Etymologie, Etimología, Étymologie, Etimologia, Etymology
@_ Welt, Mundo, Monde, Mondo, World
untergegangene Wörter, Archaismen, Arcaísmo, Archaïsme, Arcaismo, Archaism

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Doomsday (W3)

Engl. "Doomsday" = dt. "Weltuntergangstag", "das Jüngste Gericht", "Tag des jüngsten Gerichts", geht zurück auf altengl. "domes dæg". Im Mittelalter glaubte man die Welt würde 6000 Jahre nach ihrer Entstehung zu Grunde gehen. Und nach irgendwelchen mysteriösen Zeitberechnungen sollte das im Jahr 800 der Fall sein.

Ein engl. "DOOMSDAY seed vault" ist ein "Tresorraum zur Aufbewahrung von Samen" um sie nach einer globalen Umweltkatastrophe wieder zum Einsatz zu bringen.

Dem engl. "Doomsday" liegt engl. "doom" zu Grunde, das auf altengl. "dom" = dt. "Gesetz", "Urteil ", "Verurteilung" zurück geht. Das Szenario eines Weltuntergangs wird in vielen religiösen Texten heraufbeschworen, in der Bibel und im Koran. Auch in alten Mythologien wird dieses Szenario beschrieben. Aber auch aktuellen Darstellungen der Weltlage dient es als Vorlage für von Menschen verursachte Katastrophen.

Als Synonyme findet man engl. "Judgement Day", "day of reckoning", "Last Day", "Last Judgement", "Armageddon", "apocalypse", "end of the world".

(E?)(L?) http://geography.about.com/od/globalproblemsandissues/a/2012doomsday.htm

2012 Doomsday Scenario

Does The Mayan Calendar Predict the End of the World in 2012?


(E?)(L?) http://geography.about.com/od/globalproblemsandissues/a/2012doomsday_2.htm

2012 Doomsday Scenario - Continued

Does The Mayan Calendar Predict the End of the World in 2012?


(E?)(L?) http://www.atlasobscura.com/places/cartwheel-tower

Construction on December 5th, 1961
Washington, Maryland
'Cartwheel' Tower
Washington's top-secret Cold War-era doomsday communications tower is located in a small neighborhood park.


(E?)(L?) http://www.atlasobscura.com/places/cave-of-kelpius

The cave from the front.
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Cave of Kelpius
Here, “The Society of the Woman of the Wilderness," America's first doomsday cult, awaited the end of the world.


(E?)(L1) http://www.atlasobscura.com/places/the-prison-cell-of-ludger-sylbaris

The Prison Cell of Ludger Sylbaris
Saint-Pierre, Martinique
The Prison Cell of Ludger Sylbaris
The cell which saved the life of Ludger Sylbaris, "the man who lived through Doomsday"
Disaster Areas, Fiery Wonders, Anomalous Islands, Geological Oddities
13 Aug 2013


(E?)(L1) http://www.atlasobscura.com/places/barker-ranch-2

Death Valley, California
Barker Ranch
The location of the last stand of Manson's doomsday cult
Disaster Areas
21 Dec 2012


(E?)(L1) http://www.atlasobscura.com/places/dresden-codex

Dresden Codex
Dresden, Germany
Dresden Codex
To the great disappointment of doomsdayers, this codex merely contains records of the Moon and Venus
Marvelous Maps and Measures
21 Dec 2012


(E?)(L1) http://www.atlasobscura.com/search?utf8=%E2%9C%93&lat=40.77&lng=-73.98&q=Villahermosa&formatted_address=&source=desktop

Mayan 2012 Prophecy Carvings
Villahermosa, Mexico
Mayan 2012 Prophecy Carvings
This singular broken pillar, now housed in a museum, was the cause of a worldwide "Mayan Doomsday" phenomenon
Unique Collections, Lost Tribes, Incredible Ruins
21 Dec 2012


