Etymologie, Etimología, Étymologie, Etimologia, Etymology
@_ Welt, Mundo, Monde, Mondo, World
Internet, Internet, Internet, Internet, Internet

1

1112
Last Page of the Internet
Die letzte Seite des Internets

(E?)(L?) http://www.1112.net/lastpage.html


1991

(E?)(L?) http://www.cern.de/
Tim Berners-Lee stellt am CERN das WWW vor.

1992

(E?)(L?) http://www.ripe.com/
In Kopenhagen wird die Internet Society (ISOC) gegründet.
Das RIPE NCC zur Verwaltung des europäischen Adressraums wird gegründet.

1993

(E?)(L?) http://www.mtv.com/
Marc Andreesen entwickelt MOSAIC
Die Registrierung von "mtv.com" sorgt für den ersten Rechtsstreit wegen eines Domain-Namens.

1994

(E?)(L?) http://www.w3c.com/
Die DENIC hat 946 Domains registriert.

YAHOO, eine Bookmarksammlung von Yerry Yang und David Filo erblickt das Licht der Welt.

Die Fa.Netscape wird von Marc Andreesen und Jim Clark gegründet.

Am MIT wird das WWW Consortium gegründet.

Bei PIZZA HUT kann die Pizza übers Internet bestellt werden.

1995

(E?)(L?) http://www.realplayer.com/
SUN bringt JAVA heraus.
Der Realplayer ermöglicht das Abspielen von Sounddateien noch während der Übertragung.

1996

(E?)(L?) http://www.wipo.com/
Internet Explorer V2.0 wird von Microsoft auf den Markt gebracht.
Die ersten Hacker besuchen das US-Justizministerium.
Die WIPO World Intellectual Property Organization geht das Thema Copyright im Internet an.

1997

(E?)(L?) http://www.bundestag.de/
Die erste Initiative gegen Spam: Realtime Blackhole List von Paul Vixie.
Sanyo bietet Fernseher mit Internetzugang an.
Der Deutsche Bundestag beschließt ein Informations- und Kommunikationsgesetz (IuKDG).

1998

(E?)(L?) http://www.icann.com/
AOL kauft Compuserve und Netscape.

Network Solutions registriert die 2Mio. Domain.

Das US-Wirtschaftsministerium beauftragt die ICANN (The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers), den Privatisierungsprozeß der Domain-Vergabe zu organisieren.

Die T-Aktie kommt an die Börse.

1999

(E?)(L?) http://www.sophos.de/
Die Viren MELISSA und EXPLORER.ZIP befallen tausende von Rechnern.
Die New Economy boomt.

2

2000

Die Spekulationsblase platzt.
Boo.com erlebt die grösste Bauchlandung.
Sechs Unternehmen ersteigern für 100Mrd. D-Mark UMTS-Lizenzen.
Mobile-Internet kommt in Mode.

2001

1.500 pages are added every minute
D.h. täglich kommen zwi Millionen Seiten neu ins Internet.

A

AJAX (W3)

"AJAX" ist die Abkürzung für "Asynchronous Javascript And XML" und erblickte das Licht der Welt 2005 in einem Artikel von Jesse James Garrett auf ("Ajax: A New Approach to Web Applications").
AJAX beschreibt eine technik, mit der Daten zwischen Client und Server mittels JavaScript ausgetauscht werden können, ohne dass die gesamte Webseite neu geladen werden muss.
AJAX ist keine neue Technologie sondern eher eine neue Methodik zur Kombination von Javascript, XML und DOM.

(E?)(L1) http://www.webopedia.com/Web_2_0/


APIPA (W3)

"APIPA" steht für "Automatic Private IP Addressing".

(E?)(L?) http://jargonf.org/wiki/APIPA


(E?)(L?) http://whatis.techtarget.com/definitionsAlpha/0,289930,sid9_alpA,00.html


(E?)(L?) http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/A/APIPA.html
APIPA is a feature of later Windows operating systems. With APIPA, DHCP clients can automatically self-configure an IP address and subnet mask when a DHCP server isn't available. When a DHCP client boots up, it first looks for a DHCP server in order to obtain an IP address and subnet mask. If the client is unable to find the information, it uses APIPA to automatically configure itself with an IP address from a range that has been reserved especially for Microsoft. The IP address range is 169.254.0.1 through 169.254.255.254. The client also configures itself with a default class B subnet mask of 255.255.0.0. A client uses the self-configured IP address until a DHCP server becomes available.

The APIPA service also checks regularly for the presence of a DHCP server (every five minutes, according to Microsoft). If it detects a DHCP server on the network, APIPA stops, and the DHCP server replaces the APIPA networking addresses with dynamically assigned addresses.

APIPA is meant for nonrouted small business environments, usually less than 25 clients.

ARPA, DARPA, IARPA (W3)

"ARPA" steht für "Advanced Research Projects Agency".

"DARPA" steht für "Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency".

"IARPA" steht für "Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity".

Übrigens: Die span. "arpa" und frz. "harpe" gehen auf germ. "harpa" zurück.

(E?)(L?) http://alt-usage-english.org/concordance_interface.shtml


(E?)(L?) http://www.arpa.net/


(E?)(L?) http://www.dicofr.com/cgi-bin/n.pl/dicofr/firstchar/d


(E?)(L?) http://etimologias.dechile.net/?arpa


(E?)(L?) http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/dod_dictionary/index.html
DARPA

(E?)(L?) http://www.howstuffworks.com/search.php?terms=Darpa


(E?)(L?) http://science.howstuffworks.com/iarpa1.htm
How IARPA Works


...
As its acronym implies, "IARPA" has a lot in common with "DARPA", or the "Defense Advanced Research Projects Activity". After the Russians launched Sputnik in 1957, which served as the sounding gun of the space race, the United States responded by forming "DARPA" to help it catch up. This relatively small organization with a $3 billion annual operating budget now sponsors external research and development projects that can potentially yield dramatic results [source: DARPA]. Its commonly cited successes include the Internet and Global Positioning Systems (GPS) [source: Weinberger].

The Office of the Director of National Intelligence designed "IARPA" to follow a template similar to "DARPA". Although the size of IARPA's slice of the $43 billion intelligence pie remains classified, it will outsource "high-risk, high-yield" research to public and private groups, including universities, companies and national laboratories. That means its home base at the University of Maryland won't be overrun with scientists and technicians fiddling with quantum computers [source: Lawlor]. Instead, it will scatter projects among different locations.
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.hyperkommunikation.ch/lexikon/lexikon_index.htm


(E?)(L?) http://www.iarpa.gov/


(E?)(L?) http://www-306.ibm.com/software/globalization/terminology/index.jsp
DARPA | Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)

(E?)(L?) http://jargonf.org/wiki/Accueil
ARPA | DARPA

(E?)(L?) http://www.llengua.info/vocterm/
span. "arpa" = dt. "Harfe".

(E?)(L1) http://www.musiklehre.at/fachwortlexikon/a.htm
Arpa (italienisch) Harfe
(E2)(L1) http://www.netlingo.com/
ARPA, DARPA

(E?)(L?) http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc-index2.html


(E?)(L?) http://whatis.techtarget.com/definitionsAlpha/0,289930,sid9_alpA,00.html
ARPA | DARPA | DARPA Agent Markup Language

(E?)(L1) http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/D/DARPA_Agent_Markup_Language.html
DARPA Agent Markup Language

ARPANet, DARPANET (W3)

"Arpanet" steht für "Advanced Research Projects Agency Network". Es ging 1969 online und verband vier Forschungseinrichtungen miteinander.

"DARPANET" steht für "Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Network"

(E?)(L1) http://www.archive.org/search.php?query=arpanet


(E3)(L1) http://www.besoindaide.com/ccm/glossaire/index.htm


(E6)(L2) http://www.computerhilfen.de/lexikon.php


(E?)(L?) http://www.dicofr.com/cgi-bin/n.pl/dicofr/firstchar/a


(E?)(L?) http://eurekaweb.free.fr/iha.htm


(E?)(L?) http://www.eurekaweb.fr/
(1969) ARPANET

(E?)(L?) http://computer.howstuffworks.com/arpanet.htm
How ARPANET Works
Inside this Article

(E?)(L?) http://jargonf.org/wiki/Accueil


(E?)(L?) http://www.netlingo.com/inframes.cfm

The precursor to the Internet, it was a network developed in the late 1960’s and early 1970’s by the U.S. Department of Defense. As an experiment in wide area networking (WAN), ARPANet was developed with the goal of being robust enough to survive a nuclear war. Part of the experiment was to study how distributed, noncentralized networks work.


(E?)(L?) http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc-index2.html


(E?)(L1) http://whatis.techtarget.com/definitionsAlpha/0,289930,sid9_alpA,00.html

...
Because "ARPA"'s name was changed to "Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency" ("DARPA") in 1971, "ARPANET" is sometimes referred to as "DARPANET". ("DARPA" was changed back to "ARPA" in 1993 and back to "DARPA" again in 1996.) The history of ARPANET and developments leading up to today's Internet can be found in Where Wizards Stay Up Late, by Katie Hafner and Matthew Lyon.
...


(E?)(L1) http://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=arpanet


(E?)(L1) http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/A/ARPANET.html


(E?)(L?) http://www.www-kurs.de/glossar.htm


B

Black hole, Schwarzes Loch (W3)

Nicht nur im Universum gibt es Schwarze Löcher - auch im Internet gibt es Black holes in die Daten zwar hineingehen, aber nicht mehr herauskommen.

Die University of Washington hat auch eine Seite, die die Erreichbarkeit im Internet in Real-Time beobachtet und nicht auf einer Weltkarte Server darstellt, die kein Lebenszeichen mehr von sich geben.

Ein "Schwarzes Loch" ist - per Definition - ein Server, der sich in zwei aufeinanderfolgenden 15min-Intervallen nicht meldet. Spätestens nach 48 Stunden wird er wieder aus der Liste herausgenommen.

(E?)(L?) http://hubble.cs.washington.edu/
28.04.2008:


Hubble: Monitoring Internet Reachability in Real-Time

Having trouble accessing a favorite Web site? Perhaps the site was taken offline, or the computer hosting it is down for maintenance. However, the cause could be something more mysterious. At any given moment, a portion of Internet traffic ends up being routed into information "black holes." These are situations where advertised paths exist to the destination, but messages - a request to visit a Web site, an outgoing e-mail - get lost along the way.

Hubble is a system that operates continuously to find persistent Internet black holes as they occur. Hubble has operated continuously since September 17, 2007. During that time, it identified 926,044 black holes and reachability problems. In the most recent quarter-hourly round, completed at 00:32 PDT, 04/28/2008, Hubble issued 52,525 traceroutes to 1,737 prefixes it identified as likely to be experiencing problems (of 78,772 total prefixes monitored by the system). Of these, it found 684 prefixes to be unreachable from all its vantage points and 824 to be reachable from some vantage points and not others. Below the following map, you'll find instructions on interpreting and navigating this page. You can go here for a more detailed description of the Hubble academic research project and its goals. Below, you can look up Hubble's current view of the reachability of the address of your choice. Feel free to send suggestions and other feedback to hubble-support.
...
..., to look up the current status of a particular address, enter a DNS name, URL, or IP address:
...


(E3)(L1) http://www.jargon.net/jargonfile/b/blackhole.html


Blue-Ribbon
Zensur im Internet (W3)

(E?)(L?) http://www.eff.org/blueribbon.html


Die blaue Schleife ist das Symbol für die Freiheit des Internet.

Wieso jedoch diese Zeichen gewählt wurde konnte ich noch nicht herausfinden.

C

cablemap
Cable Map

In der "Cable Map" findet man die um die Erde verlegten Kabel durch die die Bits des Internets von Kontinent zu Kontinent schwirren.

(E?)(L?) http://www.cablemap.info/

| AAG (Asia-American Gateway) | AC-1 | AC-2 | ACE | ADRIA-1 | AKORN Alaska-Oregon | ALBA-1 | ALETAR | ALPAL-2 | ANTILLAS I | APCN | APCN2 | APHRODITE-2 | APNG-2 | ARCOS-1 | ASH (American Samoa - Hawaii) | ATLANTIS-2 | Alaska United - East | Alaska United - West | Alonso de Ojeda | Americas II | Americas-1 North | Americas-1 South | Antilles Crossing | Apollo | Argentina-Uruguay | Ariane 2 | Atlas Offshore | Australia-Japan Cable | Australia-Singapore Cable | BAHAMAS-2 | BALTICA | BARSAV | BCS East | BCS East-West Interlink | BCS North I | BCS North II | BDNSi | BERYTAR | BICS | BSFOCS | BT-Manx NI | Balkans-Italy Network | Basslink Telecom | Bharat Lanka Cable System | Botnia | CADMOS | CANTAT-3 | CANUS-1 | CC4 | CC5 | CFX-1 | CIOS | CIRCE North | CIRCE South | COLUMBUS II | COLUMBUS III | CORSAR (Corsica- Sardinia) | CUCN | Caucasus Cable System | Cayman-Jamaica | CeltixConnect | Challenger | Concerto 1 | Corfu-Bar | Danica North | Danica South | Danice submarine cable | Denmark-Germany 2 | Denmark-Norway 5 | Denmark-Norway 6 | Denmark-Poland 2 | Denmark-Sweden 15 | Denmark-Sweden 16 | Dumai-Melaka | EAC | EASSY | ECFS | EESF-2 (Finland-Estonia 2) | EESF-3 (Finland--Estonia 3) | EIG | ESAT 1 | ESAT 2 | Estepona Â? Tetuan | Estonia-Sweden 1 | FARICE-1 | FARLAND | FLAG Alcatel-Lucent Optical Network (FALCON) | FLAG Atlantic (FA-1) | FLAG Europe Asia (FEA) | FLAG North Asia Loop (FNAL) | FOG (Fibre Optic Gulf) | Fehmarn Belt | Fibralink | Finland-Sweden 4 (SFS-4) | G-P | GLO1 | GO-1 | Gemini | Georgia-Russia | Global Carribean Network (GCN) | GlobeNet | Gondwana-1 | Greenland Connect | HANNIBAL | HANTRU-1 | HONOTUA Domestic | HONOTUA International | HUGO | Hibernia Atlantic | Hokkaido-Sakhalin Cable System (HSCS) | I-ME-WE | ITUR | Italy-Albania | Italy-Greece | Italy-Libya | JAKABARE | JASURAUS | Japan-US | KAFOS | KINYRAS | Kategat-1 | Kodiak Kenai | Korea-Japan Cable Network (KJCN) | Kuwait-Iran | LEV | LIME | LION | LION2 | MAYA-1 | MINERVA | MainOne | Matrix cable system | Med Cable | MedNautilus | Melita-1 | Mid-Atlantic Crossing (MAC) | Moratelindo Batam Dumai Cable (MBDC) | Moratelindo International Cable (MIC-1) | NorSea Com 1 | NorthStar | PAN AM | PC-1 | PPC-1 | Pacific Fibre | Pan-American Crossing (PAC) | | Qatar-UAE Submarine Cable System | RIOJA-3 | RJK | RNAL | Russia-Japan Cable Network (RJCN) | SAFE | SAS (Samoa - American Samoa) | SAS-1 | SAT-2 | SAT-3 | SAex | SAm-1 | SEA-ME-WE 3 | SEA-ME-WE-4 | SEACOM | SEAK | SEAS | SHEFA-2 | SLT-Dhiraagu | SMPR-1 | SOLAS | Scandinavian Ring North | Scandinavian Ring South | Sirius North | Sirius South | South American Crossing (SAC | Southern Cross | Suriname-Guyana (SG-SCS) | Svalbard Undersea Cable System | Sweden-Finland Link (SFL) | TAT-14 | TE North | TEAMs | TGN Atlantic | TGN Northern Europe | TGN Transpacific | TGN Western Europe | TGN-P | TPC-5CN | TURCYOS-1 | TURCYOS-2 | TURMEOS-1 | Tangerine | Tasman-2 | Tata Indicom (TIISCS) | Tata TGN Intra-Asia (TGN-IA) | Telstra Bass Strait 1 | Telstra Bass Strait 2 | Telstra Endeavour | Thailand-Indonesia-Singapore (TIS) | Thailand-Vietnam-Hong Kong (T-V-H) | Trans-Pacific Express | Transworld (TWA-1) | Trapani-Kelibia (KELTRA-2) | Trinidad-Curaco | UGARIT | UK-Channel Isles 7 | UK-Germany 6 | ULYSSES | ULYSSES 2 | UNISUR | Unity | VMSCS | Ventspils-Farosund-Stockholm | WACS | WARF | i2i


Erstellt: 2011-08

CAIDA (W3)
Internet-Atlas

"CAIDA" szeht für "Cooperative Association for Internet Data Analysis".

