Etymologie, Etimología, Étymologie, Etimologia, Etymology
@_ Welt, Mundo, Monde, Mondo, World
Linguistik, Lingüística, Linguistique, Linguistica, Linguistics

A

B

bbc
Linguistics, Speech & Semantics

(E?)(L?) http://h2g2.com/dna/h2g2/alabaster/C740
Auf dieser Seite findet man die BBC-Artikel:

bmanuel
Languages, computers and humanities
Corpora and Corpus-based Computational Linguistics
Manuel Barbera's Web Resources Reference Guide

(E?)(L?) http://www.bmanuel.org/




(E?)(L?) http://www.bmanuel.org/clr/index.html

Corpora and Corpus-based Computational Linguistics:
Manuel Barbera's Web Resources Reference Guide.
Welcome to Manuel Barbera's Reference Guide to Corpora and Corpus-based Computational Linguistics Resources on the Web (more shortly CLR Guide).

There are about 1600 exhaustively annotated files. Descriptions as a rule are taken directly from the sites they refer to and are only slightly adapted or translated into English. Usually I put a particular stress on the kind of availability (conditions, costs etc.) of the resources. Besides providing istitutional and general references, these pages aim principally to gather information on specific languages, especially the "exotic" and lesser known ones.
...
Index.

General Resources. Localized Resources.

(A-D) Afrikaans - Albanian - Albanian (Caucasic) - Arabic - Armenian - Australian lgs. - Awabakal (Yuin-Kuric) - Azerbaijani - Barbadian (Creole English) - Basque - Bengali - Berbice (Creole Dutch) - Bulgarian - Catalan - Chinese (incl. Cantonese) - Chiricahua (Apache) - Commonwealth Antillean Creole French - Commonwealth Winward Islands Creole English - Czech - Danish - Dutch (E) English (Modern) - English (Old & Middle) - Esperanto - Estonian (F-I) Farsi - Finnish - French - French Antillean Creole French - Frisian - Gaelic - Georgian - German - Gothic - Greek (Classic and Modern) - Gujarati - Gulf of Guinea Creole Portuguese - Guyana Creole English - Guyanais (Creole French) - Haitian (Creole French) - Hebrew - Hindi - Hungarian - Icelandic (incl. Old Norse) - Indoeuropean - Indonesian - Irish (incl. Ogamic, Old & Middle Irish) - Italian (J-R) Jamaican Creole English - Japanese - Karelian - Korean - Krio (Sierra Leone Creole English) - Kru (Liberian Pidgin English) - Latin - Latvian - Lithuanian - Livonian - Louisiana Creole French - Macaísta (Macau Creole Portuguese) - Malay - Maltese - Mambila - Manx - Mari (Eastern Meadow) - Mauritian Creole (Isle de France CF) - Mescalero (Apache) - Miskito Creole English - Mitchif (French-Cree mixed language) - Nahuatl - Neapolitan - - Norwegian - Occitan - Palenquero (Creole Spanish) - Panjabi - Polish - Portuguese (incl. Brazilian & Galego-Portuguese) - Romanian - Russian (S-Z) Sardinian - Saxon (Old) - Scots - Serbo-Croate - Singhalese - Slavonian (Old Church Slavonian) - Slovak - Slovene - Spanish - Swahili - Swedish - Tagalog - Taino - Tamil - Tetun (East Timorese) - Thai - Tibetan - Tocharian (A & B) - Tok Pisin (Creole English) - Turkish - Ukrainian - Upper Guinea Creole Portuguese - Urdu - Uzbek - Veps - Vietnamese - Virgin Islands Creole English - Welsh - West African Pidgin English.


buske
Sprachwissenschaft

(E?)(L?) http://www.buske.de/
FREMDE SPRACHEN:
Albanisch | Amharisch | Arabisch | Armenisch | Baskisch | Bretonisch | Bulgarisch | Chinesisch | Esperanto | Finnisch | Griechisch | Hausa | Hebräisch | Hindi | Indonesisch | Irisch | Iraqw | Isländisch | Italienisch | Japanisch | Jiddisch | Komorisch | Koreanisch | Kroatisch-Serbisch | Laotisch | Latein | Lettisch | Madagassisch | Niederländisch | Norwegisch | Oromo | Pali | Persisch | Plattdeutsch | Polnisch | Rotwelsch | Rumänisch | Russisch | Saamisch (Lappisch) | Sakai | Sanskrit | Schona | Schwedisch | Somali | Spanisch | Tetum | Thai | Tibetisch | Tschechisch | Tscheremissisch | Türkisch | Ukrainisch | Ungarisch | Vietnamesisch | Walisisch | Weißrussisch

C

christianlehmann
On the theoretical bases of genetic language comparison

(E?)(L?) http://www.christianlehmann.eu/


(E?)(L?) http://www.christianlehmann.eu/publ/Method_genetic_comparison.pdf
19-seitiges PDF-Dokument

ciep
Ventre International d'études pédagogique
EXCURSUS: Une étymologie globale?

(E2)(L2) http://www.ciep.fr/reform/genetique/genetique40.htm
Auf dieser Seite findet man eine kleine Tabelle, die ein paar Grundbegriffe in verschiedenen Sprachen nebeneinanderstellt: Unter "Pour en savoir plus" findet man einige Literaturempfehlungen und einige vielversprechende Links.

D

E

economist
How well does the world wide web represent human language?
WWW and human language

(E?)(L?) http://www.economist.com/science/displayStory.cfm?story_id=3576374

...
LINGUISTS must often correct lay people's misconceptions of what they do. Their job is not to be experts in "correct" grammar, ready at any moment to smack your wrist for a split infinitive. What they seek are the underlying rules of how language works in the minds and mouths of its users. In the common shorthand, linguistics is descriptive, not prescriptive. What actually sounds right and wrong to people, what they actually write and say, is the linguist's raw material.
...
The British National Corpus contains 100m words, of which 10m are speech and 90m writing. But it represents only British English, and 100m words is not so many when linguists search for rare usages. Other corpora, such as the North American News Text Corpus, are bigger, but contain only formal writing and speech.
...
Linguists, however, are slowly coming to discover the joys of a free and searchable corpus of maybe 10 trillion words that is available to anyone with an internet connection: the world wide web.
...


F

G

googlelabs
Books Ngram Viewer
Wort-Häufigkeit seit 1500
Statistische Linguistik
American English
British English
Chinese (simplified)
English
English Fiction
English One Million
French
German
Hebrew
Russian
Spanish

(E?)(L1) http://ngrams.googlelabs.com/


(E?)(L1) http://ngrams.googlelabs.com/info

What's all this do?

When you enter phrases into the Google Books Ngram Viewer, it displays a graph showing how those phrases have occurred in a corpus of books (e.g., "British English", "English Fiction", "French") over the selected years. Let's look at a sample graph:
...


This shows trends in three ngrams from 1950 to 2000: What the y-axis shows is this:
of all the bigrams contained in our sample of books written in English and published in the United States, what percentage of them are "nursery school" or "child care"? Of all the unigrams, what percentage of them are "kindergarten"? Here, you can see that use of the phrase "child care" started to rise in the late 1960s, overtaking "nursery school" around 1970 and then "kindergarten" around 1973. It peaked shortly after 1990 and has been falling steadily since.

