literature/exploring-the-diverse-lands-of-middle-earth/

...
The origin of the term "Middle-earth"

In the letter commenting on a New York Times book review, Tolkien stated that the name "Middle-earth" is “just a use of Middle English "midden-erd" (or "erthe"), altered from Old English "Middangeard", the name for the inhabited lands of Men "between the seas" . . .”

"Midden-erde" (or "erthe"), however, is good old Middle English for "middle-earth". As Tolkien pointed out, it hails from an earlier form, "middangeard", which literally means the "middle yard" in Old English or Anglo-Saxon, the language Tolkien taught at Oxford University. "Middangeard" was taken to mean, like "oikumenos", the "inhabited world". It is rumored that Tolkien first happened upon this term as an undergraduate student when he read the following lines in Crist (Christ), an Old English poem attributed to a bard named Cynewulf:

Éala Éarendel engla beorhtast ofer middangeard monnum sended

This reads, “Hail, Earendel, the brightest of angels sent to the world of men!” In this early form, "Middle-earth" was not only the inhabited lands in the midst of the encircling seas, but also the middle ground between Heaven above and Hell below. This vertical dimension of the early European Christian "Middle-earth" is entirely missing from Tolkien’s — even though you’d be hard pressed to find a more devout Catholic Christian.
...


(E?)(L?) http://englishrussia.com/2010/05/27/russian-lord-of-the-rings/

Russian Lord of the Rings - Russian edition of The Hobbit


(E?)(L?) https://h2g2.com/search?search_type=article_quick_search&searchstring=lord+of+the+rings&approved_entries_only_chk=1




(E?)(L?) http://ardapedia.herr-der-ringe-film.de/index.php/Spezial:Alle_Seiten




(E?)(L?) http://listserv.linguistlist.org/pipermail/ads-l/2004-January/subject.html

•"Lord of the Rings" Dan Goodman


(E?)(L?) http://www.lordoftherings.net/


(E?)(L?) http://www.lordoftherings.net/legend/lands/cannes/la_cannes_booklet.html


(E?)(L?) http://www.lordoftherings.net/media/pdf/cannes.pdf
"Lord of the rings" Cannes Booklet

(E?)(L?) http://lotrproject.com/

The Lord of the Rings Project

Visualizing Tolkien's works on the web.


(E?)(L?) http://lotrproject.com/about.php

About the project

The Lord of the Rings Project is a project and initiative started by Emil Johansson. It is an attempt to place every character in J.R.R Tolkien’s fictional universe in a family tree. With time, the project will expand to include other things.

Acknowledgements

Shaun Gunner, press officer at Tolkien Society and administrator of Tolkien Gateway, has decided to lend the project his expertise. He will help proof-reading the many entries and advise on updates in the future.

About Emil Johansson

I am very glad you have found this site and hope you enjoy the project. My name is Emil Johansson and I am a part-time professional photographer and a student in Chemical Engineering at Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden. I first read the Lord of the Rings trilogy when I was 11 years old and was caught by the magic immediately. It may have been a sort of escape from reality I don’t know. It is after all not that uncommon at that age. Since then I have read to my knowledge every book there is to read about Middle-Earth. During the height of my fandom I decided too try and make a complete family tree of all the creatures in Tolkien’s world. I can’t remember how long it took making it.

Now, six years later I have finally gathered the knowledge to do what I have always wanted to do: put the family tree on the web. In November last year I started on the quest and I have to admit, it has taken me longer than I expected. As of this moment, 646 characters have been included.


(E6)(L1) http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/archivepix.html


(E?)(L?) https://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap020215.html

Astronomy Picture of the Day

2002 February 15

Saturn: "Lord of the Rings"

Credit: Hubble Heritage Team (AURA / STScI) R.G. French (Wellesley College), J. Cuzzi (NASA/Ames), L. Dones (SwRI), J. Lissauer (NASA/Ames)

Explanation: Born on today's date in 1564, Galileo used a telescope to explore the Solar System. In 1610, he became the first to be amazed by Saturn's rings. After nearly 400 years, Saturn's magnificent rings still offer one of the most stunning astronomical sights. Uniquely bright compared to the rings of the other gas giants, Saturn's ring system is around 250,000 kilometers wide but in places only a few tens of meters thick. Modern astronomers believe the rings are perhaps only a hundred million years young. But accumulating dust and dynamically interacting with Saturn's moons, the rings may eventually darken and sag toward the gas giant, losing their lustre over the next few hundred million years. Since Galileo, astronomers have subjected the entrancing rings to intense scrutiny to unlock their secrets. Still mesmerized, some will take advantage of next week's (February 20th) favorable lunar occultation of Saturn to search for evidence of ring material outside the well known boundaries of the ring system. The presence of such a "lost" ring of Saturn was first hinted at in reports dating back to the early 20th century.


(E?)(L?) http://www.nationalgeographic.com/ngbeyond/rings/
Lord Of The Rings

(E?)(L?) http://www.nationalgeographic.com/ngbeyond/rings/language.html

...
Reflections of "Real" Languages in Tolkien's Tongues

Many character and place names in "The Lord of the Rings" are related to words from old and modern languages. In his book "Hobbits, Elves, and Wizards", Michael N. Stanton provides examples of the historical links for some of Tolkien's characters and settings. A few examples follow:

"Saruman"'s name derives from the Anglo-Saxon, or Old English, root "searu-" for "treachery" or "cunning".

"Sauron" is linked to the Old Norse or Icelandic stem meaning "filth" or "dung" or "uncleanness".

"Mordor" derives from the Old English word "morthor", which means "murder".

"Middle-earth" is related to the name "middan-geard", which was the name for the Earth itself in Old English poetry and was considered to be the battleground between the forces of good and evil.

Tolkien's High Elvish language, "Quenya", was inspired by "Finnish". Tolkien taught himself Finnish in order to read the "Kalevala", a 19th-century compilation of old Finnish songs and stories arranged by Elias Lönnrot into a linear epic poem and completed in 1835 and revised in the mid-1800s.
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.thelandofshadow.com/


(E?)(L?) http://recordbrother.typepad.com/imagesilike/2005/05/what_you_been_t.html

...
Why you walking away .... hey come back at least check this out... it's J.R.R. Tolkien reading and Singing his Lord Of The Rings: The Two Towers/The Return of the King it's a magnificent piece of audio and was recorded before the books publication.
...


(E?)(L?) https://www.thoughtco.com/the-lord-of-the-rings-profile-1856846

The Lord of the Rings

Book Summary


(E?)(L?) https://www.visualthesaurus.com/cm/candlepwr/the-lingo-of-pluto-new-horizons-new-words/

The Lingo of Pluto: New Horizons, New Words

July 21, 2015

By Nancy Friedman

When the space probe New Horizons was launched from Cape Canaveral on January 19, 2006, Pluto was still classified as our solar system's ninth planet, and our clearest picture of it was a blurry blob. Nine and a half years and three billion miles later, Pluto — now demoted to "dwarf planet" status — has come into startlingly sharp focus, thanks to the first images and data received from the probe last week. As we learn more about this distant cousin of Earth, we're also expanding our linguistic horizons. Here's a closer look at some of the words and names in the Plutonian news.
"Pluto" ...
"Charon" ...
"Plutoed" ...
"Flyby" (also "fly-by") ...
"Ralph", "Alice", "REX", "SWAP", "LORRI", and "PEPSSI" ...
...
"Mordor", "Cthuhlu", "Meng-Po'o", and "Tombaugh Regio". What sounds like the title of a Jorge Luis Borges short story is in fact a partial list of informal names for newly discovered features on "Pluto" and "Charon". (Formal names must be approved by the "IAU", but as one project scientist tweeted, "Cannot just say 'that dark spot.' 'No I meant that dark spot.'") Many of them are drawn from "your darkest imaginings," as the science blog io9 put it — and consistent with the established names of Pluto's moons, including "Styx" (in Greek myth, the river of death), "Cerberus" (the three-headed hellhound that guards the underworld), and "Nix" (the Greek goddess of night). The new names depart from classical mythology and enter fictional realms:

The dark area at Charon's polar region, for example, has been tagged "Mordor", from the wasteland in J.R.R. Tolkien's Lord of the Rings trilogy. On Pluto itself, an area originally dubbed "the whale" is now called "Cthuhlu", after the fictional deity invented by H.P. Lovecraft; and "Meng Po'o" is the Buddhist "lady of forgetfulness." An exception to the pattern is the Tombaugh Regio — literally "region of Tombaugh" — which honors Pluto's discoverer, "Clyde Tombaugh". For a long list of Plutonian names suggested by the public, see the Our Pluto discussion forum.
...
Pluto Pals (or Plutokids) ...
...