(E?)(L?) http://www.caida.org/




(E?)(L?) http://www.caida.org/projects/internetatlas/gallery


ccTLD (W3)

"ccTLD" steht für "country-code Top Level Domain".

(E3)(L1) http://www.besoindaide.com/ccm/internet/dns.htm


(E6)(L2) http://www.computerhilfen.de/lexikon.php


(E?)(L?) http://www.domain-karte.de/


(E?)(L?) http://www.domain-karte.de/images/cctld_landkarte.jpg

Domain-Karte weltweit


(E?)(L?) http://jargonf.org/wiki/Accueil


(E?)(L?) http://www.netlingo.com/inframes.cfm


(E?)(L?) http://www.presseportal.de/story.htx?nr=866476

...
Auch wenn so genannte generische Endungen (gTLDs) wie zum Beispiel .com, .net oder .info bei der Zahl der weltweit registrierten Domains überlegen sein mögen, dominieren dennoch die Länder-Endungen (ccTLDs) das Geschehen: angefangen bei .ac (Ascension Island) über .de (Deutschland) bis hin zu .zw (Zimbawe), sind aktuell über 240 verschiedene Domain-Endungen in der offiziellen Datenbank der Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) verzeichnet. Um in diesem Adressdickicht den Überblick zu behalten, hat united-domains.de nun erstmalig eine detaillierte Übersicht mit tabellarischer Auflistung aller ccTLDs erstellt, und sie in einer Weltkarte graphisch aufbereitet.
...


(E?)(L1) http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Top_Level_Domain


(E?)(L?) http://www.wipo.int/amc/en/domains/cctld/index.html


(E?)(L?) http://www.wwtld.org/aboutcctld/history/wwtld1999/ccTLDs-by-date.html
History of the Internet. ccTLDs in chronological order of Top Level Domain creation at the Internic.
Missing information for .FI (Finland) set to 880101.
Erroneus information for .CL (Chile) set to 880101 (was 950127).

Nach dieser Liste gibt es die Top Level Domain ".us" seit 1985-02-15. Die ".de"-Domain gibt es seit 1986-11-05. Die Länderdomain von Afghanistan ".af" gibt es erst seit 1997-10-16.

(E?)(L1) http://www.www-kurs.de/


cern
The website of the world's first-ever web server

(E?)(L?) http://info.cern.ch/
Der erste Web-Server ging 1990 in Betrieb. Er nahm den Faden des weltumspannenden Netzes auf, das heute zu einem immensen, wirren Knäuel herangewachsen ist.

2000 übersteigt die Zahl der Internetseiten eine Milliarde.


1990 was a momentous year in world events. In February, Nelson Mandela was freed after 27 years in prison. In April, the space shuttle Discovery carried the Hubble Space Telescope into orbit. And in October, Germany was reunified.

Then at the end of 1990, a revolution took place that changed the way we live today.
...


(E?)(L?) http://info.cern.ch/hypertext/WWW/TheProject.html


(E?)(L?) http://info.cern.ch/hypertext/WWW/MarkUp/Tags.html


cio
Revolution im Internet: Domain-Namen sind künftig frei wählbar

Unter dieser Überschrift veröffentlichte "CIO" (mit dem Untertitel: "IT-Strategie für Manger") auch die Behauptung, dass nach dem bisherigen System (fester Domain-Endungen) die etwa 4 Mrd. "Adressnamen hätten knapp werden können".

Eine solch falsche Darstellung sollte einem IT-Magazin eigentlich nicht passieren.
Die 4 Mrd. Adressen ergeben sich durch die interne Adress-Struktur der Form "nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn" wobei "nnn" jeweils Werte von "000" bis "255" annehmen kann. Damit ergeben sich theoretisch 256^4 also etwa 4 Mrd. mogliche "reale" Internetadressen. Solange diese Struktur im Hintergrund nicht geändert wurde kann auch die frei wählbare Adress-Endung nichts an der 4 Mrd.-Grenze ändern. Und auch mit dieser Beschränkung wären beliebige Internetadressen denkbar.

Die Entscheidende Änderung ist also die Adress-Struktur im Hintergrund, so daß mehr als 255**4 Adressen realisierbar sind (was ja auch gemacht wurde). Aber auch dann bräuchte man die bisherigen Vorgaben zur Domainnamen-Endung nicht zu ändern, um dennoch - für den menschlichen Gebrauch - beliebig viele mnemotechnische Adressen bilden zu können.

Letztlich wurden also zwei Dinge geändert. Zum einen die interne ("technische") Adressierung um die 4 Mrd.-Grenze aufzubrechen. Und zum anderen die Vorgaben für Adressnamen-Endungen, die aber auf eher marketingtechnischen Anforderungen reagieren.

(E?)(L?) http://www.cio.de/news/wirtschaftsnachrichten/857026/index.html

Paris (dpa) - Es ist eine kleine Revolution im Internet: Künftig können Internet-Adressen frei gewählte Endungen bekommen. Das entschied die Internet-Verwaltung ICANN am Donnerstag bei Beratungen in Paris. Neben den bisher üblichen Domain-Namen «.de» oder «.com» kann es künftig auch Endungen wie Städte- oder Firmen-Namen geben, zum Beispiel «.berlin» oder «.ebay». Anfang kommenden Jahres sollen sollen sich Interessenten für die neuen Adressen bewerben können. Experten rechnen mit Preisen in Höhe von mehreren Zehntausend Euro. Im Hintergrund der Freigabe steht die Sorge, das nach dem bisherigen System in den kommenden fünf Jahren die Adressnamen hätten knapp können. Im vergangenen Jahr sollen nur noch 17 Prozent der ursprünglich vorhandenen vier Milliarden Adressen verfügbar gewesen sein.
...


computerwoche
Das Internet wird polyglott
Internationalisierte Domain-Namen

(E?)(L?) http://www.computerwoche.de/nachrichten/555902/?NLC-Newsletter&nlid=555902%20Nachrichten%20mittags
Am 09.10.2007 wurde das Internet auf "internationalisierte Domain-Namen" umgestellt. Nun können Domain-Namen auch in den 11 weiteren Schriftsystemen "Arabisch", "Persisch", "Russisch", "Hindi", "Griechisch", "Koreanisch", "Hebräisch", "Japanisch", "Tamil" sowie "zwei Varianten des Chinesischen" kreiert und aufgerufen werden.


Das Internet wird polyglott
10.10.2007 um 11:29 Uhr

Die meisten Internet-Nutzer werden davon zwar nichts bemerkt haben, aber der Unterbau des weltumspannenden IP-Netzes wurde gestern einer der fundamentalsten Veränderungen seit 20 Jahren unterzogen.

Das "Domain Name System" ("DNS") des Internet unterstützt jetzt nämlich elf nicht-englische Sprachen erstmals in deren nativen, nichtlateinischen Zeichensätzen. Gestern morgen hatte dazu die "Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers" ("ICANN") die Top-Level-Domain ".test" in Arabisch, Persisch, Russisch, Hindi, Griechisch, Koreanisch, Hebräisch, Japanisch, Tamil sowie zwei Varianten des Chinesischen auf die Root-Server des DNS gespielt.
...


Cyberspace (W3)

(E?)(L?) http://www.10-jahre-internet.de/zero/allgemein.htm

...
In seinem Roman „Newromancer“ prägt William Gibson im Jahr 1984 den Begriff "Cyberspace".
...


D

Dark Fibre (W3)

Aktuell verkegte Glasfaserkabel enthalten mehrere hundert Glasfasern. Viele dieser Glasfasern werden noch gar nicht benötigt, sondern sollen zukünftige Anforderungen abdecken. Da sie aber zur Zeit noch keine Lichtimpulse transportieren heißen sie "Dark Fibre" = "dunkle Glasfaser".

(E?)(L?) http://global.dante.net/server/show/nav.1832


(E?)(L?) http://global.dante.net/upload/pdf/PUB-07-179_GN2_Topology_Jan_08_final.pdf

PDF poster (best printed at A3 size) showing the GÉANT2 network, including dark fibre connections.
"Dark Fibre" links provide multiple wavelengths at 10 Gbps. "Dark Fibre" links also have backup IP connections. Details of these can be found at www.geant2.net.


(E?)(L?) http://www.geant2.net/


dasendedesinternet
Das Ende des Internet

(E?)(L?) http://www.dasendedesinternet.de/


DNS, Domain Name System (W3)

"DNS" steht für "Domain Name System". Dieses wurde von Paul Mockapetris entworfen und im Jahr 1983 eingeführt. Seine Aufgabe ist die Zuordnung von Domänen und Hostnamen (etwa: www.hostname.com) in IP-Adressen (der Form 123.123.123.123).

Im Jahr 1999 wurden zunächst Berlin, München und andere Großstädte mit DSL-Zugängen versorgt.

Festgelegt wurden die Grundlagen des DNS in den RFCs 882 und 883. Im Jahr 1987 kam dann RFC 1034 hinzu, worin heute die Struktur des DNS-Namensraums definiert ist.

(E?)(L?) http://www.internic.net/faqs/authoritative-dns.html

InterNIC FAQs

The Domain Name System: A Non-Technical Explanation - Why Universal Resolvability Is Important

What is the Domain Name System?

The "Domain Name System" ("DNS") helps users to find their way around the Internet. Every computer on the Internet has a unique address - just like a telephone number - which is a rather complicated string of numbers. It is called its "IP address" (IP stands for "Internet Protocol").

But it is hard to remember everyone's IP address. The DNS makes it easier by allowing a familiar string of letters (the "domain name") to be used instead of the arcane IP address. So instead of typing 192.0.34.65, you can type www.icann.org. It is a "mnemonic" device that makes addresses easier to remember.

Translating the name into the IP address is called "resolving the domain name." The goal of the DNS is for any Internet user any place in the world to reach a specific website IP address by entering its domain name. Domain names are also used for reaching e-mail addresses and for other Internet applications.
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc882.txt
0882 Domain names: Concepts and facilities
P.V. Mockapetris
[ November 1983 ]
( TXT = 79776 bytes)
(Obsoleted by RFC1034, RFC1035) (Updated by RFC0973) (Status: UNKNOWN)


This RFC introduces domain style names, their use for ARPA Internet mail and host address support, and the protocols and servers used to implement domain name facilities.

This memo describes the conceptual framework of the domain system and some uses, but it omits many uses, fields, and implementation details. A complete specification of formats, timeouts, etc. is presented in RFC 883, "Domain Names - Implementation and Specification". That RFC assumes that the reader is familiar with the concepts discussed in this memo.


(E?)(L?) http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc883.txt
0883 Domain names: Implementation specification
P.V. Mockapetris
[ November 1983 ]
( TXT = 175067 bytes)
(Obsoleted by RFC1034, RFC1035) (Updated by RFC0973) (Status: UNKNOWN)


This memo discusses the implementation of domain name servers and resolvers, specifies the format of transactions, and discusses the use of domain names in the context of existing mail systems and other network software.

This memo assumes that the reader is familiar with RFC 882, "Domain Names - Concepts and Facilities" which discusses the basic principles of domain names and their use.

The algorithms and internal data structures used in this memo are offered as suggestions rather than requirements; implementers are free to design their own structures so long as the same external behavior is achieved.


(E?)(L?) http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc1034.txt
1034 Domain names - concepts and facilities
P.V. Mockapetris
[ November 1987 ]
( TXT = 129180 bytes)
(Obsoletes RFC0973, RFC0882, RFC0883) (Updated by RFC1101, RFC1183, RFC1348, RFC1876, RFC1982, RFC2065, RFC2181, RFC2308, RFC2535, RFC4033, RFC4034, RFC4035, RFC4343, RFC4035, RFC4592) (Also STD0013) (Status: STANDARD)


1. STATUS OF THIS MEMO

This RFC is an introduction to the Domain Name System (DNS), and omits many details which can be found in a companion RFC, "Domain Names - Implementation and Specification" [RFC-1035]. That RFC assumes that the reader is familiar with the concepts discussed in this memo.

A subset of DNS functions and data types constitute an official protocol. The official protocol includes standard queries and their responses and most of the Internet class data formats (e.g., host addresses).

However, the domain system is intentionally extensible. Researchers are continuously proposing, implementing and experimenting with new data types, query types, classes, functions, etc. Thus while the components of the official protocol are expected to stay essentially unchanged and operate as a production service, experimental behavior should always be expected in extensions beyond the official protocol. Experimental or obsolete features are clearly marked in these RFCs, and such information should be used with caution.

The reader is especially cautioned not to depend on the values which appear in examples to be current or complete, since their purpose is primarily pedagogical. Distribution of this memo is unlimited.
...


E

EMMA (W3)

"EMMA" steht für "Extensible MultiModal Annotation markup language". Sie wurde im Februar 2009 vom W3C verabschiedet.

Ende des Internets (W3)

(E?)(L?) http://www.endedesinternets.de/

Willkommen am Ende des Internets!
Gratulation, Sie sind am absoluten Ende angekommen.
Ab hier gibt es keine weiteren Links mehr.
Alle Webseiten sind hier zu Ende.
Sie haben alles gesehen.


Erstellt: 2010-12

est-direct
Conversion of IP addresses to country names

(E?)(L1) http://www.est-direct.com/store/ipcountry.php


ethority
Social Media Prisma

(E?)(L?) http://www.ethority.de/weblog/2012/09/12/social_media_prisma_v5/

September 12th, 2012 by Mathias Buerk

Es hat sich viel getan seit dem ersten Prisma 2009. Plattformen kamen und gingen. Und so gab es auch dieses Mal wieder einige Änderungen.

Die wichtigsten gleich vorweg: Die Aufnahme von “Apps (mobile)” in unser Social Media Prisma spiegelt die hohe Nutzung von Smartphones wieder. Über 50% aller Facebook-User gehen über ihr Mobiltelefon online aber auch Twitter und Google Plus sind mobil weit verbreitet. Services wie Instagram spielen für Social Media eine Rolle, die nicht als zu gering einzuschätzen ist, aber auch Foodspotting, Runtastic, Pocket und Flipboard sind eine enorme Bereicherung für die Social Media Nutzung.

“Social Media Tools” ist insbesondere für Social Media Profis von Bedeutung. Mit ihnen lassen sich die Vielzahl an Kanälen effizient managen ohne den Überblick zu verlieren. Dienste wie Klout, Kred, Tweetgrader & Co. trennen in dieser Überfülle an Social Media Nutzern dabei die Spreu vom Weizen. Wer hat wirklich etwas zu sagen in Social Media? Welche Companies haben eine wirklich hohe Reichweite? Und wer ist in welcher Branche ein wahrer Influencer? Und so fand auch die Kategorie “Influence” Eingang in unser Social Media Prisma Version 5.0.