(Interestingly, the results are noticeably different when the corpus is switched to British English.)
...
Corpora Below are descriptions of the corpora that can be searched with the Google Books Ngram Viewer. All of these corpora were generated in July 2009; we will update these corpora as our book scanning continues, and the updated versions will have distinct persistent identifiers.
...


(E?)(L?) http://ngrams.googlelabs.com/graph?content=Etymology&year_start=1500&year_end=2000&corpus=0&smoothing=3
Mit dem "N-gram Viewer" kann man erkennen, dass die "Hochzeit" des Wortes engl. "Etymology" in der Literatur um das Jahr 1730 lag.

(E?)(L?) http://ngrams.googlelabs.com/graph?content=Etymologie&year_start=1500&year_end=2008&corpus=8&smoothing=3
Die "Hochzeit" von dt. "Etymologie" lag ein etwa um 1820.

(E?)(L?) http://www.culturomics.org/


(E?)(L?) http://www.culturomics.org/Resources/A-users-guide-to-culturomics

The Google Labs N-gram Viewer is the first tool of its kind, capable of precisely and rapidly quantifying cultural trends based on massive quantities of data. It is a gateway to culturomics! The browser is designed to enable you to examine the frequency of words (banana) or phrases ('United States of America') in books over time. You'll be searching through over 5.2 million books: ~4% of all books ever published!

There are lots of different things you can check, like your favorite word (Supercalifragilisticexpialidocious) or person (President Taft; Chief Justice Taft) or part of the holiday (Christmas Tree).
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.ritholtz.com/blog/2010/12/fun-with-google-ngram-viewer/

I’ve been playing around with the Google Labs NGram book viewer, and you can do some pretty big picture stuff with it.

I mean really big picture: As the NYTimes reported, Its a “mammoth database culled from nearly 5.2 million digitized books available to the public for free downloads and online searches, opening a new landscape of possibilities for research and education in the humanities . . . It consists of the 500 billion words contained in books published between 1500 and 2008 in English, French, Spanish, German, Chinese and Russian.”

Just punching in a few key terms over the past century yields some pretty interesting results:
...


Erstellt: 2011-01

H

I

J

K

ku-eichstaett
Bibliography of Onomasiological Works

(E?)(L1) http://www1.ku-eichstaett.de/SLF/EngluVglSW/OnOn-7.pdf


(E?)(L1) http://www1.ku-eichstaett.de/SLF/EngluVglSW/OnOn-4.pdf
78-seitige Literaturliste zur Bezeichnungslehre - jede Literaturangabe umfasst 2-4 Zeilen.


(last updated: 11 July 2005)
compiled by Joachim Grzega

This bibliography of diachronic onomasiological non-OnOn studies on specific concepts must be understood as work in progress and will be enlarged on a constant basis. Anybody who wants to complement or correct this list of bibliographical works is more than welcome. You can search for concepts, languages, authors etc. if you click the binoculars symbol above. After each entry I have indicated the language(s) [L] and concept(s) [C] the works are dealing with (in American English spelling). As long as this list is not complete yet (for the moment it rather lists more recent works), one should also consult the following bibliographies. The most recent bibliography on historical lexicology in the Indo-European area is the one by Frank Heidermanns (2005), Bibliographie zur indogermanischen Wortforschung, Tübingen: Niemeyer.

For the French area I would like to point out the contribution by Ralph de Gorog (1973), "Bibliographie des études de l’onomasiologie dans le domaine du français", Revue de linguistique romane 37: 419-446;
for the Italian and Rhaeto-Romance domain the linguist is also provided with the contribution by Loredana Corrà (1981), "Contributo alla bibliografia onomasiologica: Dominio italiano", in: Cortelazzo, Manlio (ed.), La Ricerca Dialettale II, Pisa: Pacini, p. 393-478 (listing contributions on the various maps of the Italian linguistic atlas AIS), and Glauco Sanga (1987), Karl Jaberg/Jakob Jud: AIS - Atlante linguistico ed etnografico dell’Italia e della Svizzera meridionale, vol. 2: Scelta di carte commentate, Milano: Unicopli;
for Latin there is the fourvolume work by Otto Hiltbrunner (ed.) (1981-1992), Bibliographie zur lateinischen Wortforschung, Bern/München;
for the German area the reader may want to consult the bibliography by Helmut Gipper and Hans Schwarz (1962ff.), Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung, Köln/Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag (vol. 2,2), as well as the bibliography by Peter von Polenz (1963), "Arbeiten zum Deutschen Wortatlas", in: Schmitt, Ludwig E. (ed.), Deutsche Wortforschung in europäischen Bezügen, vol. 2, Gießen: Schmitz, p. 525-548;
for English the reader may also consult the etymological bibliography by Vic Strite (1989), Old English Semantic Field Studies, New York: Peter Lang, and the one by Louise Sylvester / Jane Roberts (2000), Middle English Word Studies: A Word and Author Index, Woodbridge: Brewer [its onomasiological entries are already included here].
For onomasiological works before 1950–especially for the Romance and West Germanic area - see the German index in the dissertation by Bruno Quadri (1952), Aufgaben und Methoden der onomasiologischen Darstellung: Eine entwicklungsgeschichtliche Darstellung, [Romanica Helvetica 37], Bern: Francke.


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M

mpg
Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology
Department of Linguistics

(E?)(L?) http://www.eva.mpg.de/lingua/index.php

Led by Bernard Comrie, the Department of Linguistics studies the diversity of human language and the historical processes underlying this diversity. The researchers are interested in “language universals”, i.e. properties that are common to all human languages, and “language typology”, i.e. properties in which languages differ from each other. Why are language universals and cross-linguistic variation the way they are? To this end, various phenomena across a wide range of languages are studied, and reference is made to formal properties of language, to the cognitive bases of languages, and to aspects of language in use. Grammatical and lexical features are studied, taking into account regional peculiarities, therefore, field work is an important tool of linguistic research.