(E?)(L1) http://www.atlasobscura.com/places/banjawarn-station

BANJAWARN STATION
LEONORA, Australia
BANJAWARN STATION
An outback test site for the Aum Shinrikyo doomsday cult
Disaster Areas
20 Dec 2012


(E?)(L?) https://www.atlasobscura.com/places/box-canyon

Los Angeles, California

Box Canyon

The quiet canyon has a tumultuous history involving a doomsday cult. 
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.atoptics.co.uk/opa_halo.htm


(E?)(L?) http://www.atoptics.co.uk/fz879.htm

Doomsday Ellipse


(E1)(L1) http://www.bartleby.com/81/5227.html

Doomsday Sedgwick

William Sedgwick, a fanatical prophet and preacher during the Commonwealth. He pretended to have had it revealed to him in a vision that doomsday was at hand; and, going to the house of Sir Francis Russell, in Cambridgeshire, he called upon a party of gentlemen playing at bowls to leave off and prepare for the approaching dissolution.


(E?)(L?) https://www.britannica.com/topic/doomsday-cult-Year-In-Review-1997

Doomsday Cults: Year In Review 1997

Written By: Martin E. Marty

Last Updated: 2-8-1999 See Article History

Originally published in the Britannica Book of the Year. Presented as archival content.
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.ceiberweiber.at/index.php?area=1&p=static&page=sitemap




(E?)(L?) http://www.doomsdayiscoming.com/
Teaser site for Neil Marshall's Doomsday


Doomsday

From the director of The Descent comes an action-packed thrill-ride through the beating heart of hell! To save humanity from an epidemic, an elite fighting unit must battle to find a cure in a post-apocalyptic zone controlled by a society of murderous renegades. Loaded with ferocious fights and high-octane chases, Doomsday grabs you right from the start, and doesn't let go till its explosive end!


(E?)(L?) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=Doomsday

"Doomsday" (n.) Old English "domes dæg", from "domes", genitive of "dom" (see "doom" (n.)) + "dæg" "day" (see "day" (n.)).

In medieval England it was expected when the world's age reached 6,000 years from creation, which was thought to have been in 5200 B.C. Bede, c.720, complained of being pestered by rustici asking him how many years till the sixth millennium ended. There is no evidence for a general panic in the year 1000 C.E.


(E?)(L?) http://www.gutenberg.org/browse/authors/a

Archer, Lee: Lease to Doomsday (English) (as Author)


(E?)(L1) http://www.gutenberg.org/browse/authors/f

Finlay, Virgil, 1914-1971: Lease to Doomsday (English) (as Illustrator)


(E?)(L?) http://hirr.hartsem.edu/ency/doomsday.htm

"Doomsday Cult"

Name of first book dealing with what have come to be called "the new religions" or contemporary "cults."
...
The term "doomsday cult" has become a part of everyday parlance, being used regularly in the media to refer to apocalyptic religious groups.


(E?)(L?) http://science.howstuffworks.com/nature/natural-disasters/10-2012-doomsday-prophecies.htm

Top 10 Doomsday Prophecies


(E?)(L?) http://www.howstuffworks.com/doomsday-ark.htm

How the Doomsday Ark Works


(E?)(L?) http://www.ibiblio.org/lineback/words/sax.htm

Words of Anglo-Saxon Origin

"doomday", "doomsday" n. [domdæg, day of judgement]


(E?)(L?) http://www.investopedia.com/terms/d/doomsdaycall.asp

DEFINITION of "Doomsday Call"

A call option that is added to a bond and allows the issuer to redeem the bond early. The "doomsday call" is also referred to as the "Canada call" because bonds issued by Canadian corporations often include them. When the call is exercised, the issuer pays back the principal and accrued interest before maturity.