Dafür nahmen wir die Kategorie “Blog Search” heraus und fassten “Reviews / Ratings” und “Special Interest Reviews” ebenso zusammen wie “Browser Gaming” und “Social Gaming”. Auch dank Eurer Hinweise berücksichtigten wir bestimmte Plattformen, während andere hinaus fielen. Deshalb freuen wir uns auch dieses Mal wieder über eure Kommentare. “Crowdsourced Content” eben.


Erstellt: 2012-12

example
Exempel
eximieren (W3)

(E?)(L?) http://www.example.com/


(E?)(L?) http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc2606.txt
Das "Exempel" und engl. "example" = "Beispiel", "Lehrbeispiel" kommen von lat. "exemplum", das sich aus "ex" = "aus", "heraus" und "emere" = "nehmen" zusammensetzt, also "Herausgenommenes" bedeutet. Und dieses "Herausgenommene" soll eben "exemplarische" als "Beispiel".

Auf das lat. "eximere" geht auch direkt "eximieren" = "herausnehmen", "befreien" (zum Beispiel von einer Verbindlichkeit), "entheben" zurück.

Im Internet spielt "example" ebenfalls eine "herausgenommene", sozusagen "eximierte" Rolle:

You have reached this web page by typing "example.com", "example.net", or "example.org" into your web browser.
These domain names are reserved for use in documentation and are not available for registration. See RFC 2606, Section 3.

..., four domain names are reserved as listed and described below.


s.a. "RFC"

F

Fachhochschule Emden
Web-Geschichte

(E?)(L?) http://spot.fho-emden.de/alge/museum/
Die Fachhochschule Emden hat ein gutes Angebot zur Webgeschichte ins Web gestellt. Mit alten Programmen zum Download und Links zu weiteren Webseiten

G

golem.de
Icann: Top-Level-Domains als Riesengeschäft

(E?)(L?) http://www.golem.de/news/icann-top-level-domains-als-riesengeschaeft-1407-107982.html

Hunderte neuer Internetendungen werden in diesem Jahr freigeschaltet. Das soll für mehr Vielfalt und Wettbewerb im Netz sorgen, in dem freie Domains mit den Jahren immer knapper wurden. Doch wie so vieles im Internet werden sie höchst ungleich verteilt sein.

Insgesamt etwa 1.930 Bewerbungen um neue Internetendungen sind im Jahr 2012 bei der globalen Internetbehörde Icann eingegangen; in diesem Jahr werden sie vergeben. In 675 Fällen geht es um Markenendungen wie .audi oder .lidl, auf die Markeninhaber exklusiv Zugriff haben. Es bleiben 1.255 Bewerbungen um öffentlich zugängliche Top-Level-Domains (TLDs). Mehr als die Hälfte stammen von sechs Massenbewerbern. Die klassischen im Netz dominanten Konzerne Google und Amazon zählen dazu, die neuen Internetendungen bringen aber auch neue Mächtige hervor. Ein Überblick.
...


Erstellt: 2014-07

GTLD-MOU (W3)

"GTLD-MOU" steht für "Generic Top Level Domain - Memorandum of Understanding".

(E?)(L?) http://www.gtld-mou.org/
LATEST NEWS | FAQ | INFO | MAILING LISTS | PRESS RELEASES | GTLD-MOU SIGNATORIES & SIGNING THE GTLD-MOU | PRESS & MEDIA CONTACTS | CALENDAR & EVENTS | DNS IN THE NEWS | ACRONYMS | CONTACT US | DOCUMENTS | DISPUTE RESOLUTION | PRESENTATIONS | REQUEST FOR COMMENTS | POLICY OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE | POLICY ADVISORY BODY | CORE REGISTRARS | CORE INFO | CORE REGISTRAR SELECTION | IANA | IAHC | LOGOS

H

heise
Neue Internetadresszonen

(E?)(L?) http://www.heise.de/newsticker/meldung/103611

Ab Oktober 2008 will die "Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers" ("ICANN") zum dritten Mal Bewerbungen um neue Internetadresszonen entgegennehmen, dann in einem Standardverfahren, das für die kommenden Jahre eine regelmäßige Einführung neuer Adresszonen erlauben soll. Nach ".biz", ".museum", ".info" oder zuletzt ".asia" und ".tel" sollen ".com", ".net" und ".org" weitere Konkurrenten bekommen. Für April kündigte Kurt Pritz, Vizepräsident der ICANN, beim Treffen der privaten Netzverwalter in Delhi einen Entwurf der Ausschreibungsbedingungen (PDF-Datei) an. ICANNs Vorstand forderte das hauptamtliche Büro auf, rasch die ausstehenden Fragen für die Erweiterung des Namensraums zu klären.
...


Home Page, Homepage (W3)

(E?)(L?) http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/H/home_page.html

The "main page" of a Web site. Typically, the "home page" serves as an index or table of contents to other documents stored at the site.


(E3)(L1) http://www.jargon.net/jargonfile/t/TheJargonLexicon.html
home page

htmlgoodies
What's In a Domain Name?

(E?)(L?) http://www.htmlgoodies.com/beyond/webmaster/article.php/3582986

...
A "domain name" is made up of two parts, separated by a period, like this: "domainname.com" Technically, this is actually two domains, as you will see, but that's too picky for this type of description!

The part following the period is known as the "Top Level Domain", or "TLD". In this example the TLD is "com" - known as "dot com" because it always follows the period (dot). Every DNS Resolver has addresses for "Root" DNS resolvers. These Root resolvers point to computers that can resolve the Top Level Domains. In our example, they would point to one that knows about ".com"s, which would in turn have the address of the system that knows about "domainname". The ".com" resolver is given the information about "domainname" when "domainname" is registered as "domainname.com". This updating is performed by a group of service providers known as "Domain Name Registrars". You go to a Registrar and register your domain name. When you do, they update the TLD resolvers.
...


htmlgoodies
Domain Name Basics: An Introduction
By Lee Underwood

(E?)(L?) http://www.htmlgoodies.com/beyond/webmaster/article.php/3721466

...
A "domain name" is basically a Web site address. For example, "washingtonpost.com" is the address of the Washington Post Web site; it's also the site's domain name.
The entire Web address, i.e., "http://www.washingtonpost.com", is known as the "URL" ("Uniform Resource Locator").

There are three "levels" of domain names. There are three different categories of TLDs: Generic top-level domains are the ones most frequently seen on the Web: The next top-level domains are the two letter country codes.
...
The top-level domain infrastructure is limited to ".arpa" and is used exclusively for Internet-infrastructure purposes. The .arpa designation comes from the United States Department of Defense "Advanced Research Projects Agency", the government agency which formulated the Internet.
...
"IP Addresses"
In addition to the domain name, there is also another address for a Web site: the "IP" ("Internet Protocol") number. This is the actual address computers use to connect to the site through the Internet. It is directly linked to the domain name and is regulated by the "Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers" ("ICANN").
...
The "domain name" and the "IP address" act in the same way. Each computer connected to the Internet is assigned a unique number known as an "IP address". Developed in the early 1970's, this number serves as the computer's Internet address. An IP address can be either static (permanent) or dynamic (temporary). Most home computers use a dynamic IP address while servers and many other computers use a static IP address. An IP address looks like this: "12.129.147.10". If you were to enter that number in the address bar of your Web browser, you would reach the Web site of the Washington Post.

When you enter "washingtonpost.com" into the address bar of your browser, the computer does a search of the "domain name system" ("DNS"), which is maintained by the "Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers" ("ICANN"). The domain name is then translated into the "IP number" and the computer connects with the Web site.

Registering Domain Names
...
Domain Pointing
...
Summary
...
A "domain name" is nothing more than an alias for the "IP address" of your Web site.
...
Further Information This article originally appeared on WebReference.com.


I

IANA (W3)

"IANA" steht für "Internet Assigned Numbers Authority".

(E?)(L?) http://www.iana.org/

The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is responsible for the global coordination of the DNS Root, IP addressing, and other Internet protocol resources. Learn more about what we do »

Dedicated to preserving the central coordinating functions of the global Internet for the public good.

Domain Name Services | IANA ccTLD Database | Generic Top-Level Domains | Protocol Number Assignment Services (Current protocol parameter registries are listed here) | Application Forms | IANA Repository of TLD IDN Practices | Procedures | IP Address Services | Most Popular Links (Port numbers, root zone hints file, etc.) | Links To Community Members | Public Comments | Reports | Abuse Issues and IP Addresses | Contact us | Reporting and Statistics


iana
TLD Code Index
Country Codes

(E?)(L?) http://www.iana.org/domains/root/db/


03.04.2006:





ICANN (W3)
Glossary of Internet Terminology

"ICANN" steht für "Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers" (gegründet 1998)

(E?)(L?) http://www.icann.com/


(E?)(L?) http://www.icann.org/


(E?)(L?) http://www.icann.org/en/about/

To reach another person on the Internet you have to type an address into your computer - a name or a number. That address has to be unique so computers know where to find each other. ICANN coordinates these unique identifiers across the world. Without that coordination we wouldn't have one global Internet.

ICANN was formed in 1998. It is a not-for-profit public-benefit corporation with participants from all over the world dedicated to keeping the Internet secure, stable and interoperable. It promotes competition and develops policy on the Internet’s unique identifiers.

ICANN doesn’t control content on the Internet. It cannot stop spam and it doesn’t deal with access to the Internet. But through its coordination role of the Internet’s naming system, it does have an important impact on the expansion and evolution of the Internet.


(E?)(L?) http://www.icann.org/en/about/learning/glossary
ICANN Glossary of Internet Terminology





ICANN (W3)

"ICANN" steht für "Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers".
Die ICANN ist die zentrale Instanz zur Überwachung der Eindeutigkeit von IP-Adressen, die Internet-Regierung - Domainverwaltung, Vergabestelle für com-, net-, org- und sieben weitere Top-Level-Domains.

(E?)(L1) http://www.3sat.de/nano/bstuecke/09416/index.html


(E?)(L?) http://www.hyperkommunikation.ch/lexikon/icann.htm


(E?)(L?) http://www.icann.org/


(E?)(L?) http://www.icannwatch.org/


(E?)(L?) http://jargonf.org/wiki/Accueil


(E?)(L?) http://www.netlingo.com/lookup.cfm?term=ICANN


(E?)(L?) http://searchsoa.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid26_gci214011,00.html


(E1)(L1) http://www.wortwarte.de/

... "Icannesisch". Das ist die Sprache der "Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers" ("Icann"), die privat, konsensual, beinahe basisdemokratisch und dementsprechend streitfreudig das Internet regiert. ...

... Die "Icannianer" haben es geschafft, eine Art weltweiter Internet-Gerichtsbarkeit zu schaffen, auch wenn es dabei lediglich um den häufig sinnlos anmutenden Streit bei der Durchsetzung von Markennamen als Internet-Adressen geht.


(E?)(L1) http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/I/ICANN.html


(E?)(L?) http://www.www-kurs.de/gloss_i.htm#ICANN


icann
Icann gibt Startschuss für neue Internet-Namen

(E?)(L?) http://www.bitkom.de/

Ende Juni hat das Icann-Board (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers) auf der internationalen Icann-Tagung in Paris eine Empfehlung angenommen, wonach eine ganze Palette von neuen Endungen in das bestehende Internet-Adressen-System aufgenommen werden soll. Die bisher bekannten Endungen für Internetadressen wie .info, .org, .com können ergänzt werden durch branchenspezifische Endungen (zum Beispiel .travel für die Reiseindustrie) oder Endungen für bestimmte Städte (zum Beispiel .berlin für Berlin) sowie Regionen (zum Beispiel .bzh für die Bretagne). Zukünftig soll es nicht mehr nur Adressen mit römischen Buchstaben geben, sondern auch andere Schriften werden berücksichtigt.

Welche Internet-Namen es bald tatsächlich geben wird, hängt davon ab, welche Vorschläge bei Icann offiziell eingehen. Grundsätzlich kann sich jeder mit Vorschlägen bewerben, der auch die entsprechenden Voraussetzungen für die Verwaltung und Vergabe der von ihm vorgeschlagenen Endung mitbringt. Icann plant solche Bewerbungen ab der 2. Jahreshälfte 2009 entgegen zu nehmen. Wie die Umsetzung sowie die Auswahlkriterien im Einzelnen aussehen werden, muss bei Icann noch entschieden werden. Ein genauer Einführungsplan soll Anfang 2009 veröffentlicht werden.


(E?)(L?) http://www.icann.org/


IDN (W3)

"IDN" steht für "Internationalized Domain Names" ("internationalisierte Domain-Namen").

Am 09.10.2007 wurde das Internet auf "internationalisierte Domain-Namen" umgestellt. Nun können Domain-Namen auch in den 11 weiteren Schriftsystemen "Arabisch", "Persisch", "Russisch", "Hindi", "Griechisch", "Koreanisch", "Hebräisch", "Japanisch", "Tamil" sowie "zwei Varianten des Chinesischen" kreiert und aufgerufen werden.

(E?)(L?) http://punycode.bluerider.com/idn/

This page demonstrates the translation of native characters entered in Unicode to Punycode and from Punycode back to native characters as defined by RFC 3491, RFC 3492, and RFC 3454.


(E?)(L?) http://www.icann.org/en/general/glossary.htm
IDNs - Internationalized Domain Names

(E?)(L?) http://www.icann.org/topics/idn/

"Internationalized Domain Names" (IDNs) are domain names represented by local language characters. Such domain names could contain letters or characters from non-ASCII scripts (for example, Arabic or Chinese). Many efforts are ongoing in the Internet community to make domain names available in character sets other than ASCII.

These "internationalized domain name" ("IDN") efforts were the subject of a 25 September 2000 resolution by the ICANN Board of Directors, which recognized "that it is important that the Internet evolve to be more accessible to those who do not use the ASCII character set", and also stressed that "the internationalization of the Internet's domain name system must be accomplished through standards that are open, non-proprietary, and fully compatible with the Internet's existing end-to-end model and that preserve globally unique naming in a universally resolvable public name space."

This area is designed to document the progress of the implementation of IDNs as well as allow for discussion of issues encountered in implementation.
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.icann.org/en/topics/idn/idn-glossary.htm

Internationalized Domain Names - Glossary

In an attempt to ensure that discussions regarding IDNs take place in a consistent manner ICANN has published an IDN Glossary. The glossary terms can be used freely and is expected to be expanded over time. If you have suggestions for additions and/or changes to the glossary please submit these to idn-glossary@icann.org. Comments will be posted publicly in the discussion forum at http://forum.icann.org/lists/idn-glossary/.

Historically, domain names on the Internet were restricted to using a limited set of ASCII characters (i.e. a-z, 0-9 and "-"). However, with the increasing use of the Internet in all regions and by diverse linguistic groups of the world, the demand for multilingual domain names has become more intense. Various acronyms are used widely in communications around internationalizing the domain name space. Explanations for many of these acronyms are provided below to help make this topic simpler to understand.

ACE (ASCII Compatible Encoding)

ACE is a system for encoding Unicode so each character can be transmitted using only a limited set of ASCII characters (i.e. a-z, 0-9 and "-"). This is used because applications that use the DNS protocol may not reliably handle other values. "ASCII" ("American Standard Code for Information Interchange").

Character

For the purposes of discussing IDNs, a ”character” can best be seen as the basic graphic unit of a writing system, which is a script plus a set of rules determining how it is used for representing a specific language. However, domain labels do not convey any intrinsic information about the language with which they are intended to be associated, although they do reveal the script on which they are based. This language dependency can unfortunately not be eliminated by restricting the definition to script because in several cases (see examples below) languages that share the same script differ in the way they regard its individual elements. The term character can therefore not be defined independently of the context in which it is used.

In phonetically based writing systems, a character is typically a letter or represents a syllable, and in ideographic systems (or alternatively, pictographic or logographic systems) a character may represent a concept or word.