N

nativeweb
Resources for Indigenous Cultures around the World

(E?)(L?) http://www.nativeweb.org/resources/languages_linguistics/


(E?)(L?) http://www.nativeweb.org/resources/

Internet Links - Resource Database

Resource Database Sub-Categories: Anthropology & Archeology


(E?)(L?) http://www.nativeweb.org/resources.php?type=1

Nations Index - 5380 Total Listings Available! Resource Database Sub-Categories:

Abenaki | Aberesh | Acadians | Accohannock | Achumawi | Acjachemem | Acoma | Ainu | Akha | Akwesasne | Alabama-Coushatta | Algonquin | Alutiiq | Ani-Stohini - Unami | Anishinaabe | Anishinabek | Antai Aymara | Apache | Arapaho | Arawak | Arikara | Ashaninka | Assiniboine | Athabascan | Aymara | Aztec (Nahua) | Baka | Bantu | Barona | Basque | Berber | Bisaya | Blackfeet | Blackfoot | Bri Bri | Buryat | Caddo | Cajun | Caquinte | Carib | Catawba | Cayuga | Chamorro | Charrua | Cherokee | Cheyenne | Chichimeca | Chickasaw | Chicora | Chilcotin | Chinook | Chippewa | Choctaw | Chotanagpur | Chumash | Clatsop-Nehalem | Cochiti | Cocopah | Coeur d'Alene | Cofan | Coharie | Colville | Comanche | Confederated Tribes of Coos, Siuslaw and Lower Umpqua | Constance Lake | Costanoan | Cowichan | Cowlitz | Cree | Creek (Muskogee) | Crow | Dakota | Delaware | Dene | Ditidaht First Nation | Dogon | Echota | Edisto | Embera | Euchee | Evenki | Fernandeño/Tataviam | Flathead | Garifuna | Gila River | Gitxsan | Gros Ventre | Guarani | Gwitch'in | Hadzabe | Haida | Haudenosaunee | Havasupai | Hidatsa | Hmong | Ho-Chunk | Hoopa | Hopi | Houma | Huaorani | Huichol | Huron | Ilois | Innu | Inuktitut | Inupiaq | Inupiat | Iowa | Ioway | Iroquois | Jebeliya Bedouin | Kainai | Kalispel | Kanak | Kanaka Maoli | Kanienkehaka | Karen | Karuk | Kaw | Kawaiisu | Kawartha | Kawésqar | Khama | Kickapoo | Kiowa | Klallam | Klamath | Kogi | Koorie | Korowai | Korubo | Ktunaxa | Kumeyaay | Kuna | Kurdistan | Kwagiutl | Kwakiutl | Kwanlin Dun | Laguna | Lahu | Lakota | Lawa | Lemhi-Shoshone | Lenape | Lenca | Lenni-Lenape | Lisu | Lubicon | Luiseno | Lumbee | Lummi Nation | Maasai | Maidu | Makah | Maliseet | Mandan | Manobo | Maori | Mapuche | Mattaponi | Maya | Mechoopda | Menominee | Metis | Mi'kmaw | Miami | MicMac | Mingo | Miskitu | Miwok | Mixteca | Mlabri | Mohave | Mohawk | Mohegan | Mohican | Monacan | Montagnais | Montaukett | Muscogee | Naga | Nakota | Nanticokes | Narragansett | Nasion Chamoru | Naticoke | Navajo | Nez Perce | Ngarrindjeri | Nipmuc | Nisga'a | Nishnawbe Aski | Nlaka`pamux | Nungas (Australia) | Nuu-chah-nulth | Nuxalk | Nyoongar | Odawa | Ogoni | Ohiyesa | Ohlone | Ojibwe | Okmulgee (Creek) | Omaha | Oneida | Onondaga | Opata | Osage | Otoe-Missouria | Paiute | Palong | Pangasinan | Pawnee | Pechanga Band of Luiseño Mission Indians | Pehuenche | Penobscot | Pequot | Pima | Piscataway | Pocomoke | Pocumtuck | Pomo | Ponca | Potawatomi | Powhatan | Pueblo | Puyallup | Q'anjob'al | Quapaw | Quechan | Quileute | Quinault | S'Klallam | Sac | Sakha(Yakoutie) | Salish | Salteaux | Sami | San | Santee | Saponi | Sauk-Suiattle | Schaghticoke | Secwepemc | Seminole | Seneca | Shawnee | Shinnecock | Shipibo | Shoshone | Shuar | Shuswap | Sibirga | Siksika | Siletz | Sioux | Skokomish | Snoqualmie | Snuneymuxw First Nation | Songhees | Spokane | Squamish | Stillaguamish | Stockbridge-Munsee | Sukuma | Suma | Suquamish | Swinomish | Tachi | Taino | Tainui | Tamil | Tarahumara (Raramuri) | Taroko | Tewa | Thins | Tigua | Tionontati | Tiwa | Tlingit | Toba | Tohono O'odham | Totonacs | Tsalagi | Tsimshian | Tsnungwe | Tuareg | Tulalip | Turkic | Tuscarora | U'wa | Umatilla | Umpqua | Unkechaug | Upik | Upper Nicola | Ute | Uygur | Vuntut | Wabanaki | Wailaki | Wampanoag | Washoe | Wauzhushk Onigum | Wé | Wea | Wendat-Huron | Wenro | Wichita | Wikwemikong | Winnebago | Wintu | Wiradjuri | Wiyot | Wyandot | Xavante | Yakama | Yakima | Yanomami | Yao | Yaqui | Yavapai-Apache | Yoeme | Yokuts | Yolngu | Yuin | Yupik | Yurok | Zuni


(E?)(L?) http://www.nativeweb.org/resources.php?type=2

Geographic Region Index - 5380 Total Listings Available! Resource Database Sub-Categories:

Africa | America - Central | America - South | Arctic Circle | Asia | Australia | Australia - Torres Strait | Canada | Canada - Eastern | Canada - Northern | Canada - Western | Caribbean Islands | Chagos Archipelago | Europe & Russia | Greenland | Iceland | Mexico | Micronesia | Pacific - South | Pacific - Western | Polynesia | United States | US - Alaska | US - Central | US - Hawaii | US - Northeast | US - Northwest | US - Southeast | US - Southwest | US - West


N-Gramm (W3)

Ein "N-Gramm" ist eine Folge aus N Zeichen, beispielsweise ein Wortfragment. N-Gramme finden Anwendung in der Kryptologie und Linguistik, speziell auch in der Computerlinguistik, Computerforensik und Quantitativen Linguistik. Einzelne Wörter, ganze Sätze oder komplette Texte werden hierbei zur Analyse oder statistischen Auswertung in N-Gramme zerlegt.

(E?)(L?) http://www.brainlogs.de/blogs/blog/graue-substanz/2010-12-30/migraene-epilepsie-und-schlaganfall-im-google-ngram-viewer


(E?)(L?) http://www.brainlogs.de/blogs/blog/anatomisches-allerlei/2011-01-03/ngram-wiki-udn-die-ottergravieh

With Google’s new tool Ngram Viewer, you can visualise the rise and fall of particular keywords across 5 million books and 500 years!




(E?)(L?) http://recherchenblog.ch/index.php/weblog/analysetool_fuer_trends_google_ngram/
"Bibliothek" vs. "Bücherei"

(E?)(L?) http://thebinderblog.com/2010/12/17/googles-word-engine-isnt-ready-for-prime-time/


(E?)(L?) http://thebinderblog.com/2010/12/18/google-ngrams-thin-description/


(E?)(L?) http://thebinderblog.com/2010/12/21/how-to-fix-googles-word-engine/


(E?)(L?) http://languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu/nll/?p=1701


(E?)(L?) http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/N-Gramm

Inhaltsverzeichnis ...
Wichtige N-Gramme sind das "Monogramm", das "Bigramm" (manchmal auch als "Digramm" bezeichnet) und das "Trigramm". Das "Monogramm" besteht aus einem Zeichen, beispielsweise nur aus einem einzelnen Buchstaben, das "Bigramm" aus zwei und das "Trigramm" aus drei Zeichen. Allgemein kann man auch von "Multigrammen" sprechen, wenn es sich um eine Gruppe von „vielen“ Zeichen handelt.
...
N-Gramm-Name N Beispiel ...
Sei S ein endliches Alphabet und sei n eine positive ganze Zahl. Dann ist ein n-Gramm ein Wort w der Länge n über dem Alphabet S, das heißt .
...
Google-Korpus
Die Firma Google veröffentlichte im Jahr 2006 6 DVDs mit englischsprachigen N-Grammen, die bei der Indexierung des Webs entstanden. Diese sind jetzt allgemein zugänglich.
...
Die folgende Tabelle gibt eine Übersicht über die zehn (in dieser Textbasis) als häufigste ermittelten Trigramme: ...