(E?)(L?) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Lord_of_the_Rings

The Lord of the Rings is an epic high fantasy novel written by English philologist and University of Oxford professor J. R. R. Tolkien. The story began as a sequel to Tolkien's earlier, less complex children's fantasy novel The Hobbit (1937), but eventually developed into a much larger work. It was written in stages between 1937 and 1949, much of it during World War II. It is the third best-selling novel ever written, with over 150 million copies sold.
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.wired.com/geekdad/2009/09/great-geek-debates-the-lord-of-the-rings-vs-harry-potter/

Great Geek Debates: The Lord of the Rings vs. Harry Potter


(E?)(L?) http://www.wordorigins.org/index.php/more/880/

Old English in LoTR ("Lord of the Rings")


(E?)(L?) https://xkcd.com/657/

"Lord of the Rings"-Map


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=Lord of the Rings
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "Lord of the Rings" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1950 auf.

(E?)(L?) http://corpora.informatik.uni-leipzig.de/


(E?)(L?) http://www.wordmap.co/#Lord of the Rings

This experiment brings together the power of Google Translate and the collective knowledge of Wikipedia to put into context the relationship between language and geographical space.


Erstellt: 2017-04

M

Mimatuta minuial (W3)

(E?)(L?) http://www.curioustaxonomy.net/etym/fiction.html

"Earendil" Van Valen, 1978 (Paleocene mammal, synonym of "Mimatuta" Van Valen, 1978) for Eärendil, father of Elrond.

"Mimatuta morgoth" Van Valen, 1978 (Paleocene mammal) for the "dark enemy of the world".

"Mimatuta minuial" Van Valen, 1978 (Paleocene mammal) "minuial" is Elvish for dawn's twilight.


(E?)(L?) http://cache.ucr.edu/~heraty/yanega.html

"Mimatuta morgoth" Van Valen, 1978 (fossil mammal)


(E?)(L?) https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liste_skurriler_wissenschaftlicher_Namen_aus_der_Biologie




Erstellt: 2017-04

Mithrandir (W3)

"Mithrandir", eine Gattung von Säugetieren aus dem Paläozän, nach dem Sindarin-Namen des Zauberers "Gandalf" ("Mithrandir" = "Grauer Wanderer").

(E?)(L?) http://www.curioustaxonomy.net/etym/fiction.html

Mithrandir Van Valen, 1978 (Paleocene mammal) one of the names of the wizard Gandalf.


(E?)(L?) http://ardapedia.herr-der-ringe-film.de/

Mithrandir


(E?)(L?) https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liste_skurriler_wissenschaftlicher_Namen_aus_der_Biologie

"Mithrandir", eine Gattung von Säugetieren aus dem Paläozän, nach dem Sindarin-Namen des Zauberers Gandalf ("Mithrandir" = "Grauer Wanderer").


(E?)(L?) http://cache.ucr.edu/~heraty/yanega.html

"Mithrandir" Van Valen, 1978 (fossil mammal)


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=Mithrandir
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "Mithrandir" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1950 auf.

(E?)(L?) http://corpora.informatik.uni-leipzig.de/


(E?)(L?) http://www.wordmap.co/#Mithrandir

This experiment brings together the power of Google Translate and the collective knowledge of Wikipedia to put into context the relationship between language and geographical space.


Erstellt: 2017-04

mittelerde-portal.de
Mittelerde Portal
Mittelerde Lexikon
Mittelerde Sindarinlexikon
Mittelerde Sprachen

(E?)(L?) http://www.mittelerde-portal.de/


(E?)(L?) http://www.mittelerde-portal.de/index.php

Willkommen beim Mittelerde-Portal, der Enzyklopädie rund um den "Herr der Ringe".
...
Wer war Gandalf wirklich, woher kam Sauron, wer war Gollum, bevor er den Ring fand? Welchen Weg nahmen die neun Gefährten, wie alt ist Legolas und wie lang der Bart der Mutter von Gimli?

Diese und ungezählte Fragen mehr aus dem Bereich Herr der Ringe und Mittelerde, können dir unsere Manuskripte beantworten.
...
Viel Spaß beim Bummel durchs virtuelle Mittelerde, der Welt von Tolkiens "Der Herr der Ringe" und "Der kleine Hobbit".

Inhalt: Allgemeines: Die Welt: Geschichte:  Völker: Sprachen: Ringe: Reisewege: Sternenhimmel:


(E?)(L?) http://www.mittelerde-portal.de/index.php?action=lexikon&show=all

Das Lexikon verfügt zur Zeit über 549 Einträge  


(E?)(L?) http://www.mittelerde-portal.de/index.php?action=sindarinlexikon

Mittelerde - Sindarinlexikon

Falls ihr euch Fragen stellt wie "Was reden die denn da im Film?" oder "Was zum Geier bedeutet dieses Wort?", so könnt ihr euch viele diese Fragen hier beantworten.

Das Sindarin-Deutsch/Deutsch-Sindarin Wörterbuch enthält weit über 2000 Wörter und Begriffe und die dazugehörige Übersetzung.


(E?)(L?) http://www.mittelerde-portal.de/index.php?action=sprachen&sprache=elben

Mittelerde - Sprachen


(E?)(L?) http://www.mittelerde-portal.de/index.php?action=sprachen&sprache=menschen

Mittelerde - Sprachen


(E?)(L?) http://www.mittelerde-portal.de/index.php?action=sprachen&sprache=zwerge

Mittelerde - Sprachen


(E?)(L?) http://www.mittelerde-portal.de/index.php?action=sprachen&sprache=ents

Mittelerde - Sprachen


(E?)(L?) http://www.mittelerde-portal.de/index.php?action=sprachen&sprache=valar

Valarin - Auch genannt: Valisch, und (in Quenya "Valya" oder "Lambë Valarinwa").


(E?)(L?) http://www.mittelerde-portal.de/index.php?action=sprachen&sprache=schwarz

Mittelerde - Sprachen


(E?)(L?) http://www.mittelerde-portal.de/index.php?action=ringspruch

Der Ringspruch


Erstellt: 2017-04

N

nytimes.com
Athhilezar? Watch Your Fantasy World Language

(E?)(L?) http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/12/arts/television/in-game-of-thrones-a-language-to-make-the-world-feel-real.html

Athhilezar? Watch Your Fantasy World Language
...
Some people build model railroads or re-enact Civil War battles; Mr. Peterson, a 30-year-old who studied linguistics at the University of California, San Diego, is a "conlanger", a person who constructs new languages. Until recently, this mostly quixotic linguistic pursuit, born out of a passion for words and grammatical structures, lived on little-visited Web sites or in college dissertations.
...


Erstellt: 2017-04

O

omniglot.com
Conlangs - Links
Constructed languages

(E?)(L?) http://www.omniglot.com/links/conlangs.htm

Links: Conlangs (Constructed languages)


Erstellt: 2017-04

onzetaal.nl
Fìskxawngìri tsap’ alute sengi oe

(E?)(L?) https://onzetaal.nl/fiskxawngiri-tsap-alute-sengi-oe/

22 december 2009

Avatar is een film waarin de Na'vi, blauwe reuzenindianen met kattenogen en elfenoortjes, hun regenwoud verdedigen tegen hebberige aardbewoners. En dat doen ze in hun eigen taal - soms.

Vroeger sprak iedereen in Hollywood-films Engels. Duitsers, Zoeloes en marsmannetjes werden enkel van een min of meer geloofwaardig accent voorzien, à la 'zis is ze dzjerman koostgaard'.
...


Erstellt: 2017-04

oxforddictionaries.com
Conlangs

(E?)(L?) http://blog.oxforddictionaries.com/2014/07/created-languages-dothraki-valyrian-game-thrones/

Conlang and the creation of Dothraki and Valyrian

In a guest blog article, David J Peterson uses his experience as a language creator on Game of Thrones, Defiance, and Dominion to discuss the world of conlang.