The following examples are intended to illustrate that the definition of a character is at least two-fold, one being a linguistic base unit and the other is the associated code point.

U-label ? : Jiu; the Chinese word for 'alcoholic beverage'; Unicode code point is U+9152 (also referred to as: CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9152); A-label is xn—jj4

U-label ?? : the Chinese word for ‘Beijing’, Unicode codepoints are U+5300 U+4EAC; A-label is xn—1lq90i

U-label ?? : Japanese word for ‘Tokyo’, the Unicode code points are U+6771 U+4EAC; A-label is xn—1lqs71d

U-label ???; Farsi acronym for ICOM, Unicode code points are U+0627 U+06CC U+0643 U+0648 U+0645; A-label is xn—mgb0dgl27d.

DNS (Domain Name System)

The DNS makes using the Internet easier by allowing a familiar string of letters (the "domain name") to be used instead of the arcane IP address. So instead of typing 207.151.159.3, you can type www.internic.net.

IDNA (Internationalized Domain Names in Application)

IDNA is a protocol defined in RFC 3490 by the Internet Engineering Task Force (http://www.ietf.org) that makes it possible for applications to handle domain names with non-ASCII characters. IDNA converts domain name strings with non-ASCII characters to ASCII domain name labels that applications that use the DNS can accurately understand. Not all characters used in the world's languages will be available for use in domain names. Hence IDNA is not able to convert all such characters into ASCII labels.

IDN (Internationalized Domain Name)

IDNs are domain names represented by local language characters. Such domain names could contain characters with diacritical marks as required by many European languages, or characters from non-Latin scripts (for example, Arabic or Chinese).

IDNs made the domain name label as it is displayed and viewed by the end user different from that transmitted in the DNS. To avoid confusion the following terminology is used:

The A-label is what is transmitted in the DNS protocol and this is the ASCII-compatible (ACE) form of an IDNA string; for example "xn--11b5bs1di". The U-label is what should be displayed to the user and is the representation of the Internationalized Domain Name (IDN) in Unicode; for example " ??? " ("test" version in Hindi, Devanagari script ). Lastly, the LDH-label strictly refers to an all-ASCII label that obeys the "hostname" (LDH) conventions and that is not an IDN; for example "icann" in the domain name "icann.org".

(The above label definition are extracted from: (E?)(L?) http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-klensin-idnabis-issues-01.txt
)

IDN SLDs or IDN 2LDs

Usually a reference for domain names with local characters at the second level, while the top level remains in ASCII-only characters. For example: [pa??de??µa .test] ("example.test" in Greek).

IDN Table

An IDN Table is a table listing all those characters that a particular TLD registry supports. If one or more of these characters are considered a variant this is indicated next to that/those characters. It is also indicated which character a particular character is a variant to. The variant tables usually holds characters representing a specific language, or they can be characters from a specific script. Therefore the variant table is sometimes referred to as 'language variant table', language table', script table' or something similar.

IDN TLDs

Usually the short reference for internationalized top-level domains, thus allowing the entire domain name to be represented by local characters. For example: [??.???] ("example.test" in Hangul).

Label

A label is an individual part of a domain name. Labels are usually shown separated by dots; for example, the domain name "example.com" is composed of two labels: "example", and "com".

Languages | Scripts | Alphabets

Languages are used by speech communities. Scripts are used to write down information in the various languages and this is done by using the corresponding alphabets or alternative writing systems.

LDH (Letter, Digit, Hyphen)

The hostname convention defined in RFC 952 (later modified by RFC 1123) was used by top-level domain Registries before internationalization. This meant that domain names could only practically contain the letters a-z, digits 0-9 and the hyphen "-". The term "LDH code points" refers to this subset. With the introduction of IDNs this rule is no longer relevant for all domain names although with the use of IDNA, what appears in the DNS remains LDH.

Punycode

Punycode is the LDH-compatible encoding algorithm described in Internet standard [RFC3492], and in use today. This is the method that is used to encode IDNs into sequences of LDH ASCII characters in order for applications using the Domain Name System (DNS) to understand and manage the names. The intention is that domain name registrants and users will never see this encoded form of a domain name. The sole purpose is for the DNS to be able to resolve for example a URL containing local characters. For examples see A-label under "IDN".

The prefix in a Punycode A-label is always "xn--". Hence this prefix is recommended to be reserved by top-level domain Registries in order to avoid confusion when/if registrations of IDNs are introduced under the respective top level domain.

Script

A script is a collection of symbols used for writing a language. There are three basic kinds of script. One is the alphabetic (e.g. Arabic, Cyrillic, Latin) and its individual elements are termed "letters". A second is ideographic (e.g. Chinese), the elements of which are "ideographs". The third is termed a syllabary (e.g. Hangul) and its individual elements represent syllables. The writing systems of most languages use only one script but there are exception such as for example, Japanese that uses four different scripts, representing all three of the categories listed here.

In order to be used in the computing environment, each element of a script needs to be numerically encoded. A collection of symbols numbered in this fashion is called a "character set". A character set may include more than one script (e.g. the "Universal Character Set", popularly known as Unicode), or it may be restricted to a single script (e.g. US-ASCII, which to be correct does not even cover the entire Latin script). A rigorous distinction must be made between scripts and character sets.

The only character set relevant to IDNA is Unicode. This assigns a numerical "code point" and a "character name" to every element of every script. The script-based policies that ICANN attaches to IDNs will operate on the names of the scripts that appear in Unicode character names, or on the blocks in the Unicode Code Chart that are similarly headed with script names. These script names are apparent at http://www.unicode.org/charts/.

It is important to note that scripts which do not appear in the Unicode Code Chart are completely unavailable for inclusion in IDNs.

The Unicode Consortium

A not-for-profit organization founded to develop, extend and promote use of the Unicode standard. For more information, please visit http://www.unicode.org.

Unicode

Unicode is a commonly used single encoding scheme that provides a unique number for each character across a wide variety of languages and scripts. The Unicode standard contains tables that list the "code points" (unique numbers) for each local character identified. These tables continue to expand as more and more characters are digitalized.

In Unicode, characters are assigned codes that uniquely define every character in many of the scripts in the world. These "code points" are unique numbers for a character or some character aspect such as an accent mark or ligature. Unicode supports more than a million code points, which are written with a "U" followed by a plus sign and the unique number in hexadecimal notation; for example, the word "Hello" is written U+0048 U+0065 U+006C U+006C U+006F.

URL

An acronym for "Uniform Resource Locator", a string that describes the address of documents and other resources on the Internet. Defined by the IETF in RFC 2396, a URL is comprised of two parts separated by a colon (":"). The first part of the address indicates what protocol to use, e.g., http, ftp, etc., and the second part specifies the IP address or the domain name where the resource is located.

UTF-8

UTF-8 -bit Unicode Transformation Format is a system for encoding Unicode so each character can be transmitted using 8-bit numerical values. This is commonly used as 8-bit data transmission is prevalent on the Internet.


(E?)(L?) http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc-index2.html


IDNA (W3)

"IDNA" steht für "Internationalized Domain Names in Applications".

(E?)(L?) http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc-index2.html


IETF, IAB, IRTF, RFC (W3)

(E?)(L1) http://www.ietf.org/
"IETF" steht für "Internet Engineering Task Force".
Die Abkürzung "IAB" hiess früher "Internet Activities Board", 1983 in "Internet Architecture Board" umbenannt. Wurde 1989 erneut umstrukturiert und beinhaltet heute unter anderem die zwei wichtigen Teilgebiete "IRTF" ("Internet Research Task Force") und "IETF" (Internet Engineering Task Force).
Das "IAB" veröffentlicht durchnummerierte "RFC"s ("Request for Comments"). Die Basisdefinitionen für "SNMP" z.B. wurden im Mai 1990 in "RFC 1157" und "RFC 1155" ausgeführt.

Unter "RFC Pages" findet man den Zugang zu allen eingestellten "RFC"s. Der "RFC 2026" behandelt z.B. den "Internet Standards Process", das heisst das Verfahren selbst, nach dem Internet Standards zu erstellen sind.

intel.com
What happens in an Internet Minute

(E?)(L?) http://scoop.intel.com/what-happens-in-an-internet-minute/

Do you know what happens in one minute on the Internet? In just one minute, more than 204 million emails are sent. Amazon rings up about $83,000 in sales. Around 20 million photos are viewed and 3,000 uploaded on Flickr. At least 6 million Facebook pages are viewed around the world. And more than 61,000 hours of music are played on Pandora while more than 1.3 million video clips are watched on YouTube.
...


Erstellt: 2013-02

Internet (W3)

Der Begriff "Internet" setzt sich seit etwa 1978 - mit der Einführung von IP-Adressen (Protokoll IPv4) - durch.

Im täglichen Leben werden die Begriffe "Internet" und "World Wide Web" (= "WWW") oft gleichgesetzt. Die begriffe sind jedoch nicht synonym nutzbar.

Unter "Internet" versteht man das Netzwerk, die Netzwerk-Infrastruktur, das Netz der Netze (= "das Netz, das aus vielen verknüpften Netzen besteht").

Das "Internet" ist ein weltumspannendes Netz von vielen einzelnen Computer-Netzwerken. Zahlreiche Dienste erwecken diese Infrastruktur erst zum Leben - zum Beispiel "E-Mail", "Chat", "Dateiübertragung" oder auch "Internet-Telefonie".

Einer der bekanntesten Dienste des "Internet" ist das "World Wide Web" ("WWW"), das die Übertragung von Webseiten ermöglicht.

(E?)(L?) http://www.etymologiebank.nl/trefwoord/internet

internet


(E?)(L?) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=Internet

"internet" (n.) 1984, "the linked computer networks of the U.S. Defense Department," shortened from "internetwork", "inter-network", which was used from 1972 in reference to (then-hypothetical) networks involving many separate computers. From "inter-" "between" + "network" (n.). Associated Press style guide decapitalized it from 2016.


(E?)(L?) http://www.heise.de/tp/r4/artikel/31/31742/1.html

...
Das "Internet" geht, zumindest als Begriff, auf das Jahr 1974 zurück. Es entwickelte sich aus dem "ARPANET", das 1969 geschaffen wurde, sowie aus früheren Experimenten in der Computervernetzung. Das "Web" entstand 1991 als Kommunikationsmedium für Physiker.
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.historyofinformation.com/

History of Information


(E?)(L?) http://www.historyofinformation.com/expanded.php?category=Internet+%26+Networking+

Internet & Networking Timeline

...



(E?)(L?) http://www.historyofscience.com/G2I/

Publications

From Gutenberg to the Internet: A Sourcebook on the History of Information Technology

Edited by Jeremy M. Norman


(E?)(L?) http://www.internetsociety.org/internet/what-internet/history-internet/brief-history-internet

Brief History of the Internet

Barry M. Leiner, Vinton G. Cerf, David D. Clark, Robert E. Kahn, Leonard Kleinrock, Daniel C. Lynch, Jon Postel, Larry G. Roberts, Stephen Wolff




(E?)(L?) http://www.isoc.org/internet/history/

The Internet


(E?)(L?) http://www.internetsociety.org/internet/what-internet/history-internet/brief-history-internet

...
Origins of the Internet

The first recorded description of the social interactions that could be enabled through networking was a series of memos written by J.C.R. Licklider of MIT in August 1962 discussing his "Galactic Network" concept. He envisioned a globally interconnected set of computers through which everyone could quickly access data and programs from any site. In spirit, the concept was very much like the Internet of today. Licklider was the first head of the computer research program at DARPA,4 starting in October 1962. While at DARPA he convinced his successors at DARPA, Ivan Sutherland, Bob Taylor, and MIT researcher Lawrence G. Roberts, of the importance of this networking concept.
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.keithlynch.net/timeline.html

Keith Lynch's timeline of net related terms and concepts


(E?)(L?) https://news.netcraft.com/archives/2016/

...
In the December 2016 survey we received responses from 1,739,031,487 sites and 6,169,471 web-facing computers; this reflects a large increase of 302 million sites, but a small loss of 55,900 computers.
...
In the November 2016 survey we received responses from 1,436,724,046 sites and 6,225,374 web-facing computers, reflecting a gain of 7 million sites and 81,000 computers.
...
In the October 2016 survey we received responses from 1,429,331,486 sites and 6,144,093 web-facing computers. This reflects a large increase of 144 million sites, and a more modest increase of 25,300 computers.
...
In the September 2016 survey we received responses from 1,285,759,146 sites and 6,118,785 web-facing computers, reflecting large gains in both metrics: 132 million additional sites, and 138,000 more computers.
...
In the August 2016 survey we received responses from 1,153,659,413 sites and 5,980,524 web-facing computers. This reflects an increase of 80 million sites, but a loss of 78,000 computers.
...
In the July 2016 survey we received responses from 1,073,777,722 sites and 6,058,513 web-facing computers. This reflects an increase of 28 million sites and 107,000 computers.
...
In the June 2016 survey we received responses from 1,045,534,808 sites and 5,951,685 web-facing computers. This reflects an increase of 12 million sites, along with a modest gain of 4,700 computers.
...
In the May 2016 survey we received responses from 1,033,790,346 sites and 5,946,961 web-facing computers. This reflects a gain of 147,000 computers, coupled with a loss of 49 million sites.
...
In the April 2016 survey we received responses from 1,083,252,900 sites and 5,800,222 web-facing computers. This reflects a gain of nearly 80 million sites and 18,100 computers.
...
In the March 2016 survey we received responses from 1,003,887,790 sites and 5,782,080 web-facing computers. This reflects a gain of nearly 70 million sites, but a loss of 14,100 computers.
...
In the February 2016 survey we received responses from 933,892,520 sites and 5,796,210 web-facing computers.
...
In the January 2016 survey we received responses from 906,616,188 sites and 5,753,264 web-facing computers, reflecting a modest increase of less than six million sites, but a significant gain of 174,000 computers.
...


(E?)(L?) https://twitter.com/pickover/status/460827505742462976/photo/1

A map of the "Internet" in June, 1970. Wow, pretty simple.


(E?)(L?) http://www.wdrmaus.de/filme/sachgeschichten/internet.php5

Wie funktioniert das Internet? Wenn du diesen Text hier liest, besuchst du gerade die Maus auf ihrer Homepage und nutzt dazu das Internet. Und wie funktioniert das? Armin begibt sich auf die Spur der schnellen Daten.


(E?)(L?) http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/I/Internet.html

...
Is Web and Internet the Same?

The "Internet" is not synonymous with "World Wide Web".

The "Internet" is a massive network of networks, a networking infrastructure. It connects millions of computers together globally, forming a network in which any computer can communicate with any other computer as long as they are both connected to the Internet.

The "World Wide Web", or simply "Web", is a way of accessing information over the medium of the Internet. It is an information-sharing model that is built on top of the Internet.
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.webopedia.com/DidYouKnow/Internet/Web_vs_Internet.asp

The Difference Between the Internet and World Wide Web

Updated December 14, 2015 / Posted June 24, 2010

By Vangie Beal

Many people use the terms Internet and World Wide Web (aka. the Web) interchangeably, but in fact the two terms are not synonymous. The Internet and the Web are two separate but related things.

What is The Internet?

The Internet is a massive network of networks, a networking infrastructure. It connects millions of computers together globally, forming a network in which any computer can communicate with any other computer as long as they are both connected to the Internet. Information that travels over the Internet does so via a variety of languages known as protocols.

What is The Web (World Wide Web)?

The World Wide Web, or simply Web, is a way of accessing information over the medium of the Internet. It is an information-sharing model that is built on top of the Internet. The Web uses the HTTP protocol, only one of the languages spoken over the Internet, to transmit data. Web services, which use HTTP to allow applications to communicate in order to exchange business logic, use the the Web to share information. The Web also utilizes browsers, such as Internet Explorer or Firefox, to access Web documents called Web pages that are linked to each other via hyperlinks. Web documents also contain graphics, sounds, text and video.
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.webopedia.com/quick_ref/timeline.asp

Brief Timeline of the Internet

Last Updated May 24, 2007

When we talk about the "Internet", we talk about the "World Wide Web" from the past four or five years. But, its history goes back a lot further; all the way back to the 1950s and 60s.