(E?)(L?) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/N-gram

...
Contents ...


(E?)(L?) http://schplock.wordpress.com/2010/12/20/ngram/


Erstellt: 2011-06

O

onomasiology
Onomasiology Online (OnOn)

(E?)(L?) http://www.onomasiology.de/


(E?)(L?) http://www1.ku-eichstaett.de/SLF/EngluVglSW/OnOn-Total.pdf

a linguistic journal edited by
Joachim Grzega, Alfred Bammesberger and Marion Schöner
Last Updated: 17 January 2006
at the University of Eichstätt-Ingolstadt, Germany

Onomasiology is the branch of lexicology that departs from a concept or a referent and asks for the names bestowed to it by different speech communities (and their history). Many, if not every, professional linguists talking to the layman will hear questions like "how do people in A say for X, and why?" Onomasiology is thus at the heart of humans' interest in language.
In the realm of professional onomasiology the following problems arise.
Due to the rich quantity of modern linguistic working material (such as dialect dictionaries, minutely compiled corpora etc.), onomasiological studies, more than ever before, can and must investigate small dialect areas in a detailled way in order to gain valuable insights into the processes of naming and name-changing.
On the other hand, the wider view that fuses the results from the detail studies should not be neglected - especially with regard to new universal findings of cognitive linguistics.
...
Onomasiology Online, an online journal founded in March 2000 and edited by Joachim Grzega and Alfred Bammesberger from the "Katholische Universität Eichstätt", attempts to be this encyclopaedia, or data base. The ultimate goal of our journal is a vast collection of onomasiological detail studies from a vast number of languages which can then serve for drawing comparisons between different language groups. This can be of high interest, especially for cognitive linguists. Everyone working in the field on historical lexicology is therefore warmly invited to submit (even short) onomasiological contributions (cf. style sheet). The focus will of course be on practical studies, but theoretical contributions are also welcome.
...




P

Q

R

S

santafe.edu
Evolution of Human Languages

(E?)(L?) http://ehl.santafe.edu/main.html

Evolution of Human Languages

An International Project on the Linguistic Prehistory of Humanity

coordinated by the Santa Fe Institute


(E?)(L?) http://ehl.santafe.edu/intro1.htm

There are currently about 6000 languages on our planet, some spoken by millions, some by only a few dozen people. The primary goal of the international program known as EHL (Evolution of Human Language) is to work out a detailed historical classification of these languages, organizing them into a genealogical tree similar to the accepted classification of biological species. Since all representatives of the species Homo sapiens presumably share a common origin, it would be natural to suppose - although extremely hard to prove - that all or most known human languages also go back to some common source. The only way to proceed here is "bottoms up": classifying attested languages and dialects into groups, groups into families, families into "macro-" or "superfamilies" and so on, as far as one can penetrate using comparative-historical and cladistic methodology. Most existing classifications, however, do not look behind some 300-400 language families that are relatively easy to discern. This restriction has natural reasons: languages must have been spoken and constantly evolving for at least 40,000 years (and quite probably more), while any two languages separated from a common source usually lose almost all superficially common features after some 6,000-7,000 years.
...


Erstellt: 2014-10

T

U

unesco
Linguistic and terminological resources

(E?)(L?) http://www.unesco.org/culture/translationum/


(E?)(L?) http://portal.unesco.org/culture/en/ev.php-URL_ID=22214&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html
Hier findet man Links zu linguistischen Quellen.


We present in this section some links to linguistic resources that may be useful for literary or technical translation. We have included under this label links to different sites that contain reference materials and tools, classified according the working languages. As many states are composed by several linguistic communities and there are languages which are spoken in more than one state, the information may appear under different titles.

Terminological Data Bases Dictionaries, Glossaries and Other Terminological Tools Parallel Texts Amerindian Languages Arabic Armenian Avestan Basque Bengali Catalan Chinese Croatian Dutch Literature Translation English Finnish Guarani Hausa Hebrew Hongarian Japanese Korean Pashto Persian Polish Portuguese Sango Slovene Spanish Swahili Thai Turkish Urdu Vietnamese Yoruba Zarma African Languages Languages of the World


Uni Erfurt
Sprach-Rekonstruktion

(E1)(L1) http://www.christianlehmann.eu/ling/wandel/index.html


(E?)(L?) http://www.christianlehmann.eu/ling/wandel/rekonstruktion.php

...
Eine sprachliche Einheit zu rekonstruieren heißt, eine Hypothese darüber aufzustellen, wie sie war vor der Zeit, da historische Belege darüber vorliegen. Die Datenbasis einer Rekonstruktion sind stets diejenigen historisch dokumentierten Fälle, welche dem gesuchten Rekonstrukt zeitlich am nächsten kommen, d.h. normalerweise die ältesten Dokumente. Zur Rekonstruktion gehört notwendigerweise auch eine Hypothese darüber, wie die historisch belegten sprachlichen Einheiten aus dem Rekonstrukt entstanden sind.
...


Uni Laval
L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde
Langues dans le monde

(E1)(L1) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/

L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde

Par continent Par ordre alphabétique
Par langue
Par politique linguistique
Par peuple
Par thèmes Commentaires (en lecture seule)
Nos nouveautés
Nos liens
Historique du site
Collaborations spéciales
Recherche

Site hébergé par le "Trésor de la langue française" au Québec (TLFQ), Université Laval, Québec, 2012


(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/EtatsNsouverains/acces.htm

Les États non souverains


AFRIQUE DU SUD Le Cap-Occidental (cas particulier) afrikaans-anglais-xhosa Le Kwazulu-Natal afrikaans-anglais-zoulou Le Cap-Oriental afrikaans-anglais-khosa Le Cap-Nord afrikaans-setswana-xhosa L'État libre d’Orange afrikaans-khosa-sesotho Le Nord-Ouest afrikaans-anglais-setswana Le Gauteng afrikaans-anglais-zoulou Le Mpumalanga afrikaans-débélé-siswati-zoulou La province du Nord anglais-songa-sotho-tshivenda

ALLEMAGNE Land de Basse-Saxe allemand Land de Brandebourg allemand [+ sorabe localement] Land de Saxe allemand [+ sorabe localement] Land de Schleswig-Holstein allemand [+ danois/frison localement]