(E?)(L?) http://www1.ku-eichstaett.de/SLF/EngluVglSW/OnOn-Total.pdf



Concept "judge" [vb.] (21.16)
OE "deman"
ME "demen", "jugen" (- Fr., transitive late 13th c., intransitive 2nd half 14th c.) (fashion, social reasons, change in things)
EModE "deme" (early 17th c.), "judge"
ModE "judge", ("deem" only very arch.)

Notes:

Due to the introduction of French law, many legal have come into ME from French: "just", "justice", "crime", "vice", "trespass", "felony", "fraud", "adultery", "perjury", "court", "bar", "jury", "evidence", "charge", "plea", "heir", "heritage", "attorney", and many more.

Cf. also the next two entries.

Concept "judge" [sb.] (21.18)
OE "dema", "domere", ("domes man")
ME "deme" (15th c.), "domere" (only once, in 1175, acc. to the MED, otherwise only in the sense "someone who is judging", "judger")
"demere" (- "deme", 1225 - 1580) (fashion, desire for plasticity, logical-formal reasons)
"juge" (- Fr., 14th c.) (fashion, social reasons?), ("domesman")
EModE "judge", "deemer" (late 16th c.)
ModE "judge" (less technical: "doomsman")

Notes OE "demere" appears only once, around 950, so that the 13th-century formation "demere" must be considered a separate innovation. There is also a hapax legomenon ME "juger" (1450, cf. MED), but it is doubtful whether it actually refers to "someone who judges as a profession".

Cf. also the entries "judge" [vb.] and "judgement".

Concept "judgement" (21.17)
OE "dom"
ME "dom", "jugement" (Fr., late 13th c.) (fashion, social reasons, desire for plasticity?, logical-formal reasons?, analogy?, change in things?)
EModE "doom", "judgement"
ModE "judgement" (vs. "doom", which is restricted to one of its ME peripheral, metonymic senses)

Notes

Cf. also the entries "judge" [vb.] and "judge" [sb.].


(E?)(L?) http://listserv.linguistlist.org/pipermail/ads-l/2011-January/subject.html




(E?)(L?) http://listserv.linguistlist.org/pipermail/ads-l/2007-May/subject.html




(E?)(L?) http://www.moviemaze.de/filme/archiv/1.html

Doomsday - Tag der Rache


(E?)(L?) http://nancyfriedman.typepad.com/away_with_words/2012/11/index.html

November 19, 2012

Word of the Week: Prepper

Prepper: A person who is actively preparing for large-scale emergencies such as natural disasters and the breakdown of the social and political order. A more moderate and positive-sounding synonym for “survivalist.”

Preppers have been featured in at least two national newspapers in the last week. “For Preppers, Every Day Could Be Doomsday,” was published November 17 in USA Today:
...
The modern-day prepper movement has its origins in the Cold War, when American families were encouraged to stock personal fallout shelters for an expected nuclear attack.
...
The prepper movement has its own jargon, which is heavy on acronyms. One of the most popular terms is TEOTWAWKI, which stands for “the end of the world as we know it” and is pronounced tee-ought-wah-kee. (A Y2K glossary, still online, defines it as “shorthand for a predicted calamity involving the breakdown of society, whether due to Y2K or any other perceived threat.” The term was borrowed from the title of the 1987 song by R.E.M.)

The very extensive glossary on SurvivalBlog (“The daily web blog for prepared individuals living in uncertain times”) includes this basic prepper vocabulary: ...


(E?)(L?) http://channel.nationalgeographic.com/doomsday-preppers/

Doomsday Preppers


(E?)(L?) http://xlinux.nist.gov/dads//HTML/doomsday.html

"Doomsday rule"

Definition: An algorithm to find the day of the week for any date. It is simple enough to memorize and do mentally.

See also "Zeller's congruence".

Note: Invented sometime before January 1976 by John Horton Conway, the mathematician who also invented the computer Game of Life.