"Where was I", you ask, "while all this was happening?" Well, it's quite simple really: the Space Program. America was so fascinated with sending men into outer space, hundreds of miles away, it never saw what was being invented to bring everyone closer together - eventually.

So, just in case you missed the development of the Internet, here is a brief timeline highlighting some of the major occurrences over the past 49 years that have shaped the Internet of today. For more extensive info, you'll find links to other timelines at the bottom of this page.




(E?)(L?) http://www.webopedia.com/Internet_and_Online_Services/Internet

Internet

The Internet is a global networking infrastructure that connects millions of computers together, forming a network in which any computer can communicate with any other computer as long as they are both connected to the Internet.

From Internet protocols to Internet security and search engines, our Internet dictionary offers a glossary of important terms you need to know.

Sub-Categories

Internet Access | Internet Backbone | Internet Protocols | | Slang

Terms




(E?)(L?) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bob_Kahn

Robert Elliot "Bob" Kahn (born December 23, 1938) is an American electrical engineer, who, along with Vint Cerf, invented the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP), the fundamental communication protocols at the heart of the Internet.
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet

The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless, and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries an extensive range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web (WWW), electronic mail, telephony, and peer-to-peer networks for file sharing.
...


(E?)(L?) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vint_Cerf

Vinton Gray Cerf (born June 23, 1943) is an American Internet pioneer, who is recognized as one of "the fathers of the Internet", sharing this title with TCP/IP co-inventor Bob Kahn. His contributions have been acknowledged and lauded, repeatedly, with honorary degrees and awards that include the National Medal of Technology, the Turing Award, the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the Marconi Prize and membership in the National Academy of Engineering.
...


(E?)(L?) http://wordinfo.info/unit/1076/ip:4/il:I

"inter-", "intero-" - (Latin: "between"; "among", "mutually", "together"; "on the inside", "internal")

Although abstracted from the many compounds in which it entered English, the form "inter-" was not generally considered a living prefix in English until the 1400s.

During the later period of Middle English many words borrowed in the Old and Middle French forms "entre-", "enter-" began to be consciously respelled with Latin "inter-"; although vestiges of the older French borrowings are found in entertain and enterprise.

The living prefix "inter-" is now freely added to almost any element in English to create such formations with the meaning of "between" and "among". The words formed by "intra-" are closely related to this "inter-" prefix; in fact, they both apparently came from the same Latin source.

Based on information from Barnhart Dictionary of Etymology
...


(E?)(L?) http://wordinfo.info/unit/3367/ip:4/il:I

"Internet": De-capitalizing the word

(the word "internet" is now a common noun, not a proper noun)

The capital "I" that usually begins the word "Internet" is now considered to be grammatically invalid.

Joseph Turow, professor at the Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Pennsylvania, has started a crusade to de-capitalize "Internet".
...


(E?)(L?) http://smithsonian.yahoo.com/internethistory.html

Birth of the Internet

The Internet began as a Cold War project to create a communications network that was immune to a nuclear attack. In the 1969, the U.S. government created "ARPANET", connecting four western universities and allowing researchers to use the mainframes of any of the networked institutions. New connections were soon added to the network, bringing the number of "nodes" up to 23 in 1971, 111 in 1977, and up to almost 4 million in 1994. As the size of the network grew so did its capabilities: In its first 25 years, the Internet added features such as file transfer, email, Usenet news, and eventually HTML. Now, new developments come to the Net one right after the other. It is this explosive growth in recent years that has captured the imagination of computer users the world over.
...


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=Internet
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "Internet" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr ???? / nicht signifikant auf.

(E?)(L?) http://corpora.informatik.uni-leipzig.de/


(E?)(L?) http://www.wordmap.co/#Internet

This experiment brings together the power of Google Translate and the collective knowledge of Wikipedia to put into context the relationship between language and geographical space.


Erstellt: 2016-12

Internet country code (W3)

The Internet country code is the two-letter digraph maintained by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in the ISO 3166 Alpha-2 list and used by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) to establish country-coded top-level domains (ccTLDs).

Internet or internet
Net or net
Web or web (W3)

(E?)(L?) http://www.worldwidewords.org/topicalwords/tw-int1.htm

...
Do you put an initial capital letter on "Internet", or the related words "Net" and "Web"? This may seem a fussy, not to say pedantic, question. But it’s one that copy editors and those charged with creating the house styles for publishing firms must wrestle with in order to create text that looks consistent, avoids annoying or confusing readers, and quietly states that it forms part of a unified publication, whoever wrote the words.
...


internetlivestats.com
Internet live stats

(E?)(L?) http://www.internetlivestats.com/
2017-01-05, 11:50h (Germany)

  3,538,054,805 - Internet Users in the world
  1,130,942,618 - Total number of Websites
112,590,462,113 - Emails sent today
  2,463,401,064 - Google searches today
      2,297,366 - Blog posts written today
    316,633,458 - Tweets sent  today
  2,869,974,014 - Videos viewed todayon YouTube
     32,213,130 - Photos uploaded today on Instagram
     50,703,894 - Tumblr posts today
  1,804,027,033 - Facebook active users
    490,408,844 - Google+ active users
    307,216,539 - Twitter active users
    181,220,769 - Pinterest active users
    102,269,946 - Skype calls today
         36,011 - Websites hacked today
        284,696 - Computers sold today
      1,964,254 - Smartphones sold today
        247,609 - Tablets sold today
  1,735,705,509 GB - Internet traffic today
      1,633,488 MWh - Electricity used today for the Internet
      1,445,565 tons - CO2 emissions today from the Internet



Erstellt: 2017-01

internet-map.net
Internet Map

(E?)(L?) http://www.internet-map.net/

The map of the Internet

Like any other map, The Internet map is a scheme displaying objects’ relative position; but unlike real maps (e.g. the map of the Earth) or virtual maps (e.g. the map of Mordor), the objects shown on it are not aligned on a surface. Mathematically speaking, The Internet map is a bi-dimensional presentation of links between websites on the Internet. Every site is a circle on the map, and its size is determined by website traffic, the larger the amount of traffic, the bigger the circle. Users’ switching between websites forms links, and the stronger the link, the closer the websites tend to arrange themselves to each other.
...


Erstellt: 2013-02

internetnews - Internet Crosses the Billion-User Mark

(E?)(L?) http://www.internetnews.com/stats/article.php/3798301/Internet+Crosses+the+BillionUser+Mark.htm

...
In December (2008), the total global Internet audience surpassed one billion users, according to Internet traffic measurement firm comScore (NASDAQ: SCOR). In a new report, the research firm said that the Asia-Pacific region continues to claim the lion's share, accounting for 41 percent of Internet users worldwide -- about 416 million.

Europe came in second with about 283 million Internet users, accounting for 28 percent of the wired population. With 185 million users, North America came in third at 18.4 percent, comScore said. Latin America accounted for 7 percent of total users with 75 million, and the combined Middle East and Africa region together attained 5 percent share, or 49 million.
...


internetpulse
Internet Health Report

(E6)(L?) http://www.internetpulse.net/


internettrafficreport
Internet Traffic Report

(E?)(L?) http://www.internettrafficreport.com/


(E?)(L?) http://www.internettrafficreport.com/addlink.htm
Internet Traffic Report liefert graphisch aufbereitete Information über den Datenfluß im Internet.


The Internet Traffic Report monitors the flow of data around the world. It then displays a value between zero and 100. Higher values indicate faster and more reliable connections.


The Internet Traffic Report monitors the flow of data around the world. It then displays a value between zero and 100. Higher values indicate faster and more reliable connections.

The Internet Traffic Report monitors the flow of data around the world. It then displays a value between zero and 100. Higher values indicate faster and more reliable connections.

IP, Internet Protocol (W3)

(E?)(L?) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_Protocol

The "Internet Protocol" ("IP") is a data-oriented protocol used for communicating data across a packet-switched internetwork.

"IP" is a network layer protocol in the Internet protocol suite and is encapsulated in a data link layer protocol (e.g., Ethernet). As a lower layer protocol, IP provides the service of communicable unique global addressing amongst computers.
...


IP-Adresse (W3)

"IP-Adresse" steht für "Internet Protokoll-Adresse".

The IP Network Numbering System
The present system of IP network numbers, established in 1981, uses a 32 bit number to identify computers on the internet. These numbers are represented as a sequence of four 8 bit numbers (octets), each of which can therefore vary between 0 and 255. The first part of each 32 bit number represents the network, and the remaining part refers to the individual computer.

An index relating IP network numbers to network names and identities, for class A, B and C networks


* Class A (0.x.x.x to 127.x.x.x) - 8 bit network prefix,
* Class B (128.0.x.x to 191.255.x.x) - 16 bit network prefix and
* Class C (192.0.0.x to 223.255.255.x) - 24 bit network prefix.
Zum Beispiel: 194.0.0.0 - 194.255.255.0 ist reserviert für European Networks
194.25.xxx.xxx ist reserviert für Deutschland

ip2location
IP to Location
IP-to-geographical location mapping

(E?)(L?) http://www.ip2location.com/
Unter LiveDemo erhält man angezeigt: Ansonsten wird ein kostenpflichtiges Tool angeboten.

(E?)(L?) http://www.ip2location.com/demo.aspx









(E?)(L?) http://www.ip2phrase.com/


Powered by IP2Location.com


(E?)(L?) http://www.ip2map.com/

Map IP Address
Powered byIP2Location.com




IPv6, IPng (W3)

"IPv6" steht für "Internet Protocol Version 6". Hierfür findet man auch die Abkürzung "IPng" für "Internet Protocol next generation".
Notwendig wurde die Schaffung eines neuen Internet Protokolls durch die Zunahme der beteiligten Internet-Rechner, so daß die Adressierung mit dem bisherigen Schema "nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn" nicht mehr ausreicht um zukünftige Adressierungswünsche zu erfüllen.

Mit nnn = 000 bis 256 (= 2^8) ergeben sich - rein theoretisch - (2^8)^4 = 2^^32, also etwa 4 Mrd. mögliche Adressen.

So hat die Internetadresse "www.etymologie.info" die IP-Adresse "213.83.63.53".

Mit IPv6 stehen 2^128 = 340.282.366.920.938.463.463.374.607.431.768.211.456 Adressen zur Verfügung. Das reicht aus, um jeden Lichtschalter und jede Kaffemaschine und jede Heizung und jedes Garagentor und viele andere Geräte mit einer Internetadresse zu versehen. (Theoretisch entfallen auf jeden Quadratmeter 665.570.793.348.866.943.898.599 Adressen, bei zu Grunde gelegten 511.263.971.197.990 Quadratmetern.)

(E?)(L?) http://playground.sun.com/pub/ipng/html/INET-IPng-Paper.html#CH7


(E?)(L?) http://www.tecchannel.de/index.cfm?pid=195&pk=401211

So funktionieren TCP/IP und IPv6
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.tecchannel.de/netzwerk/grundlagen/401207/index.html

Domain Name System
Namen statt Zahlen: Durch das Domain Name System muss sich der Anwender beim Zugriff auf Internet-Server nicht mit schwer zu merkenden und fehlerträchtigen IP-Adressen befassen. tecCHANNEL zeigt, was hinter ".de" steckt.
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/I/IPng.html


IRC (W3)

"IRC" steht für "Internet Relay Chat". Die Grundlagen für die elektronische Unterhaltung wurden von dem finnischen Studenten Jarkko Oikarinen gelegt und zuerst 1981 im Rechnernetzwerk BITNET realisiert.

ISDN (W3)

"ISDN" steht für "". Es wurde 1989 auf der CeBIT vorgestellt.

Isidor von Sevilla als Internet-Patron?, St. Isidor

(E?)(L?) http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/4416419.stm


(E?)(L?) http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2005/04/04/scitech/pcanswer/main685269.shtml


(E?)(L?) http://www.computerwoche.de/index.cfm?pageid=254&artid=19794&type=detail&kw=lexikon

...
The church has been conducting a search for a patron saint for the Internet and computers. A leading candidate is seventh century Archbishop Isadore of Seville, author of the "Etymologiae", which some have called the world's first encyclopedia.
...



Vatikan will St. Isidor als Cyber-Heiligen (07.02.2001)
MÜNCHEN (COMPUTERWOCHE) - Unbestätigten Presseberichten zufolge erwägt der Vatikan, den heiligen Isidor von Sevilla zum Schutzpatron der Internet-Benutzer und Computerprogrammierer zu ernennen. Der spanische Heilige, der von 556 bis 636 lebte, hat sich aus Sicht der Katholischen Kirche durch seine Barmherzigkeit und seine wissenschaftliche Arbeit - er schrieb ein 20bändiges etymologisches Lexikon - hervorgehoben. St. Isidor war bereits vor zwei Jahren als Schutzpatron für das neue Medium vorgeschlagen worden, der Heilige Stuhl hat seine Entscheidung jedoch bisher nicht offiziell bekannt gegeben.
Randnotiz: Die Website des Vatikan wurde 1996 online geschaltet und dient zur Veröffentlichung von Kirchendokumenten sowie der Reden des Papstes. Sie wird von drei Servern gehostet, die nach den Erzengeln Rafael, Michael und Gabriel benannt sind.


ISO (W3)

(E?)(L?) http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/O/OSI.html


(E?)(L?) http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/I/ISO.html
"OSI" ist die Abkürzung für "Open System Interconnection". Dabei handelt es sich Standard der "ISO" (= "International Standards Organization") für weltweite Kommunikation. Es definiert das Design eines weltweiten Netzwerks mit Hilfe von 7 Kommunikationsebenen (Layern).

Bei den sieben Layern handelt es sich um:

(E?)(L?) http://www.webopedia.com/DidYouKnow/Computer_Science/2006/understanding_layers.asp


(E?)(L?) http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/O/Open_Source_Initiative.html
"OSI" kann weiterhin auch die Abkürzung für "Open Source Initiative" sein.

iso
ISO 3166-1 decoding table

(E?)(L1) http://www.iso.org/iso/iso-3166-1_decoding_table
Hier findet man alle 26^2 = 676 potentiell möglichen Top Level Domains von "AA" bis "ZZ" mit ihrem momentanen Status. Etwa 200 sind konkret vergeben, die restlichen sind in Warteposition, eingeschränkt oder gar verboten.


This decoding table provides the user of ISO 3166-1 with an easy access to the definition of all 676 code elements available in the alpha-2 code of ISO's country code standard.
The content of this document is taken from two sources: The official code list of ISO 3166-1 and the list of reserved ISO 3166-1 code elements which contains information on code allocations which are not officially part of ISO 3166-1 (see "Reserved code elements"). The reserved code elements have different statuses with regard to restrictions on use within ISO's country code system. Some may be used - others must not be used.
These statuses - and their approximate meanings for the user of ISO 3166-1 - are described and colour-coded in Table 1. Tables 2 gives a colour coded, clickable matrix of all ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code elements which is linked to Table 3 which gives the definition of the code element.
For more detailed information please refer to the section on "Reserved code elements" on our Website.