AUSTRALIE 1 Île Christmas anglais [± chinois] 2 Îles des Cocos anglais [± malais] 3 Île Norfolk anglais

BELGIQUE 1 Communauté française français 2 Communauté flamande néerlandais 3 Communauté germanophone allemand 4 Bruxelles-Capitale français-néerlandais

CANADA 1 Nouveau-Brunswick 1 anglais-français 2 Nunavut 2 angl.-franç. [±inuktitut-inuinnaqtun] 3 Québec 3 français [± anglais] 4 Ontario 4 anglais [± français] 5 Autres provinces anglaises anglais

CHINE 1 Hong-Kong chinois-anglais 2 Macao chinois-portugais

DANEMARK Groenland danois-groenlandais

ESPAGNE 1 Andalousie 1 castillan [± andalou] 2 Aragon 2 castillan [± aragonais] 3 Asturies 3 castillan [± asturien] 4 Baléares (îles) 4 castillan-catalan 5 Canaries (îles) 5 castillan [± canarien] 6 Cantabrie 6 castillan 7 Castille-et-Léon 7 castillan 8 Castille-La Manche 8 castillan 9 Catalogne 9 castillan-catalan 10 Estrémadure 10 castillan 11 Galice 11 castillan-galicien 12 Madrid 12 castillan 13 Murcie 13 castillan 14 Navarre 14 castillan-basque 15 Pays basque 15 castillan-basque 16 Pays valencien 16 castillan-valencien (catalan) 17 Rioja 17 castillan 18 Cité autonome de Ceuta 18 castillan 19 Cité autonome de Melilla 19 castillan

ÉTATS-UNIS 1 Îles Mariannes du Nord (État associé) 1 anglais-chamorro-carolinien 2 Porto Rico (État associé) 2 anglais-espagnol 3 Micronésie (FEM) (État non incorporé) 3 anglais [± chuukois] 4 Guam (territoire non incorporé) 4 anglais-chamorro 5 Samoa américaines (terr. non incorporé) 5 anglais [± samoan] 6 Îles Vierges américaines (terr. non incorporé) 6 anglais [± créole] 7 État d'Hawaï (USA) 7 anglais-hawaïen 8 État de la Louisiane (USA) 8 anglais 9 Autres États américains (USA) 9 anglais

FINLANDE Province d'Åland suédois

FRANCE 1 Corse (Europe) 1 français [± corse] 2 Mayotte (océan Indien) 2 français [± mahorais] 3 Nouvelle-Calédonie (Pacifique) 3 français [langues mélanésiennes] 4 Polynésie française (Pacifique) 4 français [± tahitien] 6 Saint-Martin (Antilles) 6 français 7 Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon (Amérique du Nord) 7 français 8 Wallis-et-Futuna (Pacifique) 8 français [± wallisien / futunien] 9 Autres DOM-TOM 8 français [± créole]

INDE 1 Jammu-et-Cachemire (cas particulier) 1 ourdou 2 Himachal Pradesh (cas particulier) 2 hindi 3 Panjab (cas particulier) 3 pandjabi 4 Uttaranchal 4 anglais-hindi 5 Haryana (cas particulier) 5 hindi 6 Rajasthan 6 hindi 7 Uttar Pradesh 7 hindi 8 Bihar 8 hindi 9 Sikkim 9 népali 10 Arunachal Pradesh 10 anglais 11 Nagaland 11 anglais 12 Manipur 12 manipouri (meitei) 13 Mizoram 13 mizo 14 Tripura 14 anglais-bengali-tripouri 15 Meghalaya 15 anglais 16 Assam (cas particulier) 16 assamais 17 Bengale occidental (cas particulier) 17 bengali 18 Jharkhand 18 hindi 19 Orissa 19 oriya 20 Chhattisgarh 20 hindi-chhattisgarhi 21 Madhya Pradesh (cas particulier) 21 hindi 22 Gujarat 22 gujarat-hindi 23 Maharashtra 23 marathi 24 Andhra Pradesh (cas particulier) 24 télougou 25 Karnataka (cas particulier) 25 kannada 26 Goa (cas particulier) 26 konkani 28 Tamil Nadu 28 tamoul 29 Chandigarh (T) 29 hindi-panjabi 30 Andaman-et-Nicobar (T) 30 anglais-hindi 31 Delhi (T) 31 anglais-hindi 32 Daman-et-Diu (T) 32 gujarati-anglais 33 Dadra-et-Nagar-Haveli (T) 33 gujarati-marathi 35 Laccadive (T) 35 malayalam-tamoul

ITALIE 1 Val-d'Aoste 1 italien-français 2 Trentin-Haut-Adige 2 italien-allemand - Province autonome de Bolzano - italien-allemand [± ladin] - Province autonome du Trentin - italien [± allemand ± ladin] 3 Frioul-Vénétie Julienne 3 italien [± slovène] 4 Sardaigne 4 italien [± sarde] 5 Sicile 5 italien [± sicilien]

MAURICE Île Rodrigues anglais [± créole ± français]

MICRONÉSIE (FÉDÉRATION DES ÉTATS) Chuuk anglais-chuukois Kosrae anglais-kosraéen Pohnpei anglais-pohnpéien Yap anglais-yapois-ulithien-woleaien-satawalais

MOLDAVIE 1 Gagaouzie gagaouze-moldave-russe 2 Transnistrie russe-moldave-ukrainien

NOUVELLE-ZÉLANDE 1 Îles Cook (Territoire associé) anglais [± maori des îles] 2 Île Niue (Territoire associé) anglais-niuéen 3 Îles des Tokelau (Territoire associé) anglais-tokelauien

PAKISTAN Province du Baloutchistan ourdou Province du Panjab ourdou Province du Sind sindhi-ourdou Province de la Frontière-du-Nord-Ouest ourdou

PAYS-BAS Territoires néerlandais d'outre-mer néerlandais-papiamento-anglais

PORTUGAL 1 Açores (îles) portugais 2 Madère (îles) portugais

ROYAUME-UNI 1 Écosse 1 anglais [± écossais] 2 Pays de Galles 2 anglais [± gallois] 3 Île de Man 3 anglais-mannois 4 Irlande du Nord 4 anglais [± irlandais] 5 Île Anglo-Normande de Jersey 5 anglais-français 6 Île Anglo-Normande de Guernesey 6 anglais [± français] 7 Territoires d'outre-mer (PTOM) 7 anglais

SERBIE Voïvodine (province) serbe, hongrois, slovaque, roumain et ruthène

SUISSE 1 Canton de Berne allemand-français 2 Canton de Fribourg allemand-français 3 Canton du Valais allemand-français 4 Canton des Grisons allemand-italien-romanche 5 Canton du Tessin italien 6 Canton de Genève français 7 Canton du Jura français 8 Canton de Neuchâtel français 9 Canton de Vaud français

TANZANIE Zanzibar swahili-anglais

UKRAINE Crimée ukrainien-russe



(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/familles.htm

Les grande familles linguistiques du monde


(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/famautres.htm

Les autres familles linguistiques


(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/origine-langues.htm

L'origine des langues


(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/Langues/acces_languesmonde.htm

Les langues du monde

SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 SECTION 4 LISTE DES TABLEAUX Le statut des langues


(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/Langues/LOIS-LINGUISTIQUES-index.htm

Lois linguistiques

Textes réunis (plus de 900), colligés et/ou traduits par Jacques Leclerc

La plupart des textes juridiques qui suivent correspondent à des lois linguistiques, mais plusieurs de ces textes sont des lois non linguistiques contenant des dispositions linguistiques. On trouvera aussi quelques textes de loi aujourd'hui abrogés, tombés en désuétude ou qui n'ont jamais été adoptés, mais ayant une certaine valeur historique ou idéologique.