(E?)(L?) http://www.oedilf.com/db/Lim.php?Word=doomsday

Limericks on "doomsday"


(E?)(L?) http://openliterature.net/?s=doomsday
Auch bei Shakespeare findet man den engl. "doomsday":


Search Results for doomsday — 8 match(es)

Uncommercial Traveller

Title: The Uncommercial Traveller Author: Charles Dickens Source: Gutenberg Source URL: http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/914 THE UNCOMMERCIAL TRAVELLER CHAPTER I–HIS GENERAL LINE OF BUSINESS Allow me to introduce myself–first negatively. No landlord is my friend and brother, no chambermaid loves me, no waiter worships me, no boots admires and envies me. No round of beef or tongue or […]

Love’s Labour’s Lost

The Duke of Navarre persuades his three friends to foreswear with him the company of women, and to devote themselves to study. Almost immediately afterwards, the Princess of France arrives with her three female friends. It does not take the men too long to realise, in a three-way eavesdropping scene, each others’ attraction, and, having […]

Antony and Cleopatra

Antony and Cleopatra is possibly the grandest of the tragedies and the greatest of Shakespeare’s Classical plays. Offering the playwright’s own slant on Thomas North’s translation of Plutarch’s Life of Markus Antonius, and written probably in 1606–7, its epic sweep covers the fall of Mark Antony, one of the triumvirate of triumvirate of Rome’s leaders […]

Richard III

Outstanding for its violence and striking for its postmodern preoccupation with prophecy and the supernatural, Richard III renders masterfully one of the most disturbing episodes in later medieval English history. Though its main character, Richard, was unlikely ever to achieve a sympathetic memory, this play almost certainly cemented his popular reputation as an evil, egomaniac […]

Henry IV part 1

“So shaken as we are, so wan with care”: so King Henry IV, the former Bolingbroke, begins a play that remains half in the shadow of the regicide at the end of Richard II. The King worries about his son, whom he sees as a prodigal and liable to be supplanted by the far more […]

Julius Caesar

First performed in 1599, Julius Caesar is remarkable for being one of the best preserved of Shakespeare’s plays, not to mention one of only a very handful on which we have contemporary comment: Thomas Platter, a Swiss doctor from Basle, went to see an early performance and found it to be “very pleasingly performed” and […]

The Comedy of Errors

This is one of Shakespeare’s earlier plays, following The Taming of the Shrew, the Henry VI cycle and Richard III, but preceding A Midsummer’s Night’s Dream and Romeo and Juliet. It is also one of his funniest, but like all of his comedies there is a dark undertone. The story is deceptively simple. Two sets […]

Hamlet

Hamlet is probably Shakespeare’s best known play; a tragedy of monumental depth and linguistic brilliance. The play opens to an atmosphere of darkness and confusion. The scene is Elsinore; the royal castle of Denmark, where King Claudius and Queen Gertrude’s recent marriage has followed on the heels of the late King Hamlet’s funeral. In this […]


(E?)(L?) http://www.opensourceshakespeare.org/concordance/o/?i=769293

doomsday occurs 9 times in 9 speeches within 7 works.

Possibly related word: "dooms-day"
Users have searched 84 times for "doomsday" in Open Source Shakespeare.


(E?)(L?) http://www.owad.de/owad-archive-quiz.php4?id=1729

doomsday


(E?)(L?) http://www.owad.de/wav/doomsday.wav

doomsday.wav


(E?)(L?) http://www.photographyserved.com/Gallery/Weapons-of-Mass-Destruction/56260

Doomsday weapons: a photographic retrospective


(E?)(L2) http://www.plan59.com/av/av_03.htm

Doomsday, 1959


(E?)(L?) http://qntm.org/destroy

How to destroy the Earth


(E2)(L1) http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/doomsday

doomsday


(E?)(L?) http://retroreport.org/y2k-much-ado-about-nothing/

Y2K: Much Ado About Nothing?