Table 1: Colour coding of statuses
Status of code element Col. What it means


Table 3: All ISO 3166-1 Alpha-2 code elements in use
Code English Name (b) French Name (b); (c) Remark (d) Status of Code Element


iso
ISO 3166 code lists
English country names and code elements

(E?)(L?) http://www.iso.org/iso/en/prods-services/iso3166ma/02iso-3166-code-lists/


(E?)(L?) http://www.heise.de/newsticker/meldung/71554

...
Die 3166-1-Liste enthält Kürzel für von der UN offiziell anerkannte Länder. Sie dient seit (Internet-)Urzeiten auch der Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) als Grundbuchverzeichnis für die Zulassung nationaler Zonen im Cyberspace. Wer auf der 3166-1-Liste ist, kann unangefochten den entsprechenden Adressraum (Länderdomain, ccTLD) in der virtuellen Welt besiedeln.
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.iso.org/iso/en/prods-services/iso3166ma/02iso-3166-code-lists/list-en1.html
03.04.2006:


English country names and code elements
This list states the country names (official short names in English) in alphabetical order as given in ISO 3166-1 and the corresponding ISO 3166-1-alpha-2 code elements.
This list is updated whenever a change to the official code list in ISO 3166-1 is effected by the ISO 3166/MA.
It lists 240 official short names and code elements.




ISOC (W3)

"ISOC" steht für "Internet Society".

(E?)(L?) http://www.isoc.org/

Welcome to the Internet Society
The Internet Society is an independent international nonprofit organisation founded in 1992 to provide leadership in Internet related standards, education, and policy around the world. Read more...
...


isoc
Histories of the Internet

(E?)(L?) http://www.isoc.org/internet/history/

The following links offer a broad range of perspectives on the history of the Internet. The Internet Society cannot guarantee the historical or technical accuracy of all of the material presented, but we hope these resources will give you plenty of starting points for further research.

The Internet Society (ISOC) provides this list for information purposes only. We do not monitor, review, or edit the content of any of the external sites listed above. If you have a site you would like listed here, please sent the URL to webmaster@isoc.org.


J

jargon
The New Hacker's Dictionary
Jargon File Resources
Internet-Dictionary - Jargon-Lexicon
Word List - Wort-Liste

(E3)(L1) http://www.jargon.net/jargonfile/


(E3)(L1) http://www.jargon.net/jargonfile/t/TheJargonLexicon.html
A repository of computer historical information and jargon.

Compiled by Eric Raymond, the Jargon File is "a comprehensive compendium of hacker slang illuminating many aspects of hackish tradition, folklore, and humor". The print version is called "The New Hacker's Dictionary". Includes a fine section called "Jargon Construction" illuminating "some standard methods of jargonification" that hackers employ. Not to mention the fabuluous lexicon of thousands of great hacker terms. Be sure to read the entry for snark.

This page indexes all the WWW resources associated with the Jargon File and its print version, The New Hacker's Dictionary. It's as official as anything associated with the Jargon File gets.

Hinweis: Das komplette HTML-File gibt ausgedruckt 634 Seiten. (30.06.2002)

Dies ist kein technisches Lexikon. Hier finden Sie eine grosse Liste von Wörtern, die zwar aus dem Umfeld der Datenverarbeitung stammen, die aber in die Alltagskommunikation von "Hackern" einfliessen und einige haben es wohl auch in die allgemeine Sprache geschafft. Entstanden ist der "Jargon File" im Umfeld von MIT (LINK ???) und Stanford (Link ???), später erweitert durch die C- und UNIX-Community. Daran kann man schon erkennen, dass es natürlich Wörter sind, die im englischsprachigen Raum beheimatet sind. Aber auch hier wiederum gibt es einige Wörter und sprachliche Konstruktionen, die in andere Sprachen eingedrungen sind. Ein Besuch lohnt sich auf jeden Fall - sehen Sie sich auf jeden Fall die ersten 30 Seiten an, auf denen die Hintergründe, Mechanismen und Auswirkungen dieser 40-järigen "Sprache" beschrieben werden.


Jargon File; enthält auch ein Kapitel "of Slang, Jargon and Techspeak" in dem auf den Unterschied dieser drei Begriffe eingegangen wird.

Das "Jargon-Lexicon" sammelt Begriffe der "Internetprache" und gibt Auskunft über der Gebrauch und Entstehung bzw. deren Entsprechung in der "realen Welt".

a common heritage of the hacker culture; the language of hackers used among themselves for fun, social communication and technical debate;
it is unusually rich and conscious traditions for an intentional culture less than 40 years old;
Hackers as a rule love wordplay and are very inventive in their use of language;

Wissen Sie z.B. was 'gillion' ist?
"[formed from giga- by analogy with mega/million and tera/trillion] = '10^9'. Same as an American billion or a British 'milliard'. How one pronounces this depends on whether one speaks giga- with a hard or soft 'g'."