Afrique du Sud GOUVERNEMENT NATIONAL PROVINCES Albanie Algérie Allemagne GOUVERNEMENT FÉDÉRAL LÄNDER Andorre Argentine Arménie Autriche Azerbaïdjan Bahamas Bangladesh Barbade Belgique GOUVERNEMENT FÉDÉRAL GOUVERNEMENTS COMMUNAUTAIRES ca-lingui Belize Bhoutan Biélorussie Bolivie Brésil GOUVERNEMENT FÉDÉRAL ÉTATS BRÉSILIENS Saint-Gabriel de Cachoeira (2002) - État de l'Amazonas Bulgarie Canada GOUVERNEMENT FÉDÉRAL PROVINCES CANADIENNES Chili Chine Colombie Costa Rica Croatie Danemark GOUVERNEMENT DANOIS GROENLAND Djibouti Équateur Espagne ÉTAT ESPAGNOL COMMUNAUTÉS AUTONOMES - Baléares Estonie États-Unis GOUVERNEMENT FÉDÉRAL ÉTATS AMÉRICAINS Europe (Conseil de l') Fidji Finlande France ÉTAT FRANÇAIS DOM-TOM - Collectivités territoriales Grèce Grenade Guatemala Guyana Haïti Honduras Hongrie Inde GOUVERNEMENT FÉDÉRAL ÉTATS INDIENS Indonésie Islande Italie ÉTAT ITALIEN RÉGIONS AUTONOMES PROVINCES AUTONOMES Jamaïque Kazakhstan Kenya Kirghizistan Lettonie Lituanie Luxembourg Macédoine Malaisie Malte Maroc Marshall (îles) Maurice Mexique Moldavie Monténégro Namibie Nicaragua Norvège Nouvelle-Zélande TERRITOIRES AUTONOMES Ouzbékistan Panama Paraguay Pays-Bas - Gouvernement central Pérou Philippines Pologne Porto Rico Portugal RÉGIONS AUTONOMES République tchèque Roumanie Royaume-Uni GOUVERNEMENT CENTRAL AUTORITÉS LOCALES Russie GOUVERNEMENT FÉDÉRAL Saint-Christophe-et-Niévès Saint-Vincent-et-les-Grenadines Sénégal Serbie Singapour Slovaquie Slovénie Sri Lanka Suède Suisse GOUVERNEMENT FÉDÉRAL CANTONS SUISSES Surinam Tanzanie Tchad Tadjikistan Tonga Turkménistan Turquie Ukraine Vanuatu Venezuela

Dernière mise à jour: 13 mai, 2012


(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/Nos_liens.htm

Nos liens sur l'aménagement linguistique

Documents juridiques Afrique Amérique du Nord Amérique du Sud Europe Francophonie / langue française Langues du monde

Dernière mise à jour de cette page: le 10 août 2010


Uni Laval
Famille eskimo-aléoute

Die Sprachfamilie "Eskimo-Aleutisch" findet man in Kanada, Alaska, Grönland und Sibirien.

(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/familles.htm


(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/amnord/cnddemofamindien_esk-aleout.htm




Erstellt: 2012-07

Uni Laval
Les familles amérindiennes en Amérique du Nord

(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/familles.htm


(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/fam-amerind-Nord1-carte.htm


Erstellt: 2012-07

Uni Laval
Les langues australiennes

(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/familles.htm


(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/fam_australienne.htm

Groupe


Erstellt: 2012-07

Uni Laval
La famille ouralienne

(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/familles.htm


(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/famouralienne.htm




Erstellt: 2012-07

Uni Laval
La famille altaïque

Der Altai ist ein Gebirgssystem in Zentralasien: in Kasachstan, Russland, China und der Mongolei.

(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/familles.htm


(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/famaltaik.htm




Erstellt: 2012-07

Uni Laval
Les langues bantoues

Bantu-Sprachen findet man im südlichen und mittleren Afrika.

(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/familles.htm


(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/fambantou.htm


Erstellt: 2012-07

Uni Laval
Les langues nigéro-congolaises

(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/familles.htm


(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/famnigero-congolaise.htm




Erstellt: 2012-07

Uni Laval
La famille sino-tibétaine (famille sino-thaïe)

(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/familles.htm


(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/famsinotibet.htm




Erstellt: 2012-07

Uni Laval
La famille chamito-sémitique (ou afro-asiatique)

Hamitosemitische Sprachen findet man in in Nordafrika, Nordostafrika und Zentralafrika.

(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/familles.htm


(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/famarabe.htm




Erstellt: 2012-07

Uni Laval
La famille dravidienne

Die dravidischen Sprachen stellen die zweitgrößte Sprachgruppe in (Süd-)Indien dar. Auch im Süden Pakistans sind dravidische Sprachen zu finden. Die Völker mit dravidischen Sprachen sollen vor den Indogermanen (etwa -3000) in Indien eingewandert sein.

(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/familles.htm


(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/famdravidienne.htm




Erstellt: 2012-07

Uni Laval
La famille khoïsane

Khoisan-Sprachen oder Khoi-San-Sprachen findet man im Süden Afrikas.

(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/familles.htm


(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/famkhoisane.htm




Erstellt: 2012-07

Uni Laval
La famille austronésienne

Austronesische Sprachen findet man in Madagaskar, im Malaiischen Archipel, Neuguinea, der Osterinsel, Taiwan und Neuseeland.

(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/familles.htm


(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/famaustro.htm




Erstellt: 2012-07


Uni Laval
La famille austro-asiatique

(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/familles.htm


(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/famaustroasiatique.htm




Erstellt: 2012-07

Uni Laval
La famille nilo-saharienne (ou nilotique)

(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/familles.htm


(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/famnilo-saharienne.htm




Erstellt: 2012-07

Uni Laval
Les familles papoues

(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/familles.htm


(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/fampapou.htm

...
On compte environ 800 langues papoues, principalement dans l’île de la Nouvelle-Guinée. Ces nombreuses langues sont dispersées en 26 familles papoues dont les liens de parenté ne sont pas tous évidents. En fait, chaque famille papoue est un isolat linguistique. Une demi-douzaine de ces langues sont même demeurées tout à fait inclassables.
...