The Y2K bug threatened to wipe out computers and disrupt modern society at the end of the 20th century. We all remember the doomsday hype, but what really happened?
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.shakespeareswords.com/Glossary?let=d

"doomsday" (n.) - "death-day", "day of judgement"


(E?)(L?) http://survive2012.com/

Survive 2012


(E?)(L?) http://www.themorningnews.org/archives/galleries/the_frightening_beauty_of_bunkers/

The Frightening Beauty of Bunkers will be of particular interest to aficionados of the doomsday architectural style.


(E?)(L?) http://search.time.com/results.html?Ntt=Doomsday&x=0&y=0

670 results [for "doomsday"]


(E?)(L?) http://www.trailerseite.de/trailer-dvd/dvd-a-z/dvd-c.html

Doomsday


(E1)(L1) http://www.visualthesaurus.com/cm/evasive/disposable-doomsday-daisies-and-other-freaky-phrases/

Evasive Maneuvers - Euphemisms old and new

Disposable Doomsday Daisies and Other Freaky Phrases

September 2, 2009

By Mark Peters
...
doomsday enthusiast

Enthusiast is a euphemism that does a bang-up job of tastefully and goofily describing kooks, fanatics, and freaks of all sorts. But the original enthusiasts put the current batch of sci-fi enthusiasts, yoga enthusiasts, toy-train enthusiasts, and soccer enthusiasts to shame; my overweight friend the Oxford English Dictionary defines the original sense as "Possession by a god, supernatural inspiration, prophetic or poetic frenzy; an occasion or manifestation of these."

So, doomsday enthusiasts — who I started reading about in stories about the cuckoo-for-apocalypse-puffs folks who think the world is ending in 2012 — are traditionalists in terms of lexical meaning as well as armageddon-ish crapola. Nice to see someone's getting back to basics, though I would like to point out that a person being a doomsday enthusiast makes about as much sense as a pig being a BLT enthusiast.
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.vocabulary.com/dictionary/phylum#word=D

"Doomsday" (New Testament) day at the end of time following Armageddon when God will decree the fates of all individual humans according to the good and evil of their earthly lives


(E?)(L?) https://www.wired.com/?s=doomsday

Archive for the 'doomsday' Category


(E?)(L?) http://www.wordorigins.org/index.php/site/comments/doom/

Dave Wilton, Friday, November 30, 2007

Doom is a very old word, dating back to the Old English period. But the Old English "dom" had a differerent meaning for those in medieval England was quite different than its meaning today. Back then it did not refer to fate or the apocalypse; rather it meant a "law" or "judgment" at trial.

The word appears as early as c.825 in the Vespasian Psalter with the meaning of a "statute", "decree", or "judgment":

Bioð afirred domas ðine from onsiene his. (Be afraid, in his presence [are] your dooms)

It could also mean a "legal judgment", as we see from this c.900 translation of Bede’s Ecclesiastical History of the English People:

Seon heo begen biscopes dome scyldige. (Both shall see the bishop’s doom of guilt.)

"Doomsday", or "dómes dæg", also dates to the same period, although again the meaning was "legal" rather than "apocalyptic". The famous "Domesday Book", compiled under William the Conqueror, was essentially a tax assessment, a "book of judgments regarding who owned what land in England".

By c.1200, "dom" had also come to mean the "judgment at the apocalypse". From the Trinity College Homilies:

Þenche we ure giltes er þe dom cume. (We think upon our guilt before the doom comes.)

In the 14th century, "doom" acquired the sense of "fate" or "destiny", usually in an adverse sense.

Lo þy dom is þe dygt, for þy dedes ille! (Lo, your doom is prepared for you, for your ill deeds!)

It wasn’t until Shakespeare, writing his sonnets c.1600, did the modern, sense of doom as "destruction" appear:

Thy end is truth’s and beauty’s doom and date.