My name is David Peterson, and I’m a conlanger. “What’s a conlanger,” you may ask? Thanks to the recent addition of the word “conlang” to the Oxford English Dictionary (OED), I can now say, “Look it up!” But to save you the trouble, a conlanger is a constructed language (or conlang) maker—i.e. one who creates languages.
...


(E?)(L?) http://blog.oxforddictionaries.com/2012/09/who-speaks-klingon/

Who speaks Klingon?


(E?)(L?) http://blog.oxforddictionaries.com/2012/09/invented-languages/

Invented languages

Invented languages in literature

Made-up languages are not unusual in fiction. As long ago as 1516, Thomas More ("Utopia") gave his readers ‘A meter of iiii. verses in the Utopian tongue’, the first line of which goes "Vtopos ha Boccas peula chama polta chamaan".

In A Voyage to Lilliput (1726), Jonathan Swift has the "Lilliputians" say various things in their own language, such as "Lumus kelmin pesso desmar lon emposo" ‘swear a peace with him and his kingdom’. There are words and phrases from all the countries which Gulliver visits, but none represent what one might call worked-out languages.

Readers of the Tintin books will recall the extensive vocabulary of "Syldavian" (e.g. the national motto "Eih bennek, eih blavek!"), which is a much more thoroughly worked-out language based on Germanic but made to look Slavonic. In all these cases, the fragments of language are introduced to complement the other cultural features of the invented countries and add an authentic flavour.
...


Erstellt: 2017-04

P

pons.com
Elbisch - Deutsch - Wörterbuch Deutsch - Elbisch - Wörterbuch

(E?)(L?) http://de.pons.com/übersetzung?q=Sprache&l=delb&in=&lf=de




Erstellt: 2017-04

Q

R

S

Silmarillion (W3)

John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, Schriftsteller, Sprachforscher (03.01.1892 (Bloemfontain) - 02.09.1973 (Bournemouth)), Werke:

(E?)(L?) http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/examining-the-battle-of-good-vs-evil-in-tolkiens-m.html

Examining the Battle of Good vs. Evil in Tolkien's Middle-earth

By Greg Harvey

Tolkien was clear in the stories of "The Silmarillion" and "The Lord of the Rings" that the struggle between good and evil is never-ending.
...


(E?)(L?) http://ardapedia.herr-der-ringe-film.de/index.php/Das_Silmarillion

Das Silmarillion erzählt von den Ereignissen des Ersten Zeitalters und Zweiten Zeitalters- jener fernen Epochen von Mittelerde, auf welche die Helden des Herrn der Ringe immer wieder in Ehrfurcht zurückblicken. Aber auch vom Dritten Zeitalter ist die Rede. Wobei der Titel Silmarillion (Quenya: „von den Silmarilli“) zumindest zum Teil irreführend ist. So beschäftigt sich zwar der Großteil der Geschichten mit den Ereignissen rund um die Silmarilli. Doch lässt dies die Ainulindale und die Valaquenta außer Acht, welche freilich auch nur als Prolog gesehen werden können.

Das Silmarillion ist in fünf Blöcke gegliedert: ...


(E?)(L?) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Tale_of_Beren_and_L%C3%BAthien

The "Tale of Beren and Lúthien" is the story of the love and adventures of the mortal Man Beren and the immortal Elf-maiden Lúthien, as told in several works of J. R. R. Tolkien. It takes place during the First Age of Middle-earth, about 6500 years before the events of his most famous book, "The Lord of the Rings". Tolkien wrote several versions of their story, the latest written in "The Silmarillion". Beren and Lúthien are also mentioned in "The Lord of the Rings".
...


(E?)(L?) https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Das_Silmarillion

Das Silmarillion (Von den Silmaril) ist eine Sammlung unvollendeter Werke J. R. R. Tolkiens, die auf seinen Wunsch postum von seinem Sohn Christopher in überarbeiteter und vervollständigter Form veröffentlicht wurde.
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.wordorigins.org/index.php/more/880/

...
One of the things that inspired Tolkien was what he perceived to be a lack of English-language mythology. The tales and stories of the ancient Britons were never written down and were wiped out by the Anglo-Saxons. Similarly, most of the tales of the Anglo-Saxons were lost with the Norman Conquest. Even "Beowulf", although written in Old English, is about a Geatish hero, from what is now Sweden, who travels to what is now Denmark to fight the monster Grendel. In writing "The Lord of the Rings", and the accompanying books, "The Hobbit" and The "Silmarillion", Tolkien was attempting, in part, to create a mythology for England, and it made sense to use Old English associations as the means to link his tales with Britain.
...


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=8&content=Silmarillion
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Dt. Span. Frz. Engl. "Silmarillion" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1970 auf.

(E?)(L?) http://corpora.informatik.uni-leipzig.de/


(E?)(L?) http://www.wordmap.co/#Silmarillion

This experiment brings together the power of Google Translate and the collective knowledge of Wikipedia to put into context the relationship between language and geographical space.


Erstellt: 2017-04

Sindarin (W3)
Language of Middle-earth
Sprache in Mittelerde
die Sprache der Grauelben

Die von Tolkien geschaffene Kunstsprache "Sindarin", die Sprache der "Grey-elves", "Grauelben" oder "Sindar" basiert auf dem Walisischen und hieß zunächst "gnomish".

"Sindarin" is the language of the Grey Elves, invented by J.R.R. Tolkien and exemplified in his masterful epic story "The Lord of the Rings".

(E?)(L?) http://www.alphadictionary.com/directory/Languages/Artificial/Tolkien_Languages/

Tolkien Languages

Dictionaries Grammars


(E?)(L?) http://gernot-katzers-spice-pages.com/tolkien/tengwar.html


(E?)(L?) http://ardapedia.herr-der-ringe-film.de/




(E?)(L?) http://ardapedia.herr-der-ringe-film.de/index.php/Sindarin
Nord-Sindarin


Sindarin

Gegen Ende der Arbeit am Herrn der Ringe änderte Tolkien die Hintergrundgeschichte seiner Sprachen grundlegend, und die "keltische" Gemeinsprache der Elben hieß nun nicht mehr "Noldorin" sondern "Sindarin", und es war nicht länger die Sprache jener, die nach Mittelerde zurückkamen, sondern jener, die Mittelerde nie verlassen hatten. "Sindarin" nahm somit nun den Platz von "Ilkorin" ein, was bis auf wenige übernommene Wörter im archaischen "Nordsindarin-Dialekt" völlig verworfen wurde. Tolkien bezog sich später mehrfach auf das Sindarin im Herrn der Ringe, denn obgleich dies währenddessen eigentlich "Noldorin" gewesen war, waren die Veränderungen vergleichsweise gering, die Tolkien von der einen zur anderen Sprache vorgenommen hatte, und in den in "Der Herr der Ringe" belegten Formen ist quasi keine, die sich nicht voll und ganz auch in Tolkiens späteren Konzeptionen des "Sindarin" nachvollziehen lassen würde. Da der Unterschied so gering war, dass nur wenige Lautveränderungen durchgeführt werden mussten, stellt "Etymologies" auch für Sindarin die wichtigste Wortliste dar.
...


(E?)(L?) https://www.jrrvf.com/hisweloke/sindar/

The Sindarin dictionary project

Words - so innocent and powerless as they are, as standing in a dictionary, how potent for good and evil they become in the hands of one who knows how to combine them. [N. Hawthorne]

Introduction

"Sindarin" is the language of the Grey Elves, invented by J.R.R. Tolkien and exemplified in his masterful epic story "The Lord of the Rings".
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.jrrvf.com/hisweloke/sindar/online/sindarin.html

This is new a pre-release version of Hiswelókë's Sindarin dictionary. While this version attempts to be as perfect as possible, we make no guarantees of its completeness and accuracy. It is a preview version mainly intended for people interested in helping to develop and improve the dictionary. Please use it with knowledge and caution.