Erstellt: 2012-07

Uni Laval
La famille japonaise

(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/familles.htm


(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/famjapon.htm


Erstellt: 2012-07

Uni Laval
La famille coréenne

(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/familles.htm


(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/famcoree.htm

...
La famille coréenne ne comprend qu'une seule langue: le coréen (78 millions de locuteurs). Il s'agit d'une langue isolée qui ne fait partie d'aucun groupe linguistique.
...




Erstellt: 2012-07

Uni Laval
La famille basque

(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/familles.htm


(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/fambasque.htm

La famille basque ne comprend qu'une seule langue, le basque (basque: euskera ; esp.: vascuense) parlé par moins d’un million de locuteurs au nord-ouest de l'Espagne et au sud-ouest de la France. Il s'agit donc en Europe d'un isolat linguistique situé au Pays basque.
...


Erstellt: 2012-07

Uni Laval
La famille caucasienne

(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/familles.htm


(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/famcaucasienne.htm




Erstellt: 2012-07

Uni Laval
La famille thaï-kadai

(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/familles.htm


(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/fam_tai-kadai.htm




Erstellt: 2012-07

Uni Laval
La famille hmong-mien (miao-yao)

(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/familles.htm


(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/famhmong-mien.htm




Erstellt: 2012-07

Uni Laval
La famille kordofanienne

(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/familles.htm


(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/famnigero-kordo.htm




Erstellt: 2012-07

Uni Laval
Les familles amérindiennes d'Amérique du Nord

(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/familles.htm


(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/famamerindien-Nord1.htm




Erstellt: 2012-07

Uni Laval
Les familles amérindiennes en Amérique du Sud

(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/familles.htm


(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/famamerindien-Sud2.htm




Erstellt: 2012-07

Uni Laval
Les langues paléo-sibériennes

(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/familles.htm


(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/fampaleo.htm




Erstellt: 2012-07

Uni Laval
Les langues créolisées ou pidginisées

(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/familles.htm


(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/famcreole.htm




Erstellt: 2012-07

Uni Stuttgart
Linguistics & Phonetics Worldwide

(E?)(L?) http://www.ims.uni-stuttgart.de/phonetik/joerg/worldwide/lingphon.html

Content

Institutions Indices: Things and Discussions Publication Databases FAQs Demos and Miscellaneous


V

W

X

Y

Z

Bücher zur Kategorie:

Etymologie, Etimología, Étymologie, Etimologia, Etymology
@_ Welt, Mundo, Monde, Mondo, World
Linguistik, Lingüística, Linguistique, Linguistica, Linguistics

A

Ameka, Felix K.
Dench, Alan
Evans, Nicholas
Catching Language
The Standing Challenge of Grammar Writing
Trends in Linguistics. Studies and Monographs [Tilsm]

(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110186039/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110186039/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110186039/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110186039/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110186039/etymologpor09-20
Broschiert: 662 Seiten
Verlag: Gruyter; Auflage: 1 (November 2006)
Sprache: Englisch


Synopsis
Descriptive grammars are our main vehicle for documenting and analysing the linguistic structure of the world's 6,000 languages. They bring together, in one place, a coherent treatment of how the whole language works, and therefore form the primary source of information on a given language, consulted by a wide range of users: areal specialists, typologists, theoreticians of any part of language (syntax, morphology, phonology, historical linguistics etc.), and members of the speech communities concerned. The writing of a descriptive grammar is a major intellectual challenge, that calls on the grammarian to balance a respect for the language's distinctive genius with an awareness of how other languages work, to combine rigour with readability, to depict structural regularities while respecting a corpus of real material, and to represent something of the native speaker's competence while recognising the variation inherent in any speech community. Despite a recent surge of awareness of the need to document little-known languages, there is no book that focusses on the manifold issues that face the author of a descriptive grammar. This volume brings together contributors who approach the problem from a range of angles. Most have written descriptive grammars themselves, but others represent different types of reader. Among the topics they address are: overall issues of grammar design, the complementary roles of outsider and native speaker grammarians, the balance between grammar and lexicon, cross-linguistic comparability, the role of explanation in grammatical description, the interplay of theory and a range of fieldwork methods in language description, the challenges of describing languages in their cultural and historical context, and the tensions between linguistic particularity, established practice of particular schools of linguistic description and the need for a universally commensurable analytic framework. This book will renew the field of grammaticography, addressing a multiple readership of descriptive linguists, typologists, and formal linguists, by bringing together a range of distinguished practitioners from around the world to address these questions.


(E?)(L?) http://www.degruyter.de/rs/bookSingle.cfm?id=IS-9783110186031-1&l=D&ad=nld

This is the first book to focus on the problem of writing grammars of little-known languages, a task of major urgency as linguists face the challenge of documenting the many endangered languages around the world. The chapters, all written by distinguished specialists, address the many questions the author of a reference grammar must tackle as they destil the regularities of a whole language into a single integrated volume.


B

C

D

Danesi, Marcel
Rocci, Andrea
Global Linguistics

(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110214059/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110214059/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110214059/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110214059/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110214059/etymologpor09-20
Gebundene Ausgabe: 270 Seiten
Verlag: Gruyter, Walter De Gmbh; Auflage: 1 (17. April 2009)
Sprache: Englisch


Kurzbeschreibung
Why do people from different cultural backgrounds often misunderstand each other even when they usea common language to interact? Why do arguments that we find reasonable not seem so to members of other cultural groups? Global Linguistics: An Introduction addresses these and other basic questions about language and discourse in intercultural communication, providing a solid and accessible introduction to "global linguistics": an interdisciplinary field combining insights from contact linguistics, pragmatics, conceptual metaphor theory and argumentation theory.

Über den Autor
Marcel Danesi, University of Toronto, Canada; Andrea Rocci, University of Lugano, Switzerland.


(E?)(L?) http://www.degruyter.de/cont/fb/sk/detail.cfm?id=IS-9783110214055-1

Produktinfo
The book provides an introduction to an interdisciplinary field of inquiry that can be called "global linguistics" (GL). GL emerges to tackle the ever-growing phenomenon of intercultural communication (IC) in today's world of international contacts. The specific aim of GL is to look at the form and contents of dialogues among speakers of different cultural backgrounds who will use a "default language" or koiné (usually English) to interact, in order to detect communication breakdowns at various levels of "depth", as well as the opportunities for developing sound intercultural communication practice.

The book includes an accessible presentation of fundamental questions concerning languages and language use. Among the questions addressed are the universal design features of languages, the connection between language and conceptual systems, how people use language to coordinate their actions and interact in a variety of social contexts, and the place of language in a semiotic view of culture. The volume also addresses how language, context and culture shape the way in which we argue a point and try to persuade other people, and why intercultural argumentation is both necessary and risky.

Global Linguistics: An Introduction describes fundamental notions in linguistics and cognate fields and is thus well-suited for use as a textbook in courses dealing with IC in general. At the same time, the book is of general interest to scholars in linguistics and communication studies, as it places particular emphasis on theoretical models such as argumentation theory and conceptual metaphor theory, which are generally not presented in textbooks on language and IC.