#= THIS IS THE JARGON FILE, VERSION 4.3.1, 29 JUN 2001 =#
This is the Jargon File, a comprehensive compendium of hacker slang illuminating many aspects of hackish tradition, folklore, and humor.
This document (the Jargon File) is in the public domain, to be freely used, shared, and modified. There are (by intention) no legal restraints on what you can do with it, but there are traditions about its proper use to which many hackers are quite strongly attached. Please extend the courtesy of proper citation when you quote the File, ideally with a version number, as it will change and grow over time. (Examples of appropriate citation form: "Jargon File 4.3.1" or "The on-line hacker Jargon File, version 4.3.1, 29 JUN 2001".)
The Jargon File is a common heritage of the hacker culture. Over the years a number of individuals have volunteered considerable time to maintaining the File and been recognized by the net at large as editors of it.
Introduction: The purpose and scope of this File
A Few Terms: Of Slang, Jargon and Techspeak
Revision History: How the File came to be
Jargon Construction: How hackers invent jargon
Hacker Writing Style: How they write
Email Quotes: And the Inclusion Problem
Hacker Speech Style: How hackers talk
International Style: Some notes on usage outside the U.S.
Lamer-speak: Crackers, Phreaks, and Lamers
Pronunciation Guide: How to read the pronunciation keys
Other Lexicon Conventions: How to read lexicon entries
Format for New Entries: How to submit new entries for the File
The Jargon Lexicon: The lexicon itself
Appendix A: Hacker Folklore
Appendix B: A Portrait of J. Random Hacker
Appendix C: Helping Hacker Culture Grow
Bibliography: For your further enjoyment
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Soundalike slang
...
Example: IBM 360 => IBM Three-Sickly
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= 0 = | /dev/null | 0 | 1TBS | 120 reset | 2 | 4.2 | pred | @-party | = A = | abbrev | accumulator | ACK | acolyte | ad-hockery | address harvester | adger | admin | ADVENT | AFAIK | AFJ | AFK | AI | AI-complete | AI koans | AIDS | AIDX | airplane rule | Alderson loop | aliasing bug | Alice and Bob | all your base are belong to us | all-elbows | alpha geek | alpha particles | alt | alt bit | Aluminum Book | ambimouseterous | Amiga | Amiga Persecution Complex | amoeba | amp off | amper | Angband | angle brackets | angry fruit salad | annoybot | annoyware | ANSI | ANSI standard | ANSI standard pizza | AOL! | app | arena | arg | ARMM | armor-plated | asbestos | asbestos cork award | asbestos longjohns | astroturfing | atomic | attoparsec | AUP | autoconfiscate | automagically | avatar | awk | = B = | B5 | back door | backbone cabal | backbone site | background | backreference | backronym | backspace and overstrike | backward combatability | BAD | Bad and Wrong | Bad Thing | bag on the side | bagbiter | bagbiting | baggy pantsing | balloonian variable | bamf | banana label | banana problem | banner ad | banner site | barn | batbelt | Batman factor | Befunge | BI | bandwidth | bang | bang on | bang path | banner | bar | bare metal | barf | barfmail | barfulation | barfulous | barney | | batch | bathtub curve | baud | baud barf | baz | bazaar | bboard | BBS | BCPL | beam | beanie key | beep | bells and whistles | bells whistles and gongs | Berkeley Quality Software | berklix | Berzerkeley | beta | BFI | bible | BiCapitalization | B1FF | biff | Big Gray Wall | big iron | Big Red Switch | Big Room | big win | big-endian | bignum | bigot | binary four | bit | bit bang | bit bashing | bit bucket | bit decay | bit rot | bit twiddling | bit-paired keyboard | bitblt | BITNET | bits | bitty box | bixen | bixie | black art | black hat | black magic | Black Screen of Death | Black Thursday | blammo | blargh | blast | blat | bletch | bletcherous | blink | blinkenlights | blit | blitter | blivet | bloatware | BLOB | block | Bloggs Family | blow an EPROM | blow away | blow out | blow past | blow up | BLT | Blue Book | blue box | Blue Glue | blue goo | | blue wire | blurgle | BNF | boa | board | boat anchor | bob | BOF | BOFH | bogo-sort | bogometer | BogoMIPS | bogon | bogon filter | bogon flux | bogosity | bogotify | bogue out | bogus | Bohr bug | boink | bomb | bondage-and-discipline language | bonk/oif | book titles | boot | Borg | borken | bot | bottom feeder | bottom-up implementation | bounce | bounce message | boustrophedon | box | boxed comments | boxen | boxology | bozotic | BQS | brain dump | brain fart | brain-damaged | brain-dead | braino | brainwidth | bread crumbs | | breath-of-life packet | breedle | Breidbart Index | bring X to its knees | brittle | broadcast storm | brochureware | broken | broken arrow | broken-ring network | BrokenWindows | broket | Brooks's Law | brown-paper-bag bug | BRS | brute force | brute force and ignorance | BSD | BUAF | BUAG | bubble sort | bucky bits | buffer chuck | buffer overflow | bug-compatible | bug-for-bug compatible | bug-of-the-month club | buglix | bulletproof | bullschildt | bum | bump | burble | buried treasure | burn a CD | burn-in period | burst page | busy-wait | buzz | buzzword-compliant | BWQ | by hand | byte | byte sex | bytesexual | Bzzzt! Wrong. | = C = | C | C Programmer's Disease | C&C | C++ | calculator | Camel Book | can | can't happen | cancelbot | Cancelmoose[tm] | candygrammar | canonical | card walloper | careware | cargo cult programming | cascade | case and paste | casters-up mode | casting the runes | cat | catatonic | cathedral | cd tilde | CDA | cdr | chad | chad box | chain | channel | channel hopping | channel op | chanop | char | charityware | chase pointers | chawmp | check | cheerfully | chemist | Chernobyl chicken | Chernobyl packet | chicken head | chiclet keyboard | Chinese Army technique | choad | choke | chomp | chomper | CHOP | chrome | chug | Church of the SubGenius | Cinderella Book | CI$ | Classic C | clean | CLM | clobber | clock | clocks | clone | clone-and-hack coding | clover key | clue-by-four | co-lo | coaster | COBOL | COBOL fingers | cobweb site | code | code grinder | code monkey | Code of the Geeks | code police | codes | codewalker | coefficient of X | cokebottle | cold boot | COME FROM | comm mode | command key | comment out | Commonwealth Hackish | compact | | compo | compress | Compu$erve | computer confetti | computron | con | condition out | condom | confuser | connector conspiracy | cons | considered harmful | console | console jockey | content-free | control-C | control-O | control-Q | control-S | Conway's Law | cookbook | cooked mode | copious free time | copper | copy protection | copybroke | copycenter | copyleft | copyparty | copywronged | core | core cancer | core dump | core leak | Core Wars | corge | cosmic rays | cough and die | courier | cow orker | cowboy | CP/M | CPU Wars | crack | crack root | cracker | cracking | crank | crapplet | CrApTeX | crash | crash and burn | crawling horror | cray | cray instability | crayola | crayola books | crayon | creationism | creep | creeping elegance | creeping featurism | creeping featuritis | cretin | cretinous | crippleware | critical mass | crlf | crock | cross-post | crossload | crudware | cruft | cruft together | cruftsmanship | crufty | crumb | crunch | cryppie | CTSS | cube | cubing | cup holder | cursor dipped in X | cuspy | cut a tape | cybercrud | cyberpunk | cycle | cycle crunch | cycle drought | cycle of reincarnation | cycle server | cypherpunk | C|N>K | = D = | D. C. Power Lab | daemon | daemon book | dahmum | dancing frog | dangling pointer | dark-side hacker | Datamation | DAU | Dave the Resurrector | day mode | dd | DDT | de-rezz | dead | dead beef attack | dead code | dead link | dead-tree version | DEADBEEF | deadly embrace | death code | Death Square | Death Star | DEC | DEC | DEC Wars | decay | deckle | DED | deep hack mode | deep magic | deep space | defenestration | defined as | deflicted | dehose | deletia | deliminator | delint | delta | demented | demigod | demo | demo mode | demoeffect | demogroup | demon | demon dialer | demoparty | demoscene | dentro | depeditate | deprecated | derf | deserves to lose | desk check | despew | Devil Book | dickless workstation | dictionary flame | diddle | die | die horribly | diff | dike | Dilbert | ding | dink | dinosaur | dinosaur pen | dinosaurs mating | dirtball | dirty power | disclaimer | Discordianism | disemvowel | disk farm | display hack | dispress | Dissociated Press | distribution | distro | disusered | DMZ | do protocol | doc | documentation | dodgy | dogcow | dogfood | dogpile | dogwash | domainist | Don't do that then! | dongle | dongle-disk | donuts | doorstop | DoS attack | dot file | double bucky | doubled sig | down | download | DP | DPer | Dr. Fred Mbogo | dragon | Dragon Book | drain | dread high-bit disease | Dread Questionmark Disease | DRECNET | driver | droid | drone | drool-proof paper | drop on the floor | drop-ins | drop-outs | drugged | drum | drunk mouse syndrome | DSW | dub dub dub | Duff's device | dumb terminal | dumbass attack | dumbed down | dump | dumpster diving | dup killer | dup loop | dusty deck | DWIM | dynner | = E = | earthquake | eat flaming death | EBCDIC | echo | ECP | ed | egosurf | eighty-column mind | El Camino Bignum | elder days | elegant | elephantine | elevator controller | elite | ELIZA effect | elvish | EMACS | email | EMP | empire | engine | English | enhancement | ENQ | EOF | EOL | EOU | epoch | epsilon | epsilon squared | era the | Eric Conspiracy | Eris | erotics | error 33 | eurodemo | evil | evil and rude | Evil Empire | exa- | examining the entrails | EXCH | excl | EXE | exec | exercise left as an | Exon | Exploder | exploit | external memory | eye candy | eyeball search | = F = | face time | factor | fairings | fall over | fall through | fan | fandango on core | FAQ | FAQ list | FAQL | faradize | farkled | farming | fascist | fat electrons | fat-finger | faulty | fd leak | fear and loathing | feature | feature creature | feature creep | feature key | feature shock | featurectomy | feep | feeper | feeping creature | feeping creaturism | feetch feetch | fence | fencepost error | fiber-seeking backhoe | FidoNet | field circus | field servoid | Fight-o-net | File Attach | File Request | file signature | filk | film at 11 | filter | Finagle's Law | fine | finger | finger trouble | finger-pointing syndrome | finn | firebottle | firefighting | firehose syndrome | firewall code | firewall machine | fireworks mode | firmware | firmy | fish | FISH queue | FITNR | fix | FIXME | flag | flag day | flaky | flamage | flame | flame bait | flame on | flame war | flamer | flap | flarp | flash crowd | flat | flat-file | flatten | flavor | flavorful | flippy | flood | flowchart | flower key | flush | flypage | Flyspeck 3 | flytrap | FM | fnord | FOAF | FOD | fold case | followup | fontology | foo | foobar | fool | fool file | Foonly | footprint | for free | for the rest of us | for values of | fora | foreground | fork | fork bomb | forked | Fortrash | forum | fossil | four-color glossies | frag | Frankenputer | fred | Fred Foobar | frednet | free software | freeware | freeze | fried | frink | friode | fritterware | frob | frobnicate | frobnitz | frog | frogging | front end | frotz | frotzed | frowney | FRS | fry | fscking | FSF | FTP | -fu | FUBAR | FUD | FUD wars | fudge | fudge factor | fuel up | Full Monty | fum | functino | funky | funny money | furrfu | fuzzball | = G = | G | g-file | gabriel | gag | gang bang | Gang of Four | garbage collect | garply | gas | Gates's Law | gawble | GC | GCOS | GECOS | gedanken | geef | geek code | geek out | gen | gender mender | General Public Virus | generate | Genius From Mars Technique | gensym | Get a life! | Get a real computer! | GFR | gib | GIFs at 11 | gig | giga- | GIGO | gilley | gillion | ginger | GIPS | glark | glass | glass tty | glassfet | glitch | glob | glork | glue | GNU | gnubie | GNUMACS | go flatline | go gold | go root | go-faster stripes | GoAT | gobble | Godwin's Law | Godzillagram | golden | golf-ball printer | gonk | gonkulator | gonzo | Good Thing | google | gopher | gopher hole | gorets | gorilla arm | gorp | GOSMACS | Gosperism | gotcha | GPL | GPV | grault | gray goo | gray hat | Great Renaming | Great Runes | Great Worm | great-wall | Green Book | green bytes | green card | green lightning | green machine | Green's Theorem | greenbar | grep | gribble | grilf | grind | grind crank | gripenet | gritch | grok | gronk | gronk out | gronked | grovel | grue | grunge | gubbish | Guido | guiltware | gumby | gun | gunch | gunpowder chicken | gurfle | guru | guru meditation | gweep | = H = | h | ha ha only serious | hack | hack attack | hack mode | hack on | hack together | hack up | hack value | hacked off | hacked up | hacker | hacker ethic | hacker humor | Hackers (the movie) | hacking run | Hacking X for Y | Hackintosh | hackish | hackishness | hackitude | hair | hairball | hairy | HAKMEM | hakspek | Halloween Documents | hammer | hamster | HAND | hand cruft | hand-hacking | handle | handle | hand-roll | handshaking | handwave | hang | Hanlon's Razor | happily | haque | hard boot | hardcoded | hardwarily | hardwired | has the X nature | hash bucket | hash collision | hat | HCF | heads down | heartbeat | heatseeker | heavy metal | heavy wizardry | heavyweight | Hed Rat | heisenbug | Helen Keller mode | hello sailor! | hello wall! | hex | hexadecimal | hexit | HHOK | HHOS | hidden flag | high bit | high moby | highly | hing | hired gun | hirsute | HLL | hoarding | hobbit | hole | hollised | holy wars | home box | home machine | honey pot | hook | hop | hose | hosed | hot chat | hot spot | hotlink | house wizard | HP-SUX | HTH | huff | humma | hung | hungry puppy | hungus | hyperspace | hysterical reasons | = I = | I didn't change anything! | I see no X here. | IANAL | | ICBM address | ice | ID10T error | idempotent | IDP | If you want X you know where to find it. | ifdef out | IIRC | ill-behaved | IMHO | Imminent Death Of The Net Predicted! | in the extreme | inc | incantation | include | include war | indent style | Indent-o-Meter | index of X | infant mortality | infinite | infinite loop | Infinite-Monkey Theorem | infinity | inflate | Infocom | initgame | insanely great | installfest | INTERCAL | InterCaps | interesting | Internet | Internet address | Internet Death Penalty | Internet Exploder | Internet Exploiter | interrupt | interrupt list | interrupts locked out | intertwingled | intro | IRC | iron | Iron Age | iron box | ironmonger | ISO standard cup of tea | ISP | ITS | IWBNI | IYFEG | = J = | J. Random | J. Random Hacker | jack in | jaggies | Java | JCL | JEDR | Jeff K. | jello | jiffy | job security | jock | joe code | jolix | jump off into never-never land | jupiter | = K = | K | K&R | k- | kahuna | kamikaze packet | ken | kernel-of-the-week club | kgbvax | KIBO | kiboze | kibozo | kick | kill file | killer app | killer micro | killer poke | kilo- | KIPS | KISS Principle | kit | KLB | klone | kludge | kluge | kluge around | kluge up | Knights of the Lambda Calculus | knobs | Knuth | koan | kook | Kool Aid to drink the | kremvax | kyrka | = L = | lace card | lag | lamer | LAN party | language lawyer | languages of choice | LART | larval stage | lase | laser chicken | lasherism | LDB | leaf site | leak | leaky heap | leapfrog attack | leech | leech mode | legal | legalese | LER | LERP | let the smoke out | letterbomb | lexer | lexiphage | life | Life is hard | light pipe | lightweight | like kicking dead whales down the beach | like nailing jelly to a tree | | line eater the | line noise | line starve | link farm | link rot | link-dead | lint | Lintel | Linus | Linux | lion food | Lions Book | LISP | list-bomb | lithium lick | little-endian | live | live data | Live Free Or Die! | livelock | liveware | lobotomy | locals the | locked and loaded | locked up | logic bomb | logical | loop through | loose bytes | lord high fixer | lose | lose lose | loser | losing | loss | lossage | lost in the noise | lost in the underflow | lots of MIPS but no I/O | low-bandwidth | LPT | | Lumber Cartel | lunatic fringe | lurker | luser | = M = | M | M$ | macdink | machinable | machoflops | Macintoy | Macintrash | macro | macro- | macrology | macrotape | maggotbox | magic | magic number | magic smoke | mail storm | mailbomb | mailing list | main loop | mainframe | management | mandelbug | manged | mangle | mangled name | mangler | manularity | marbles | marginal | marginally | marketroid | Mars | martian | massage | math-out | Matrix | maximum Maytag mode | McQuary limit | meatspace | meatware | meeces | meg | mega- | megapenny | MEGO | meltdown network | meme | meme plague | memetics | memory farts | memory leak | memory smash | menuitis | mess-dos | meta | meta bit | metasyntactic variable | MFTL | mickey | mickey mouse program | micro- | MicroDroid | microfloppies | microfortnight | microLenat | microReid | Microsloth Windows | micros~1 | middle-endian | middle-out implementation | milliLampson | minifloppies | minor detail | MIPS | misbug | misfeature | missile address | miswart | MMF | mobo | moby | mockingbird | mod | mode | mode bit | modulo | molly-guard | Mongolian Hordes technique | monkey up | monkey scratch | monstrosity | monty | Moof | moria | MOTAS | MOTOS | MOTSS | mouse ahead | mouse belt | mouse droppings | mouse elbow | mouso | MS-DOS | mu | MUD | muddie | mudhead | muggle | multician | Multics | multitask | mumblage | mumble | munch | munching | munching squares | munchkin | mundane | mung | munge | | music | mutter | = N = | N | nadger | nagware | nailed to the wall | nailing jelly | naive | naive user | NAK | NANA | nasal demons | nastygram | Nathan Hale | nature | neat hack | neats vs. scruffies | neep-neep | | nerd knob | net.- | net.god | net.personality | net.police | netburp | netdead | nethack | netiquette | netlag | netnews | netrock | Netscrape | netsplit | netter | network address | network meltdown | New Jersey | New Testament | newbie | newgroup wars | newline | NeWS | newsfroup | newsgroup | nick | nickle | night mode | Nightmare File System | NIL | Ninety-Ninety Rule | nipple mouse | NMI | no-op | noddy | node | Nominal Semidestructor | non-optimal solution | nonlinear | nontrivial | not entirely unlike X | not ready for prime time | notwork | NP- | nroff | NSA line eater | NSP | nude | nugry | nuke | number-crunching | numbers | NUXI problem | nybble | nyetwork | = O = | Ob- | Obfuscated C Contest | obi-wan error | Objectionable-C | obscure | octal forty | off the trolley | off-by-one error | offline | ogg | -oid | old fart | Old Testament | on the gripping hand | one-banana problem | one-line fix | one-liner wars | ooblick | op | open | open source | open switch | operating system | optical diff | optical grep | Oracle the | Orange Book | oriental food | orphan | orphaned i-node | orthogonal | OS | OS/2 | OSS | OSU | OT | OTOH | out-of-band | overclock | overflow bit | overflow pdl | overrun | overrun screw | = P = | P-mail | P.O.D. | packet over air | padded cell | page in | page out | pain in the net | paper-net | param | PARC | parent message | parity errors | Parkinson's Law of Data | parm | parse | Pascal | pastie | patch | patch space | path | pathological | payware | PBD | PC-ism | PD | PDL | PDP-10 | PDP-20 | PEBKAC | peek | pencil and paper | Pentium | peon | percent-S | perf | perfect programmer syndrome | Perl | person of no account | pessimal | peta- | PETSCII | PFY | phage | phase | phase of the moon | phase-wrapping | PHB | phreaker | pico- | pig-tail | pilot error | ping | Ping O' Death | ping storm | pink wire | pipe | pistol | pixel sort | pizza box | plaid screen | plan file | platinum-iridium | playpen | playte | plokta | plonk | plug-and-pray | plugh | plumbing | PM | pod | point-and-drool interface | pointy hat | pointy-haired | poke | poll | polygon pusher | POM | pop | POPJ | poser | post | postcardware | posting | postmaster | PostScript | pound on | power cycle | power hit | PPN | pr0n | precedence lossage | prepend | prestidigitization | pretty pictures | prettyprint | pretzel key | priesthood | prime time | print | printing discussion | priority interrupt | profile | progasm | proggy | proglet | program | Programmer's Cheer | programming | programming fluid | propeller head | propeller key | proprietary | protocol | provocative maintenance | prowler | pseudo | pseudoprime | pseudosuit | psychedelicware | psyton | pubic directory | puff | punched card | punt | Purple Book | purple wire | push | = Q = | quad | quadruple bucky | quantum bogodynamics | quarter | ques | quick-and-dirty | quine | quote chapter and verse | quotient | quux | qux | QWERTY | = R = | rabbit job | rain dance | rainbow series | random | Random Number God | random numbers | randomness | rape | rare mode | | raster burn | rasterbation | rat belt | rat dance | ratio site | rave | rave on! | ravs | raw mode | RBL | rc file | RE | read-only user | README file | real | real estate | real hack | real operating system | Real Programmer | Real Soon Now | real time | real user | Real World | reality check | reality-distortion field | reaper | recompile the world | rectangle slinger | recursion | recursive acronym | Red Book | red wire | regexp | register dancing | rehi | reincarnation cycle of | reinvent the wheel | relay rape | religion of CHI | religious issues | replicator | reply | restriction | retcon | RETI | retrocomputing | return from the dead | RFE | rib site | rice box | Right Thing | rip | ripoff | RL | roach | robocanceller | robot | robust | rococo | rogue | room-temperature IQ | root | root mode | rot13 | rotary debugger | round tape | RSN | RTBM | RTFAQ | RTFB | RTFM | RTFS | RTI | RTM | RTS | rude | runes | runic | rusty iron | rusty memory | rusty wire | = S = | S/N ratio | sacred | saga | sagan | SAIL | salescritter | salt | salt mines | salt substrate | same-day service | samizdat | sandbender | sandbox | sanity check | Saturday-night special | say | scag | scanno | schroedinbug | science-fiction fandom | scram switch | scratch | scratch monkey | scream and die | screaming tty | screen | screen name | screen scraping | screw | screwage | scribble | script kiddies | scrog | scrool | scrozzle | scruffies | SCSI | SCSI voodoo | ScumOS | search-and-destroy mode | second-system effect | secondary damage | security through obscurity | SED | See figure 1 | segfault | seggie | segment | segmentation fault | segv | self-reference | selvage | semi | semi-automated | semi-infinite | senior bit | September that never ended | server | SEX | sex changer | shambolic link | shar file | sharchive | Share and enjoy! | shareware | sharing violation | shebang | shelfware | shell | shell out | shift left (or right) logical | shim | shitogram | short card | shotgun debugging | shovelware | showstopper | shriek | Shub-Internet | sidecar | SIG | sig block | sig quote | sig virus | signal-to-noise ratio | silicon | silly walk | silo | Silver Book | since time T equals minus infinity | sitename | skrog | skulker | slab | slack | slap on the side | slash | slashdot effect | sleep | slim | slop | slopsucker | Slowlaris | slurp | smart | smart terminal | smash case | smash the stack | smiley | smoke | smoke test | smoking clover | smoot | SMOP | smurf | SNAFU principle | snail | snail-mail | snap | snarf | snarf & barf | snarf down | snark | sneaker | sneakernet | sniff | SO | social engineering | social science number | sodium substrate | soft boot | softcopy | software bloat | software hoarding | software laser | software rot | softwarily | softy | some random X | sorcerer's apprentice mode | | source | source of all good bits | space-cadet keyboard | spaceship operator | SPACEWAR | spaghetti code | spaghetti inheritance | spam | spam bait | spamblock | spamhaus | spamvertize | spangle | spawn | special-case | speedometer | spell | spelling flame | spider | spider food | spiffy | spike | spin | spl | splash screen | splat | splat out | spod | spoiler | spoiler space | sponge | spoof | sporgery | spungle | square tape | squirrelcide | stack | stack puke | stale pointer bug | star out | state | stealth manager | steam-powered | steved | STFW | stiffy | stir-fried random | stomp on | Stone Age | stone knives and bearskins | stoppage | store | strided | stroke | strudel | stubroutine | studly | studlycaps | stunning | stupid-sort | Stupids | Sturgeon's Law | sucking mud | sufficiently small | suit | suitable win | suitably small | Sun | sun lounge | sun-stools | sunspots | super source quench | superloser | superprogrammer | superuser | support | surf | Suzie COBOL | swab | swap | swap space | swapped in | swapped out | Swiss-Army chainsaw | swizzle | sync | syntactic salt | syntactic sugar | sys-frog | sysadmin | sysape | sysop | system | systems jock | system mangler | = T = | T | tail recursion | talk mode | talker system | tall card | tanked | tape monkey | tar and feather | tarball | tardegy | taste | tayste | TCB | TCP/IP | TECO | tee | teergrube | teledildonics | Telerat | ten-finger interface | tense | tentacle | tenured graduate student | tera- | teraflop club | terminak | terminal brain death | terminal illness | terminal junkie | terpri | test | TeX | text | thanks in advance | That's not a bug that's a feature! | the literature | the network | the X that can be Y is not the true X | theology | theory | thinko | This can't happen | This time for sure! | thrash | thread | three-finger salute | throwaway account | thud | thumb | thundering herd problem | thunk | tick | tick-list features | tickle a bug | tiger team | time bomb | time sink | time T | times-or-divided-by | TINC | Tinkerbell program | TINLC | tip of the ice-cube | tired iron | tits on a keyboard | TLA | (TM) | TMRC | TMRCie | TMTOWTDI | to a first approximation | to a zeroth approximation | toad | toast | toeprint | toggle | tool | toolchain | toolsmith | toor | topic drift | topic group | TOPS-10 | TOPS-20 | tourist | tourist information | touristic | toy | toy language | toy problem | toy program | trampoline | trap | trap door | trash | trawl | tree-killer | treeware | trit | trivial | troff | | Trojan horse | troll | Troll-O-Meter | tron | true-hacker | tty | tube | tube time | tunafish | tune | turbo nerd | Turing tar-pit | turist | Tux | tweak | TWENEX | twiddle | twiddle | twilight zone | twink | twirling baton | two pi | two-to-the-N | = U = | u- | UBD | UBE | UCE | UDP | UN*X | undefined external reference | under the hood | undocumented feature | uninteresting | Unix | Unix brain damage | Unix conspiracy | Unix weenie | unixism | unswizzle | unwind the stack | unwind-protect | up | upload | upstream | upthread | urchin | Usenet | Usenet Death Penalty | user | user-friendly | user-obsequious | userland | UTSL | UUCPNET | UUOC | = V = | V7 | vadding | vanilla | vanity domain | vannevar | vaporware | var | vaston | VAX | VAXectomy | VAXen | vaxherd | vaxism | vaxocentrism | vdiff | veeblefester | velveeta | ventilator card | Venus flytrap | verbage | verbiage | Version 7 | vgrep | vi | videotex | virgin | virtual | virtual beer | virtual Friday | virtual reality | virtual shredder | virus | visionary | VMS | voice | voice-net | voodoo programming | VR | Vulcan nerve pinch | vulture capitalist | = W = | W2K bug | wabbit | WAITS | waldo | walk | walk off the end of | walking drives | wall | wall follower | wall time | wall wart | wallpaper | wango | wank | wannabee | war dialer | -ware | warez | warez d00dz | warez kiddies | warlording | warm boot | wart | washing machine | washing software | water MIPS | wave a dead chicken | weasel | web pointer | webify | webmaster | web ring | wedged | wedgie | wedgitude | weeble | weeds | weenie | Weenix | well-behaved | well-connected | wetware | whack | whack-a-mole | whacker | whales | What's a spline? | wheel | wheel bit | wheel of reincarnation | wheel wars | White Book | white hat | whitelist | whizzy | wibble | WIBNI | widget | wiggles | wild side | WIMP environment | win | win big | win win | Winchester | windoid | window shopping | Windoze | winged comments | winkey | winnage | winner | winnitude | Wintel | wired | wirehead | wirewater | wish list | within delta of | within epsilon of | wizard | Wizard Book | wizard hat | wizard mode | wizardly | wok-on-the-wall | womb box | WOMBAT | womble | wonky | woofer | workaround | working as designed | worm | wormhole | wound around the axle | wrap around | write-only code | write-only language | write-only memory | Wrong Thing | wugga wugga | wumpus | WYSIAYG | WYSIWYG | = X = | X | XEROX PARC | XOFF | XON | xor | xref | XXX | xyzzy | = Y = | YA- | YABA | YAFIYGI | YAUN | Yellow Book | yellow card | yellow wire | Yet Another | YHBT | YKYBHTLW | YMMV | You are not expected to understand this | You know you've been hacking too long when | Your mileage may vary | Yow! | yoyo mode | Yu-Shiang Whole Fish | = Z = | zap | zapped | Zawinski's Law | zbeba | zen | zero | zero-content | Zero-One-Infinity Rule | zeroth | zigamorph | zip | zipperhead | zombie | zorch | Zork | zorkmid

Hacker Folklore: This appendix contains several legends and fables that illuminate the meaning of various entries in the lexicon.