. . . ON-LINE SINDARIN DICTIONARIES
Home | English | Français | Deutsch

Sindarin & Noldorin dictionaries (with normalizations) "Strict" Sindarin & Noldorin dictionaries (without normalizations) Other documents Technical documentation


(E?)(L?) http://www.kith.org/logos/words/lower3/uuui.html

...
Most such languages have their devotees. Enough Tolkien fans are interested in his invented Elvish languages "Quenya" and "Sindarin" (and the "Tengwar" and "Cirth" letters they're written in) to have formed the TolkLang mailing list; some people write poetry in various forms of Elvish. The sounds of the language are lovely. At the other end of the aesthetics scale is Klingon, created for Star Trek by Mark Okrand; it's a harsh, guttural language, suitable for warriors, and has attracted widespread public attention with the publication of a translation dictionary (and a project to translate the Bible and Shakespeare into Klingon, by the Klingon Language Institute).
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.omniglot.com/conscripts/index.htm

...
Tengwar for Sindarin
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.sindarin.de/
Lexikon, Aussprache, Beispiele, Grammatik, Lyrik.


Sindarin ist die Sprache der Grauelben in J.R.R. Tolkiens bekanntem Mittelerde-Szenario, die an das Walisische angelehnt ist und durch den Herrn der Ringe zu weltweitem Ruhm gelangte. Auf diesen Seiten soll nun versucht werden, eine möglichst umfassende wie auch objektive Beschreibung dieses einmaligen sprachlichen Kunstwerkes zu präsentieren, das Professor Tolkien sein Leben lang beschäftigte.

Viele Details dieser Sprache jedoch sind uns von Tolkien nicht überliefert und seit Jahrzehnten fasziniert es Tausende, durch eigene Analysen weiter in dieses Feld einzudringen und seine Ideen zu rekonstruieren. Einige Ergebnisse dieser Forschungen sollen hier präsentiert werden, doch kann nichts von dem ein finales Wort sein, weshalb künftige Veränderungen der hiesigen Seiten immer zu erwarten sind. Etliche Manuskripte Tolkiens sind immer noch nicht veröffentlicht und werden erst nach und nach der Öffentlichkeit zugänglich gemacht.


(E?)(L1) http://www.sindarin.de/lexikon.html

Sindarin-Lexikon



Sindarin, das ist die Sprache der Grauelben in J.R.R. Tolkiens bekanntem Mittelerde-Szenario, das durch seinen "Herrn der Ringe" zu weltweitem Ruhm gelangte. Auf diesen Seiten nun möchte ich versuchen, eine möglichst umfassende wie auch objektive Beschreibung dieses einmaligen sprachlichen Kunstwerkes zu präsentieren, das Professor Tolkien sein Leben lang beschäftigte.
Viele Details dieser Sprache jedoch sind uns von Tolkien nicht überliefert und seit Jahrzehnten fasziniert es Tausende, durch eigene Analysen und Interpretationen weiter in dieses Feld einzudringen und das Mysterium des Sindarin zu entschlüsseln und zu einer immer anwendbareren Sprache zu gelangen. Einige Ergebnisse dieser Forschungen sollen hier präsentiert werden, doch kann nichts von dem ein finales Wort sein, weshalb künftige Veränderungen der hiesigen Seiten immer zu erwarten sind.
Besonderes Augenmerk wurde hierfür auf das Sindarin der Elben des späten dritten Zeitalters gelegt, doch es sind kurze Abhandlungen zu historischen Formen, sowie elbischen und menschlichen Dialekten in Planung.
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(E?)(L1) http://www.sindarlambion.net/

Sindarin - Die Edle Sprache

Sindarin - Die Edle Sprache  

Sich intensiver mit den von Tolkien geschaffenen Sprachen wie Sindarin zu befassen, bedeutet sich weitgehend auf Tolkiens Motivation für den Schöpfungsprozess des 'Herrn der Ringe' einzulassen, die er selber in einem Brief von 1955 folgendermaßen beschrieb:
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(E?)(L?) http://www.sindarlambion.net/files/Wortschatz.pdf

Sindarin Wörterbuch


(E?)(L1) http://www.uib.no/People/hnohf/




(E1)(L1) http://www.uib.no/People/hnohf/sindarin.htm
Diese Seite listet eine große Anzahl "Tolkienscher Etymologien" auf. Das Wort "Etymologies" erscheint 61 mal auf der großen Seite.

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"Sindarin" is the Quenya name of this language, derived from "Sindar" = "Grey ones" = "Grey-elves"; it may be (and is) translated "Grey-elven". What "Sindarin" was called by its own term is not known with certainty. It is said of the Elves in Beleriand that "their own language was the only one that they ever heard; and they needed no word to distinguish it" (WJ:376). The "Sindar" probably referred to their own tongue simply as "Edhellen", "Elvish". As noted above, the herb-master of the Houses of Healing referred to "Sindarin" as the "noble tongue" (while "the noblest tongue in the world" remains Quenya, UT:218). Throughout LotR, the term usually employed is simply "the Elven-tongue", since "Sindarin" was the living vernacular of the Elves.
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But only in the thirties, with the Etymologies, did a language really close to LotR-style Sindarin emerge in Tolkien's notes. This was however called "Noldorin", for like its predecessor Gnomish it was conceived as the language, not of the "Sindar", but of the "Noldor" - developed in "Valinor". At this stage, "Quenya" was thought of as the language of the "Lindar" (later: "Vanyar") only. Only as late as when the appendices to LotR were being written did Tolkien abandon this idea, and turned "Noldorin" into "Sindarin". "Quenya" now became the original language of both the "Vanyar" and the "Noldor" - the latter simply adopted "Sindarin" when they arrived in Middle-earth. It "turned out" that the Celtic-sounding language of Tolkien's mythos was not, after all, their own tongue (though in the annals of Middle-earth, they certainly came to be the most prominent users of it). It did not originate in the Blessed Realm of "Valinor", but was an indigenous tongue of Middle-earth.
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The "Noldorin" of the Etymologies is not entirely identical to "Sindarin" as it appears in LotR, since Tolkien never stopped refining and altering his invented languages. But many of the differences that separate "Noldorin" from LotR-style "Sindarin" are happily regular, Tolkien adjusting some details of the evolution from Primitive Elvish. Therefore, most of the "Noldorin" material can quite easily be updated to agree with the linguistic scenario of LotR.

A number of words must be subtly altered; for instance, the "Noldorin" diphthong "oe" should rather be "ae" in Sindarin. One example involves "Belegoer" as a name of the Great Ocean (LR:349, 352); this form Tolkien later changed to "Belegaer" - so on the map of the published Silmarillion.

Another change has to do with the consonants "lh-" and "rh-"; where they occurred in "Noldorin" many examples show that Sindarin should have simple "l-" and "r-" instead. Thus, we can deduce that a "Noldorin" word like "rhoeg" ("wrong", LR:383) should rather be "raeg" in Sindarin - though the latter form is nowhere explicitly attested. It has been suggested that the "Noldorin" of the Etymologies, with its various peculiarities, can be equated with the "somewhat strange" dialect of Sindarin that the Noldor spoke in Gondolin (UT:44). In this way we could even account for its being called Noldorin rather than Sindarin. However, it is also possible that Tolkien would have considered "Noldorin" wholly obsolete to the extent it differs from his later vision of Sindarin.
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NOTE: In the "Noldorin" of the Etymologies, "a" in a final syllable often comes out as "ei" instead. Hence we have "adar" = "father" pl. "edeir" (entry ATA), "Balan" = "Vala" pl. "Belein" (BAL), "habad" = "shore" pl. "hebeid" (SKYAP), "nawag" = "dwarf" pl. "neweig" (NAUK), "talaf" = "ground", "floor" pl. "teleif" (TAL).

Same thing in monosyllables: "Dân" = "Nandorin elf", pl. "Dein" (NDAN), "mâl" = "pollen" pl. "meil" (SMAL), "pân" = "plank" pl. "pein" (PAN), "tâl" = "foot" pl. "teil" (TAL).

But as demonstrated above, the plural form of "tâl" had become "tail" in Tolkien's later Sindarin (lenited form "-dail" in "tad-dail" in WJ:388). Likewise, the Sindarin plural of "adar" is seen to be, not "edeir" as in the Etymologies, but "edair" (as in Edenedair "Fathers of Men", MR:373 - this is a post-LotR source).