E

F

G

Gippert, Jost
Himmelmann, Nikolaus P.
Mosel, Ulrike
Essentials of Language Documentation

(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110188643/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110188643/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110188643/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110188643/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110188643/etymologpor09-20
Gebundene Ausgabe: 424 Seiten
Verlag: Gruyter; Auflage: 1 (1. Januar 2006)
Sprache: Englisch


Language documentation is a rapidly emerging new field in linguistics which is concerned with the methods, tools and theoretical underpinnings for compiling a representative and lasting multipurpose record of a natural language. This volume presents in-depth introductions to major aspects of language documentation, including overviews on fieldwork ethics and data processing, guidelines for the basic annotation of digitally-stored multimedia corpora and a discussion on how to build and maintain a language archive. It combines theoretical and practical considerations and makes specific suggestions for the most common problems encountered in language documentation.


Goddard, Cliff
Ethnopragmatics
Understanding Discourse in Cultural Context
Applications of Cognitive Linguistics

(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110188740/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110188740/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110188740/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110188740/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110188740/etymologpor09-20
Gebundene Ausgabe: 278 Seiten
Verlag: Gruyter; Auflage: 1 (1. Mai 2006)
Sprache: Englisch


Using cultural scripts and semantic explications, the authors show how speech practices can be contextualised and understood in terms of the values, norms and beliefs of speakers themselves. These fascinating studies cover a gamut of culturally shaped ways of speaking from settings around the world - Australia, China, Colombia, Ghana, Japan, and Singapore. The book also serves as an introduction to powerful new techniques for pragmatic analysis which have emerged from 20 years of cross-linguistic semantic research. ...


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Haarmann, Harald
Elementare Wortordnung in den Sprachen der Welt
Dokumentation und Analysen zur Entstehung von Wortfolgemustern

(E?)(L?) https://buske.de/studienbucher/elementare-wortordnung-in-den-sprachen-der-welt.html

2004. VI, 159 Seiten. (Früher 24,80 €).
978-3-87548-372-7. Kartoniert

In diesem Studienbuch sind alle Sprachen aufgelistet, deren dominante Wortfolgemuster ermittelt worden sind.

Mit dieser Dokumentation und ihrer Auswertung in den einleitenden Kapiteln steht eine solide Ausgangsbasis für spezielle Untersuchungen zur Verfügung.

Zum ersten Mal können maximale Eckdaten zur proportionalen Verteilung verschiedener Wortfolgemuster in den Sprachen einzelner Regionen der Erde vermittelt werden.

Aussagen über die Häufigkeit bestimmter Typen in Sprachfamilien, Sprachzweigen oder Kontaktregionen fallen nunmehr wesentlich präziser als bisher aus.

Zielgruppe: Studierende der Allgemeinen und Vergleichenden Sprachwissenschaft, Spracheninteressierte.

Konzeption: Diese Studie listet 1.420 Sprachen auf (rund ein Viertel aller Sprachen der Welt), für die dominante Wortfolgemuster ermittelt worden sind. Damit kann diese Dokumentation als Ausgangsbasis für Analysen zu speziellen Problemstellungen dienen. Zum ersten Mal können maximale Eckdaten zur proportionalen Verteilung verschiedener Wortfolgemuster in den Sprachen einzelner Regionen der Erde vermittelt werden. Aussagen über die Häufigkeit bestimmter Typen in Sprachfamilien, Sprachzweigen oder Kontaktregionen fallen hiermit wesentlich präziser aus, als dies früher möglich war. Zwar haben auch die hier formulierten Aussagen über Wortordnung provisorischen Charakter; angesichts der enormen geographischen und genealogischen Streubreite der Sprachen, die in die Dokumentation aufgenommen werden konnten, verdichten sich die Feststellungen zu syntaktischen Regularitäten aber und erhalten entsprechend mehr Gewicht im Vergleich zu früheren Studien mit eklektischer Materialbasis.

Inhalt: Einleitung – Absolute Häufigkeit und geographische Verbreitung von Wortfolgemustern – Die genealogische Ratio von Wortfolgemustern – Wortfolgemuster, syntaktische Relationen und sprachtypologische Charakteristik – Wortordnung im Licht der Sprachkontakte – Evolution, Sprache, Syntax – Wortordnung in den Sprachen der Welt (Katalog) – Namensvarianten – Bibliografie.


Erstellt: 2016-04

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Stammerjohann, Harro
Lexicon Grammaticorum
A bio-bibliographical companion to the history of linguistics

(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/3484730684/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/3484730684/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/3484730684/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/3484730684/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/3484730684/etymologpor09-20
Gebundene Ausgabe: 1740 Seiten
Verlag: Niemeyer, Max, Verlag Imprint der Walter Gruyter GmbH & Co. KG; Auflage: 2., erw. u. bearb. Aufl. (30. Juni 2009)
Sprache: Englisch

(E?)(L?) http://www.degruyter.de/cont/fb/sk/detail.cfm?id=IS-9783484730687-2

Produktinfo
Das Lexicon Grammaticorum ist ein biobibliographisches Nachschlagewerk zur Geschichte aller sprachwissenschaftlichen Traditionen der Welt. Ein Leitgedanke war, die Universalität des Nachdenkens über Sprache deutlich zu machen. Das Werk erscheint in englischer Sprache. Jeder Artikel gliedert sich in: Kurzdefinition, Darstellung von Leben, Werk und Wirkung sowie Primär- und Sekundärbibliographie.

Für die 2. Auflage wurden wiederum zwanzig Mitherausgeber bestellt, die in ihrem Forschungsbereich Artikel und Autoren vorgeschlagen haben. Die Mitherausgeber sind: Bernard Colombat (Paris, Frankreich), Dieter Cherubim (Göttingen, Deutschland), Tullio De Mauro (Rom, Italien), Steven Dworkin (Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA), Viktoria Eschbach-Szabó (Tübingen, Deutschland), John N. Green (Bradford, Großbritannien), Anne Grondeux (Paris, Frankreich), Robert Hammel (Berlin, Deutschland), Christoph Harbsmeier (Oslo, Norwegen), Caroline C. Henriksen (Roskilde, Dänemark), Werner Hüllen (Duisburg-Essen), Miklós Kontra (Budapest, Ungarn), Andrzej M. Lewicki (Lublin, Polen), Jolanta Mindak-Zawadzka (Warschau, Polen), Jan Noordegraaf (Amsterdam, Niederlande), Georges-Jean Pinault (Paris, Frankreich), Irène Rosier (Paris, Frankreich), Algirdas Sabaliauskas (Vilnius, Litauen), Sorin Stati (Paris, Frankreich), Vladimir Tikhonov (Oslo, Norwegen), Kees Versteegh (Nijmegen, Niederlande).

Auch unter den Autoren befinden sich einige der renommiertesten lebenden Linguisten. So ist diese Auflage gegenüber der 1. Auflage von 1996, die ca. 1.500 Artikel von über 400 Autoren aus 25 Ländern enthielt, durchgehend aktualisiert und um ca. 500 neue Artikel erweitert worden. Bei der Ausführung der Artikel wurde zudem auf größere Lesbarkeit geachtet, insbesondere durch Auflösung der Abkürzungen in den Textteilen.


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