(E?)(L1) http://www.netzmafia.de/skripten/glossar
Jargon File

K

krysstal
WORLD Wide Web Communication

(E?)(L?) http://www.krysstal.com/worldww.html
Neben den rein sprachlichen Problemen sind viele ander Besonderheiten bei internationalen Angeboten im Internet zu beachten.
It's A WORLD Wide Web - Communicating on the Internet in English


L

lastplace
Web-Museum

(E?)(L?) http://www.lastplace.com/
Truly Virtual Web Art Museum

livinginternet.com
The Internet

(E?)(L?) http://www.livinginternet.com/

"An elegantly organized tour of the Internet, both fun and informative, a rare combination!" - Steve Crocker, invented the Internet RFC's.

History | Design | Use | Adv. | Keys | Sec. | Help | More | Internet Web Email Usenet IRC MUD's Lists

This site provides a free, comprehensive reference about the Internet and its main technologies, including the human history. It contains about 500 pages, 250 quotations from source documents, thousands of inter-site links, and hundreds of external links.

It was the first book published on the Web, on January 7, 2000, and updated August 25, 2015. Many thanks for input from many people that helped invent the Internet.


Erstellt: 2017-01

M

myipneighbors - My IP Neighbors

(E?)(L?) http://www.myipneighbors.com/
Hier kann man sehen, welche anderen Internetseiten vom Provider unter der selben IP-Adresse gehostet werden wie die eigene (oder eine beliebige andere) Internet-Site.


etymologie.info has the IP address: 213.83.63.53
593 found with the IP 213.83.63.53
...
(E?)(L?) http://www.myipneighbors.com/about.html

About MyIPneighbors Domiain IP Check Tool
For those on shared hosting, myIPneighbors IP search is a great way to find out who your neighbors are or just to see how many other websites your hosting company hosts your server.

Is your website packed into a crowded host with hundreds of other sites? Or is there questionable content being hosted side by side with your site? If so, it may be time to look for a better host.


N

netcraft.com
September 2014 Web Server Survey
A billion websites

(E?)(L?) http://news.netcraft.com/archives/2014/09/24/september-2014-web-server-survey.html

In the September 2014 survey we received responses from 1,022,954,603 sites — nearly 31 million more than last month.

More than a billion websites

This is the first time the survey has exceeded a billion websites, a milestone achievement that was unimaginable two decades ago.

Netcraft's first ever survey was carried out over 19 years ago in August 1995. That survey found only 18,957 sites, although the first significant milestone of one million sites was reached in less than two years, by April 1997.

Fuelled by the dot-com bubble between 1997 and 2000, the survey reached nearly 10 million sites by the start of 2000.
...
Rapid hostname growth has continued ever since, with the number of active sites increasing at a far gentler rate. Just under half of the hostnames in our June 2000 survey were active sites, whereas today, less than one in five are active — 178 million active sites in total.
...
New top level domains

Dozens of new TLDs were added to the Root Zone during this month's survey, including ".deals", ".healthcare", ".realtor", ".auction", ".yandex", ".city" and ".lgbt". Recent additions which have now started to experience growth in the survey include ".media", ".services", ".reisen", ".pictures", ".exchange" and ".toys". Each of these TLDs had only two or three sites last month, but all are now in their thousands.

The ".xyz" domain, which we mentioned last month, has outpaced all of the other new gTLDs after a Network Solutions promotion offering a free matching ".xyz" domain with each ".com" domain purchased. This month an additional 177,000 hostnames were found under this TLD, bringing the total number of ".xyz" sites up by 78% to 403,000. Even faster growth was seen among the ".??" (xn--fiqs8s) internationalised domain name for China, which grew by 181% to a total of 73,000 sites.


(E?)(L?) http://www.netcraft.com/active-sites/

How many active sites are there?

Motivation

The Netcraft Web Server Survey has run since August 1995, exploring the Internet to find new websites. Every month, an HTTP request is sent to each site, determining the Web server software used to support the site, and, through careful inspection of the TCP/IP characteristics of the response, the operating system.
...
Methodology

The front page is taken from each hostname on an IP address and then compared with the front page of other hostnames on the same IP address. Only sites with distinct content will be counted, such that unique content is counted once no matter how many domains and hostnames point at the site.
...


Erstellt: 2014-09

NSF-NET (W3)

"NSF-NET" steht für "National Science Foundation Net". Es wird 1990 geschaltet und läßt erstmals kommerzielle Angabote im Netz zu.

O

OSI Model (W3)

(E6)(L1) http://webopedia.com/quick_ref/OSI_Layers.asp
Die Abkürzung "OSI" steht für "Open-Systems-Interconnection".

The 7 Layers of the OSI Model
The OSI, or Open System Interconnection, model defines a networking framework for implementing protocols in seven layers. Control is passed from one layer to the next, starting at the application layer in one station, proceeding to the bottom layer, over the channel to the next station and back up the hierarchy.

OSI (W3)

(E?)(L?) http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/O/OSI.html


(E?)(L?) http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/I/ISO.html
"OSI" ist die Abkürzung für "Open System Interconnection". Dabei handelt es sich Standard der "ISO" (= "International Standards Organization") für weltweite Kommunikation. Es definiert das Design eines weltweiten Netzwerks mit Hilfe von 7 Kommunikationsebenen (Layern).

Bei den sieben Layern handelt es sich um:

(E?)(L?) http://www.webopedia.com/DidYouKnow/Computer_Science/2006/understanding_layers.asp


(E?)(L?) http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/O/Open_Source_Initiative.html
"OSI" kann weiterhin auch die Abkürzung für "Open Source Initiative" sein.

P

prettyloaded
Fortschrittsanzeigen

Hier findet man "Fortschrittsanzeigen" aus vergangenen (seit 2003) und jetzigen Zeiten langer Ladezeiten im Internet: Sanduhren, Fortschrittsbalken, Tachometer. Hier wird die Wartezeit zum Kunstwerk. (E?)(L?) http://www.prettyloaded.com/


Q

R

RFC
Request for Comment (W3)

"RFC" steht für "Request for Comment".

(E?)(L1) http://www.freesoft.org/CIE/RFC/
Requests For Comments, or RFCs, form the basis of the Internet's technical documentation. Conceptionally, the Internet is best thought of as a layered series of protocols, each of which is documented by one or more RFCs.
There are more than 2000 RFCs in existence, dating back to the formative stages of the ARPANET in the 1970s. Every RFC ever issued is included on this website. Newly published RFCs are mirrored here within 24 hours of their appearance on ftp.isi.edu.
Most RFCs are available as large text files, with graphics made out of typewriter characters. Some RFCs presented here have been broken down into smaller sections and converted into an HTML format for presentation over the Web. Care has been taken to preserve the content of the RFCs throughout, and the original text version of each RFC is available via a hyperlink from its Table of Contents.

The on-line search engine provides a full text search of all RFCs.

The RFC index (544 KB) lists all the RFCs, with hyperlinks.

(E?)(L?) http://www.rfc.net/
Die TCP/IP-Protokolle entwickelten sich nicht als Standards, die durch eine Institution entsprechend der DIN festgelegt wurden. Die einzelnen Protokolle entwickelten sich unkoordiniert in einzelnen Arbeitsgruppen unterschiedlicher Zusammensetzung. Die ergebnisse wurden dann dem Fachpublikum vorgelegt mit der 'Bitte um Kommentare'. Daraus ergab sich der Name "Request For Comments".

Mittlerweile hat das Verfahren selbst einen festgelegten Ablauf um ein Dokument zu einem RFC zu machen. Die Verwaltung hat die ISOC (Internet Society) übernommen. Ein Internet-Standard für ein neues Protokoll muss immer von einer Beispielimplementation begleitet werden, um die technische Realisierbarkeit zu beweisen.

Der erste "RFC" stammt vom 07. April 1969, als Stephen Crocker einen Artikel zum Thema "Host Software" schrieb und ihn mit einem "Request for Comment" versah. Er wollte seinen Beitrag lediglich als Diskussionsgrundlage verstanden wissen. Bis heute werden mit "RFC" Dokumente bezeichnet, die eine Technik mit Bezug zum Internet beschreiben.

Alle Internet-Standards beruhen seither auf "RFC"s. Allerdings sind nicht alle RFCs auch Internet-Standards!

Verwaltet werden die RFC von der IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force). Die reinen Textdokument werden fortlaufend nummeriert. Jeder Benutzer kann prinzipiell einen RFC einreichen. Dieser muss bestimmte formale Vorgaben erfüllen (festgelegt in RFC 2223 - "Instructions to RFC Authors") und durchläuft einen festgelegten Abstimmungsprozess. Er wird als "Internet Draft" bei der IETF eingereicht, kann dann zum "Proposed Standard" avancieren und schliesslich zum offiziellen Standard werden. Dann erhält der RFC zusätzlich eine fortlaufende STD-Nummer (z.B. hat POP3 die STD 53).

Seltsamerweise haben viele heute gebräuchlichen Verfahren noch keinen offiziellen Status erreicht. So liegt zum Beispiel das HTTP-Protokoll nach wie vor nur als "Draft Status" vor. Von den über 3.000 RFC haben bisher lediglich 61 eine STD-Nummer.

Der Status aller RCFs kann wiederum im RFC 3300 mit der STD 0001 nachgeschlagen werden.

Dass die Internetgemeinde nicht alles überernst nimmt zeigen RFCs wie der RFC 1121, in dem es um Gedichte geht und RFC 2324, in dem es um das "Coffee Pot Control Protokoll" geht. Diese RFC haben allerdings lediglich den Status "Informational".
Die Klassifizierung "Experimental" steht für Dokumente, die aus der Forschung stammen und vorerst kein Standard werden sollen. Nicht mehr aktuelle RFC kommen in die Kategorie "Historic".
Die unter dem angegebenen Link herunterladbaren RFC kommen gepackt auf 50MB.
Ein Standard durchläuft die Phasen "Working Draft", "Candidate Recommendation", "Proposed Recommendation" bevor er schliesslich als "Recommendation" zum offiziellen Standard wird.

Ein paar Beispiele zu den Internet-Standards:

(E?)(L?) http://www.denic.de/doc/rfc/


(E?)(L?) ftp://ftp.denic.de/pub/rfc/
RFC-Archiv: Auch bei der DENIC gibt es eine Auswahl an RFCs. Hier finden Sie eine Liste diverser RFCs, die das Themenfeld Domainnamen, Domainverwaltung und DNS-Software behandeln.

Wenn Sie einen anderen RFC suchen, dann können Sie das RFC-Archiv auf dem FTP-Server benutzen.

(E?)(L1) http://www.edition-w3c.de/
Hier findet man übersetzte und Kommentierte RFC.

(E3)(L1) http://www.jargon.net/jargonfile/t/TheJargonLexicon.html


(E?)(L1) http://www.netzmafia.de/rfc/
RFCs und Internet Drafts - Internet Drafts posted until 13.03.2001 - RFC 1 through RFC 3081 (March 2001)

(E?)(L?) http://www.rfc-editor.org/


(E?)(L1) http://www.www-kurs.de/


rfc-editor
RFC Editor
Request for Comments
RFC Index Search Engine
Request for Comments Index (RFC)

(E?)(L1) http://www.rfc-editor.org/
Gesamtübersicht über die Requests for Comment (RFCs) (in Englisch)
Internet-Drafts, IEN- und IETF-Dokumente mit Suche


Funded by the Internet Society to edit and publish RFCs online. The RFC Editor maintains the master repository of RFCs as well as RFC meta-data, which can be searched online. The search results include the meta-data, links to the RFC text itself, and links to any errata.

The Requests for Comments (RFC) document series is a set of technical and organizational notes about the Internet (originally the ARPANET), beginning in 1969. Memos in the RFC series discuss many aspects of computer networking, including protocols, procedures, programs, and concepts, as well as meeting notes, opinions, and sometimes humor. For more information on the history of the RFC series, see "30 years of RFCs".

The official specification documents of the Internet Protocol suite that are defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and the Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG ) are recorded and published as standards track RFCs. As a result, the RFC publication process plays an important role in the Internet standards process. RFCs must first be published as Internet Drafts.

The RFC Editor is the publisher of the RFCs and is responsible for the final editorial review of the documents. The RFC Editor also maintains a master file of RFCs called the "RFC Index", which can be searched online. For nearly 30 years, The RFC Editor was Jon Postel; today the RFC Editor is a small group funded by the


Perform Another Search :


        Search for :
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Ein paar Beispiele zu den Internet-Standards:

(E6)(L?) ftp://ftp.rfc-editor.org/in-notes/rfc1945.txt
RFC1945 - HTTP-Headers - Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.0

(E6)(L?) ftp://ftp.rfc-editor.org/in-notes/rfc2068.txt
RFC1945 - HTTP-Headers - Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1

(E?)(L?) http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfcxx00.html

Official Internet Protocol Standards

This page shows the current definitions of STD and BCP numbers. It also lists those standards-track and BEST CURRENT PRACTICE RFCs that have not been obsoleted, as well as current EXPERIMENTAL and HISTORIC RFCs.
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc-index2.html

RFC Index
CREATED ON: Feb - 25 - 2009
o This file contains citations for all RFCs in numeric order.
o RFC citations appear in this format: Num Information #### Title of RFC. Author list. Pub date. (Format) (Obsoletes xxx) (Obsoleted by xxx) (Updates xxx) (Updated by xxx) (Also xxx) (Status: ssssss)
or
#### Not Issued.

o Key to citations:

(E?)(L?) http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc-index2.html
Num Information