The Silmarillion Appendix, entry "val-", also confirms that in Sindarin the plural form of "Balan" = "Vala" is "Belain", not "Belein" as in the Etymologies. It seems that in all the examples just listed, we should read Sindarin "ai" for "Noldorin" "ei" in the plural forms.

In one case at least, evidence from the Etymologies agrees with the patterns observed in later Sindarin: the already-quoted example "aran" = "king" pl. "erain" (not "*erein") in the entry 3AR. (For "erain" as the Sindarin plural, compare the name "Fornost Erain" = "Norbury of the Kings" occurring in LotR3/VI ch. 7.) Interestingly, Christopher Tolkien notes that in the Etymologies, the group of entries that 3AR belongs to was "struck out and replaced more legibly" (LR:360). Perhaps this was after his father had revised the plural patterns that otherwise persist in Etym. PM:31, reproducing a draft for a LotR Appendix, shows Tolkien changing the plural of "Dúnadan" from "Dúnedein" to "Dúnedain". It seems that the older "Noldorin" plurals in "ei" are not conceptually obsolete; they may be seen as archaic Sindarin: In certain environments, the change "ei" > "ai" occurred also within the imagined history, so "Dúnedain" could indeed have been "Dúnedein" at an earlier stage. It seems that Tolkien decided that "ei" in the final syllable of a word (this also goes for monosyllables) became "ai", but otherwise remained "ei". Hence we have teithant for "drew" (or *"wrote") in the Moria Gate inscription, and this "teith-" is related to the second element "-deith" of the word "andeith" = "longmark" (a symbol used to mark long vowels in writing, LR:391 s.v. TEK). Yet the word "andeith" from the Etymologies instead appears as "andaith" in LotR Appendix E, since "ei" was here in a final syllable. "Teithant" could not become "*taithant" because "ei" here is not in a final syllable. Other words confirm this pattern. As indicated above, the normal plural of "aran" is "erain", but "erein-" is seen in the name "Ereinion" = "Scion of Kings" (a name of Gil-galad, PM:347/UT:436). Evidently the plural form was "erein" in archaic Sindarin, later becoming "erain" because "ei" changed to "ai" in final syllables, but in a compound like "Ereinion" the diphthong "ei" was not in a final syllable and therefore remained unchanged.
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(E?)(L?) http://www.uib.no/People/hnohf/vocab.htm

A taste of Elvish - Quenya and Sindarin vocabulary


(E?)(L?) https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sindarin

"Sindarin" und "Quenya" sind die bekanntesten fiktionalen Sprachen, die der britische Autor J. R. R. Tolkien in seinen Erzählungen über die von ihm erdachte Welt Mittelerde verwendet. Sie werden von den dort lebenden Elben gesprochen. Tolkien kam bereits in seiner frühen Kindheit mit unterschiedlichen Sprachen in Berührung, da er in der Obhut eines Geistlichen aufwuchs und dabei Latein und Griechisch kennenlernte. Er beschäftigte sich intensiv mit alten Legenden und Sagen, die einen Einfluss auf seine Geschichten hatten.
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Sprachliche Entwicklung

Das "Sindarin" ist Teil einer entfalteten Sprachfamilie. Ursprünglich hatten alle Elben Mittelerdes eine Sprache gemeinsam, die als "Ur-Elbisch" oder "primitives Quendisch" bezeichnet wird. Erst als sie nach Valinor gingen, spaltete sich diese Sprache in mehrere Mundarten auf. Das "Vanyarin" der Elben, die nach Valinor gingen und nie nach Mittelerde zurückkehrten, das "Noldorin" der Elben, die mit Feanor zurückkehrten, und das "Telerin" der Elben, die erst spät oder nie nach Valinor gingen.

Aus einem dieser Dialekte, dem "Telerin", entwickelte sich später in Mittelerde das "Alt-Sindarin", welches sich teilweise mit der Sprache der zurückgekehrten Noldor vermischte, woraus schließlich das "Neu-Sindarin" entstand. Es ist die Umgangssprache der Elben. "Sindarin" lernten und sprachen auch die Edain, die Menschen der drei Völker der Elbenfreunde. Es hatte einen starken Einfluss auf ihre eigene Sprache und viele Worte wurden in die Gemeinsprache der Menschen übernommen.
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(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/sindarin

sindarin


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=Sindarin
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "Sindarin" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1950 auf.

(E?)(L?) http://corpora.informatik.uni-leipzig.de/


(E?)(L?) http://www.wordmap.co/#Sindarin

This experiment brings together the power of Google Translate and the collective knowledge of Wikipedia to put into context the relationship between language and geographical space.


Erstellt: 2017-04

Skxawng (W3)

"Skxawng" ist ein Wort der konstruierten Sprache "Na’vi" und bedeutet dt. "Idiot", engl. "moron".

(E?)(L?) http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/06/magazine/06FOB-onlanguage-t.html

Skxawng!

By BEN ZIMMERDEC. 4, 2009

When James Cameron’s science-fiction opus "Avatar" comes to the screen this month, audiences will witness meticulously conceived alien characters — speaking a meticulously conceived alien language. To lend extra authenticity to the Na’vi — the tall, blue-skinned, vaguely feline humanoids living on the distant world of Pandora — Cameron enlisted the help of a linguist to construct a full-fledged language, with its own peculiar phonetics, lexicon and syntax. From the mind of Paul Frommer, a professor at the University of Southern California, was born a Na’vi language, with mellifluous vowel clusters, popping ejectives and a grammatical system elaborate enough to make a polyglot blush.
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While Frommer was working out the structure of "Na’vi" in 2005 and 2006, however, he studiously avoided looking at "Klingon" or any other "constructed language" (or "conlang" for short). Instead he drew on his mentor Bernard Comrie’s work on linguistic typology and his own wide-ranging study of languages as diverse as Persian, Malay, Hebrew and Mandarin Chinese. The most exotic items in the "Na’vi" sound system are three ejectives — "kx", "px" and "tx" — that require explosive bursts of breath. They come in handy for such piquant epithets as "skxawng", loosely translated as "moron", which became a popular put-down among crew members during production.
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Erstellt: 2017-04

stackexchange.com
conlang

(E?)(L?) https://linguistics.stackexchange.com/search?tab=Relevance&pagesize=50&q=conlang

73 results


Erstellt: 2017-04

T

Tengwar (W3)

Das Wort "tengwar" bedeutet "Buchstaben" oder "Zeichen" auf Quenya, die Einzahl ist "tengwa" (in Sindarin "têw", Mehrzahl "tîw").

(E?)(L?) http://ardapedia.herr-der-ringe-film.de/index.php/Tengwar

Die "Tengwar" sind ein von J. R. R. Tolkien erfundenes Schriftsystem. Sie können wie ein Alphabet im engeren Sinne verwendet werden, aber auch eine Verwendung als Konsonantenschrift ist möglich.

In Tolkiens Werken sind im valinorischen Jahr 1250 von Feanor erfunden worden auf der Grundlage von Rúmils Sarati. Eine Reihe von Sprachen aus Tolkiens Welt wird mit ihnen geschrieben, darunter "Quenya" und "Sindarin". Sie können jedoch auch zum Schreiben anderer Sprachen verwendet werden (tatsächlich sind die meisten bekannten Tengwar-Texte von J. R. R. Tolkien auf Englisch geschrieben).

Das Wort "tengwar" bedeutet "Buchstaben" oder "Zeichen" auf Quenya, die Einzahl ist "tengwa" (in Sindarin "têw", Mehrzahl "tîw").
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(E?)(L?) http://tengwar.art.pl/tengwar/ott/start.php?l=en

Tengwar Transcriber

(E?)(L?) http://www.ascii-art.de/ascii/t/tengwar.txt

tengwar


(E?)(L?) http://www.forodrim.org/daeron/md_teng_primers.html

Guides for Tengwar and Runes

how to write Quenya, Sindarin & Swedish with Tengwar


(E?)(L?) http://gernot-katzers-spice-pages.com/tolkien/tengwar.html

"Tengwar" und ihre Verwendung

"Tengwar" sind ein Schriftsystem ("Elbenschrift"), das von J.R.R. Tolkien speziell für die erfundenen Sprachen (elbische Sprachen), die er in seinem bekannten Roman Der Herr der Ringe und anderen Werken verwendete, entwickelt wurde. Da Tolkien Linguist war, folgt die Verwendung der "Tengwar" rationalen phonologischen Regeln.

In diesem Dokument beschreibe ich die Regeln, die Tolkien zur Aufzeichnung von Texten in den beiden wichtigsten elbischen Sprachen, "Sindarin" und "Quenya", beschrieb; Englisch und Deutsch sind nicht behandelt. Zur besseren Illustration führe ich für jede Sprache Beispiele an, darunter auch alle bisher veröffentlichten Beispiele von Tolkiens eigener Tengwar-Kalligraphie.

Der dreiteilige Kinofilm Der Herr der Ringe von Peter Jackson enthält ebenfalls einige elbische Texte. Eine Auswahl davon ist hier in zwei alternativen Schreibungen wiedergegeben.

Inhaltsverzeichnis
  • Einführung
  • Lautlehre
  • Grundsätzliche Zuordnung der Tengwar
  • Quenya
  • Lautbelegung
  • Galadriels Klagelied (*)
  • Fíriels Lied
  • Elendils Eid
  • Cirions Eid
  • Noldorisches Sindarin
  • Lautbelegung
  • Hymne an Elbereth
  • Inschrift am Moria-Westtor
  • Aragorns Brief (dritte Version) (*)
  • Lúthiens Lied
  • Die Ringinschrift (*)
  • Beleriandisches Sindarin
  • Lautbelegung
  • Hymne an Elbereth (*)
  • Sams Anrufung
  • Inschrift am Moria-Westtor (*)
  • Aragorns Brief (erste Version) (*)
  • Lúthiens Lied
  • Zahlen und Ziffern
  • Film-Special: Die Gefährten
  • Galadriels Eröffnungsworte
  • Arwens Heilungsworte
  • Dialog zwischen Arwen und Aragorn vor der Bruinenfurt
  • Arwens Wasserzauber
  • Elrond über Gilraen (SEE)
  • Dialog zwischen Arwen und Aragorn in Bruchtal
  • Zauberduell zwischen Gandalf und Saruman
  • Gandalfs Zauberworte am Moria-Westtor
  • Dialog an der Grenze von Lothlórien (SEE)
  • Galadriels Abschied von Aragorn (SEE)
  • May it be von Enya
  • Aníron von Enya
  • Film-Special: Die Zwei Türme
  • Aragorns Vision von Arwen (teilweise SEE)
  • Dialog zwischen Arwen und Elrond in Bruchtal
  • Dialog zwischen Aragorn und Legolas in Helms Klamm
  • Rufe in der Schlacht von Helms Klamm
  • Film-Special: Die Rückkehr des Königs
  • Frodos Ausruf
  • Gilraens Worte
  • Angmar
  • Aragorns Krönungseid
  • Elronds Abschied in Mithlond
  • Download
Alle Beispieltexte im PDF-Format. Um dieses Dokument auszudrucken, benötigen Sie einen geeigneten Viewer, z.B. Adobe Acrobat Reader. Leider stellt diese Software die Schrift am Bildschirm sehr schlecht dar; der Ausdruck sollte wesentlich besser aussehen.

Die mit einem Stern (*) markierten Texte liegen auch in Tolkiens eigener Handschrift vor.

Autor: Gernot Katzer


(E?)(L?) http://ardapedia.herr-der-ringe-film.de/index.php/Vinyar_Tengwar

"Vinyar Tengwar" ist eine englischsprachige Zeitschrift der "Elvish Linguistic Fellowship" ("E.L.F."), die sich dem wissenschaftlichen Studium der von J. R. R. Tolkien erfundenen Sprachen und Schriften widmet. Seit Tolkiens Sohn und literarischer Nachlassverwalter Christopher die Herausgeber mit der Erforschung des linguistischen Erbes seines Vaters betraut hat, dient das Journal ebenso wie die Publikation Parma Eldalamberon dazu, bislang unveröffentlichtes Material zu präsentieren und analysieren.
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(E?)(L?) http://www.kith.org/logos/words/lower3/uuui.html

Tengwar (Elvish alphabet): uuui

uuu: mi tavla do

(10 October 1999)

"Pidgins" are created when people who don't share a language try to communicate with each other. Pidgins do have grammar, of course, but they tend not to be carefully constructed; they're created on an ad hoc basis, to serve the needs of their speakers.

Many people have taken a more systematic approach to the creation of "artificial languages". Some such languages (such as "Quenya" or "Klingon") are created for fictional societies to speak; others (such as "Esperanto") are intended to serve noble goals of international communication; still others (such as "Loglan") are experiments designed to test certain claims or hypotheses; and many others are designed by hobbyists and linguists as an exercise or an entertainment.

Most such languages have their devotees. Enough Tolkien fans are interested in his invented Elvish languages "Quenya" and "Sindarin" (and the "Tengwar" and "Cirth" letters they're written in) to have formed the TolkLang mailing list; some people write poetry in various forms of "Elvish". The sounds of the language are lovely. At the other end of the aesthetics scale is "Klingon", created for Star Trek by Mark Okrand; it's a harsh, guttural language, suitable for warriors, and has attracted widespread public attention with the publication of a translation dictionary (and a project to translate the Bible and Shakespeare into "Klingon", by the Klingon Language Institute).
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(E?)(L?) http://at.mansbjorkman.net/

Amanye Tenceli The Writing Systems of Aman

This page is dedicated to the beautiful writing systems that in Tolkien’s works derived from the continent of Aman. They are often collectively called "Tengwar", although strictly speaking this is wrong, "Tengwar" being the name of Feanor’s writing system ("Feanor’s Tengwar") but not of the "Sarati", "Rúmil’s script" (the “Tengwar of Rúmil”).

On this site the names of the writing systems are written with an initial capital: “the Tengwar” and “the Sarati”; but I write “one tengwa/sarat, many tengwar/sarati” in lowercase letters.

Index
  • Updates 2014-12-31
  • An Introduction
  • The Sarati
  • Sarati Valuations
  • The Tengwar
  • Tengwar Names
  • Tengwar Modes
  • Tengwar Punctuation
  • Tengwar Calligraphy
  • Tengwar Illuminations
  • References
  • Frequently Asked Questions
  • Downloads
  • Tengwar Eldamar (Font)
  • Valmaric Eldamar (Font)
  • Sarati Eldamar (Font)
  • Tengwar Parmaite (Font)
  • Tirion Sarati (Font)



(E?)(L?) http://www.omniglot.com/conscripts/index.htm

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  • Tengwar for Arabic
  • Tengwar for English
  • Tengwar for High Valyrian
  • Tengwar for Hungarian
  • Tengwar for Icelandic
  • Tengwar for Latin American Spanish
  • Tengwar for Quenya
  • Tengwar for Scottish Gaelic (Version 1)
  • Tengwar for Scottish Gaelic (Version 2)
  • Tengwar for Sindarin
  • Tengwar for Spanish
  • Tengwar for Welsh
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.omniglot.com/writing/tengwar.htm

Tengwar   

J.R.R. Tolkien created many languages throughout his life. He wrote in one of his letters that the tales of Middle-earth ("The Hobbit", "The Lord of the Rings", "The Silmarillion", etc) grew from these languages, rather than the languages being created for use in the stories.

Tolkien also created a number of different alphabets to write his languages - "Tengwar", or "Feanorian" letters, is the one which appears most frequently in his work. The way the vowels are indicated in Tengwar resembles Tibetan and other Brahmi-derived scripts.
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transliterates text in various languages, including English Quenya, Polish and Sindarin, into Tengwar.


(E?)(L?) http://www.omniglot.com/links/fonts.htm

Tolkienian fonts
Tengwar fonts Tengwar for Quenya, Sindarin, Arabic, English, High Valyrian, Hungarian, Icelandic, Portugese, Scottish Gaelic (1), Scottish Gaelic (2), Spanish, Latin American Spanish, Welsh


(E?)(L?) http://folk.uib.no/hnohf/namteng.pdf

A COMMENTARY ON J.R.R. TOLKIEN’S TENGWAR TRANSCRIPTION OF NAMÁRIË BY VICENTE S. VELASCO

Note: This revision is admittedly long overdue. I have decided to revise the style of the text to make it less idiosyncratic and corrected inadvertent errors that came out subsequently, as well as new information that came out.
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(E?)(L?) http://folk.uib.no/hnohf/tgenesis.pdf

I YESSESS¨E TENGWAINEN THE FIRST AND SECOND CHAPTERS OF GENESIS IN QUENYA WITH TENGWAR1

Helge K. Fauskanger

November 17, 2003
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(E?)(L?) https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tengwar_und_Certar

"Tengwar" und "Certar" sind vom englischen Philologen und Autoren J. R. R. Tolkien erfundene Schriftsysteme. Er hat sie zum Schreiben verschiedener Sprachen in der von ihm erfundenen fiktiven Welt Mittelerde eingesetzt, aber auch zur Wiedergabe von Englisch und anderen Sprachen.

Tolkiens fiktiver Mythologie nach entwickelten sich die beiden Schriftsysteme unabhängig voneinander. "Certar" ("Quenya", sg. "Certa") bzw. "Cirth" ("Sindarin", sg. "Certh") werden beide mit „Runen“ übersetzt. Sie sind vom Prinzip und Aufbau her den nord- und westeuropäischen Runenschriften nachempfunden und bilden somit eine Alphabetschrift. Sie wurden von Tolkien z.B. im Buch "Der Hobbit" verwendet. Die "Tengwar" ("Quenya", sg. "Tengwa") oder "Tîw" ("Sindarin", sg. "Têw") bedeuten "Buchstaben" und sind im Gegensatz zu den "Certar" eigene, von Tolkien entwickelte Zeichen. Sie tauchen u.a. im Herrn der Ringe im Ringspruch auf. Je nach Modus können die "Tengwar" entweder als reine Alphabetschrift oder – zusammen mit "Tehtar" (Quenya: "Zeichen") genannten Vokalzeichen – als "Abugida" auftreten.
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(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=Tengwar
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "Tengwar" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1950 auf.

(E?)(L?) http://corpora.informatik.uni-leipzig.de/


(E?)(L?) http://www.wordmap.co/#Tengwar

This experiment brings together the power of Google Translate and the collective knowledge of Wikipedia to put into context the relationship between language and geographical space.


Erstellt: 2017-04

Thangorodrim thalion (W3)

(E?)(L?) https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liste_skurriler_wissenschaftlicher_Namen_aus_der_Biologie




(E?)(L?) http://www.curioustaxonomy.net/etym/fiction.html

"Thangorodrim thalion" Van Valen (Paleocene mammal, synonym of Oxyclaenus Cope 1884) "Thangorodrim" are the three tallest towers of Endor; "Thalion" is a character from Tolkien's Silmarillion.


(E?)(L?) http://ardapedia.herr-der-ringe-film.de/index.php/Thalion

Húrin Thalion

"Húrin Thalion", "Der Standhafte", ist im Legendarium der älteste Sohn Galdors, und der Vater von Túrin Turambar, Lalaith und Nienor. Seine Gemahlin war Morwen, Tochter von Baragund.
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"Húrin" wurde aufgrund seines Willens, den er gegen die Folter Morgoths zeigte, und wegen seiner Taten auf dem Schlachtfeld der Nirnaeth Arnoediad auch "Thalion" (Sindarin: "Der Tapfere") genannt.
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(E?)(L?) http://cache.ucr.edu/~heraty/yanega.html

"Thangorodrim thalion" Van Valen, 1978 (fossil mammal; now in genus "Oxyclaenus")


Erstellt: 2017-04

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Uni Bremen
Elbisch für Anfänger
Die Sprachschöpfungen des Philologen John Ronald Reuel Tolkien

Tolkiens "Herr der Ringe" hat sich zu einer modernen Mythologie entwickelt. Mit genügend Abstand könnte man sie mit den alten Göttersagen vergleichen. Ja Tolkien hatte sich anscheinend von seiner Begeisterung für altgermanische Dichtung und Heldenepen leiten lassen um einen "neuen Mythos für England" zu schaffen.

(E?)(L?) http://www.alumni.uni-bremen.de/neues/newsletter5/hdr_1.php

Lauschen Sie einmal dem Klang des Wortes nach: "Hobbit" ... das klingt klein, pelzig und harmlossympathisch. Hinzu kommt vielleicht noch etwas bodenständige Gemütlichkeit - fertig ist der Protagonist zweier unsterblicher Geschichten, des "Hobbit" und des "Herrn der Ringe".

"In meinem Sinn erzeugt ein Name immer eine Geschichte. Schließlich dachte ich mir, ich sollte doch lieber erst einmal herausfinden, was denn Hobbits seien." (Tolkien)

Worte und ihr Klang standen am Anfang von Tolkiens Fantasy-Epos. Auf den folgenden Seiten erfahren Sie mehr über die sprachlichen Elemente in Buch und Film. Außerdem lassen wir einige Wissenschaftler zu Wort kommen, die sich beruflich und als Hobby mit der Materie auseinander gesetzt haben.


(E?)(L?) http://www.alumni.uni-bremen.de/neues/newsletter5/hdr_2b.php

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Tolkiens Liebe und Konzentration galt von Anfang an der Ausarbeitung der „schönen” ästhetisch ansprechenden Elbensprachen "Quenya" und "Sindarin", für die ganze Texte, Wortlisten und grammatische Skizzen vorliegen. Außerdem entwarf er auch noch zwei unterschiedliche Schriftsysteme für die Elbensprachen, eine Runen- und Kursivschrift "Tengwar".
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In der Buchfassung des „Herrn der Ringe” finden sich mindestens 14 Idiome:


(E?)(L?) http://www.alumni.uni-bremen.de/neues/newsletter5/hdr_2e.php

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Die meisten Menschensprachen des „Herrn der Ringe” werden von Tolkien im Gegensatz zu den Elbensprachen nicht in ihrer eigentlichen Form verwendet, sondern nur indirekt als angebliche „Übersetzung”. Tolkien gab vor, das von Hobbits in "Westron" geschriebene Manuskript des „Herrn der Ringe” nur gefunden und ins Englische übersetzt zu haben! "Westron" taucht also im Text nicht auf, aber modernes Englisch dient als sein Übersetzungsäquivalent.
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Die Beziehung zwischen den nicht oder nur bruchstückhaft im Text vorkommenden Sprachen Mittelerdes und Tolkiens „Übersetzung”:
Sprache Mittelerdes:	repräsentiert durch:
Westron			Englisch
Hobbit-Westron		„Hobbit-Englisch”
Rohirrim-Sprache		Altenglisch
Sprache Wilderlands	Altenglisch - Gotisch - Altisländisch.

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(E?)(L?) http://www.alumni.uni-bremen.de/neues/newsletter5/hdr_2f.php

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Seine (Tolkiens) Geschichten zählen in mehrerer Hinsicht zu den sprach-lastigsten in der Literaturgeschichte. Er hat das komplexeste System von konstruierten Sprachen in der Literaturgeschichte geschaffen. Der Oxforder Sprachwissenschaftler hat seine Bestseller nicht trotz, sondern gerade wegen seiner akademischen Beschäftigung mit Sprachen geschrieben.
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Uni Pennsylvania
Archive for Conlanging

(E?)(L?) http://languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu/nll/?cat=213

Archive for Conlanging


Erstellt: 2017-04

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valdyas.org
Constructed Languages

(E?)(L?) http://www.valdyas.org/conlang.html

Constructed Languages

I've been constructing languages for over eighteen years, and I'm still working on one of the first. In fact, my passion for constructing languages was one of the most important reasons I studied comparative linguistics at the Institute for Comparative Linguistics of the University of Leyden.
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Erstellt: 2017-04

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wikipedia.org
Konstruierte Sprache

(E?)(L?) https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Konstruierte_Sprache

"Konstruierte Sprachen" oder "künstliche Sprachen" sind Sprachen, die von einer Person oder einer Gruppe aus verschiedenen Gründen und zu verschiedenen Zwecken neu entwickelt wurden. Sie stehen im Gegensatz zu den natürlichen Sprachen.

Die allgemeine Kennung für konstruierte Sprachen nach der internationalen Sprachenstandardisierung ISO 639-2 ist der Code art, wobei weit verbreitete Sprachen einen eigenen Code erhalten haben. ...


Erstellt: 2017-04

wikipedia.org - Quenya
Quenya

(E?)(L?) https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quenya

In den Schriften J. R. R. Tolkiens über Mittelerde wird eine Vielzahl von fiktionalen Sprachen erwähnt. Die bekanntesten sind "Quenya" und "Sindarin", die von den dort lebenden Elben gesprochen werden. Es ist nicht ganz nachweisbar, ob Tolkien zuerst die Sprache erfand und sie anschließend in seinen Geschichten verewigte, oder ob es seine ursprüngliche Intention war, die Erzählungen durch die Sprachen zu bereichern.
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Erstellt: 2017-04

wired.com
The Fascinating Art of Hollywood’s Made-Up Languages

(E?)(L?) https://www.wired.com/2017/04/conlang-analysis/

The Fascinating Art of Hollywood’s Made-Up Languages, From Dothraki to Klingon

If you ever want to find a bathroom on Vulcan or ask for dressage lessons in Essos, you’ll need to learn a constructed language first. "Conlangs", as they’re known, are common in genre movies and literature, and through them, a viewer or reader can better appreciate what it would be like to approach an Arwen Evenstar lookalike at a bar or figure out whether Groot told you to turn right or left at the exploding flagship. But how, exactly, does one do that? Well, learning fictional tongues doesn’t come easy, but as with any language, it’s important to master the basics first.

Luckily, dialect coach Erik Singer is here to help you distinguish a voiceless alveolar lateral fricative from a uvular plosive. In the video above, he explains the Earthly inspirations behind six of the most popular conlangs: "Parseltongue" (Harry Potter), "Dothraki" and "High Valyrian" (Game of Thrones), "Klingon" (Star Trek), "Na’vi" (Avatar), and "Sindarin" ("Lord of the Rings"). You may know about Klingon’s unusual object-verb-subject word order, but did you know that High Valyrian has the same tapped and trilled R sounds as Spanish? Or exactly what Na’vi has in common with beat-boxing?

And if you’re already fluent in those six conlangs, Singer has some linguistic analysis of lesser-known languages, too: "Ewokese" from Star Wars: Episode VI—Return of the Jedi, the heptapod language in Arrival, even the unforgettable eerie squeaks of Furby. Go ahead, try that pharyngeal fricative yourself — but maybe practice with some tongue twisters first.


Erstellt: 2017-04

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Bücher zur Kategorie:

Etymologie, Etimología, Étymologie, Etimologia, Etymology
@_ Welt, Mundo, Monde, Mondo, World
Conlangs - Konstruierte Sprachen, Lengua construida, Langue construite, Lingua artificiale, Constructed Languages

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Adams, Michael
From Elvish to Klingon: Exploring Invented Languages

(E?)(L?) http://www.goodreads.com/book/show/11306399-from-elvish-to-klingon

From Elvish to Klingon: Exploring Invented Languages

by Michael Adams


(E?)(L?) http://www.klingonwiki.net/En/FromElvishToKlingon

"From Elvish To Klingon" is the title of a book by Michael Adams, published 2011. It is about constructed languages, "examining their origins, purpose, and usage." (1). This work is one of the few literature books describing the Klingon language and is therefore frequently quoted (although it is quoting other works itself).
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(E?)(L?) https://mboten.com/review/11306399-from-elvish-to-klingon-exploring-invented-languages

From Elvish to Klingon - by Michael Adams


(E?)(L?) http://www.theonering.net/torwp/2012/03/06/54062-michael-adams-from-elvish-to-klingon-exploring-invented-languages/

March 6, 2012

Back in 2001, I wrote "Glossopoeia" for Fun and Profit (also reprinted in The People’s Guide to J.R.R. Tolkien), for our Green Books department, in which I discussed three examples of invented languages: "Esperanto", "Elvish", and "Klingon". For those who found that necessarily brief article of interest, University of Indiana linguistics professor Michael Adams has now edited a new book, "From Elvish to Klingon: Exploring Invented Languages" (Oxford University Press, 2011), comprising eight essays (including a general introductory essay by Adams) about linguistic invention, though not precisely the “invented languages” suggested by the book’s title, as we will see. Each essay is accompanied by an appendix by Adams that extends or clarifies some aspect of the essay.
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All in all, "From Elvish to Klingon" is kind of a mixed bag. It is not just about the invented languages that are the subject of constructed-language web sites such as "http://conlang.wikia.com/wiki/"; its subject matter ranges from frivolous notations such as "LEETspeak" to the heavy academic examination of "James Joyce’s word coinages", to the ethnic politics of revitalized "Cornish". Everyone will find some of these chapters, at least, informative and thought-provoking, but they hang together into a very uncertain single volume, however worthwhile.


(E?)(L?) https://www.visualthesaurus.com/cm/dogeared/from-elvish-to-klingon-an-impressive-overview-of-conlang-ology/

"From Elvish to Klingon": An Impressive Overview of Conlang-ology

December 16, 2011

By Mark Peters

When word nerdom and sci-fi nerdom collide, what do you get? A dictionary-bot that recites definitions while performing the duties of a butler?

Someday, I hope that's true. For now, the answer is "From Elvish to Klingon: Exploring Invented Languages": a thorough look at "invented languages" (also known as "conlangs", short for "constructed languages") from sci-fi and elsewhere. Over time, there have been about a thousand invented languages, including well-known examples such as "Esperanto", "Elvish", and "Klingon", plus many failed tongues. This new volume gives a tour of the landscape.
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(E?)(L?) http://www.worldwidewords.org/nl/phvx.htm

4. Book Review: "From Elvish to Klingon"

The history of "invented languages" ranges from the philosophical languages of the seventeenth century to modern creations linked to books, films and games.

The story of the international "auxiliary languages" such as "Volapük" and "Esperanto" - created with high moral purpose to aid communication between peoples lacking a common tongue - take up only one chapter of this book. The emphasis is rather on languages of various levels of completeness that have been created in the past century to add a sense of place and culture to creative works.

Some are long-established, such as J R R Tolkien's Elvish languages "Sindarin" and "Quenya", well-developed tongues created by a linguistic scholar that are woven into "The Lord of the Rings". George Orwell created "Newspeak" in his 1984, a regularised and pared-down English designed to make it impossible to even think anything that didn't conform to the beliefs of his dystopian state. In A Clockwork Orange, Anthony Burgess used "Nadsat", an argot based on Russian, to characterise the worldview of the book's violent gangs. Followers of the Star Trek SF franchise will have encountered the "Klingon" tongue, originally a few phrases introduced to give colour but later worked up by Klingonists into a tongue in which it's possible to perform Shakespeare. A more recent case is "Na'vi", the speech of the natives in Avatar. The development of computer games has led to several languages - mostly only partially developed - that include "Gargish", "D'Ni", "Simlish", "Al-Bhed" and "Logos", to help provide a flavour of the culture of groups being portrayed.

Michael Adams's academic contributors offer a very mixed bag of eight chapters in which these and other languages are discussed in detail. The last, by Suzanne Romaine, takes a different line; she investigates natural languages that have been revitalised in recent times, including "Hawaiian", "Irish", "Breton Cornish" and "Hebrew". She points out that to bring a dead or dying tongue back to daily use requires many decisions to be made, not least how it should be said and spelled and how words for aspects of modern life - aircraft, telephones, antibiotics - should be created. The potential for splittist factions who compete to gain ownership of a language is always present; "Cornish" has several, which led in 2004 to the county offices in Camborne trying to accommodate all parties by using four different spellings of the Cornish word for welcome in different places within the building. Trying to build the consensus essential for widespread take-up of a language in such circumstances is very difficult.

This work will give readers with a serious interest in invented and revitalised languages a good grounding in the issues involved. If you would prefer a more popular approach, Arika Okrent's "In the Land of Invented Languages" may be more to your taste.

[Michael Adams [ed], From Elvish to Klingon: Exploring Invented Languages; Oxford University Press; published 24 Nov. 2011; pp294, including index; ISBN 978-0-19-280709-0; publisher's UK price £12.99.]


(E?)(L?) http://www.worldwidewords.org/reviews/re-fro1.htm

From Elvish to Klingon

The history of invented languages told in this book, edited by Michael Adams, ranges from the philosophical languages of the seventeenth century to modern creations linked to books, films and games.
...


Erstellt: 2017-04

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