(E?)(L?) http://www.worldchanging.com/archives/006042.html

Unveiling the Doomsday Vault Design
Sarah Rich, 9 Feb 07

Some of you may recall the announcement early last year about plans to erect a "doomsday vault" - a secure, industrial-strength seedbank on an island between mainland Norway and the North Pole, designed to protect the world's crop diversity in the event of massive planetary disaster. According to a New Scientist piece from January 2006:

It is being built to safeguard the world's food supply against nuclear war, climate change, terrorism, rising sea levels, earthquakes and the ensuing collapse of electricity supplies. "If the worst came to the worst, this would allow the world to reconstruct agriculture on this planet," says Cary Fowler, director of the Global Crop Diversity Trust, an independent international organisation promoting the project.
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/




(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=Doomsday
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "Doomsday" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1700 auf.

Erstellt: 2015-01

Doomsday Clock (W3)

Die engl. "Doomsday Clock" = dt. "Weltuntergangsuhr" erschien zum ersten Mal auf dem Titelblatt des Magazins "Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists" im Jahr 1947.

Die »Doomsday Clock« ist eine Uhr, die seit genau 60 Jahren anzeigt, wie nah die Menschheit gerade am Rande des Abgrunds balanciert.

(E?)(L?) http://www.pcwelt.de/news/Forscher-stellen-Doomsday-Clock-um-30-Sek.-vor-10113765.html

Wissenschaftler haben die Doomsday Clock um 30 Sekunden auf zwei einhalb Minuten vor zwölf vorgestellt. Nicht nur, aber auch, wegen Donald Trump.
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/doomsday-clock-set-at-3-minutes-to-midnight/

Doomsday Clock Set at 3 Minutes to Midnight

Humanity's failure to reduce global nuclear arsenals as well as climate change prompted the "Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists" to advance their warning about our proximity to a potentially civilization-ending catastrophe
...
The Doomsday Clock first appeared on a cover of the magazine in 1947, with its hands set at 11:53 p.m.
...


(E?)(L?) http://thebulletin.org/timeline

Doomsday Clock Timeline

IT IS 3 MINUTES TO MIDNIGHT

2015: "Unchecked climate change, global nuclear weapons modernizations, and outsized nuclear weapons arsenals pose extraordinary and undeniable threats to the continued existence of humanity, and world leaders have failed to act with the speed or on the scale required to protect citizens from potential catastrophe. These failures of political leadership endanger every person on Earth.” Despite some modestly positive developments in the climate change arena, current efforts are entirely insufficient to prevent a catastrophic warming of Earth. Meanwhile, the United States and Russia have embarked on massive programs to modernize their nuclear triads—thereby undermining existing nuclear weapons treaties. "The clock ticks now at just three minutes to midnight because international leaders are failing to perform their most important duty—ensuring and preserving the health and vitality of human civilization."

IT IS 5 MINUTES TO MIDNIGHT

2012: "The challenges to rid the world of nuclear weapons, harness nuclear power, and meet the nearly inexorable climate disruptions from global warming are complex and interconnected. In the face of such complex problems, it is difficult to see where the capacity lies to address these challenges." Political processes seem wholly inadequate; the potential for nuclear weapons use in regional conflicts in the Middle East, Northeast Asia, and South Asia are alarming; safer nuclear reactor designs need to be developed and built, and more stringent oversight, training, and attention are needed to prevent future disasters; the pace of technological solutions to address climate change may not be adequate to meet the hardships that large-scale disruption of the climate portends.

IT IS 6 MINUTES TO MIDNIGHT

2010: "We are poised to bend the arc of history toward a world free of nuclear weapons" is the Bulletin's assessment. Talks between Washington and Moscow for a follow-on agreement to the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty are nearly complete, and more negotiations for further reductions in the U.S. and Russian nuclear arsenal are already planned. The dangers posed by climate change are growing, but there are pockets of progress. Most notably, at Copenhagen, the developing and industrialized countries agree to take responsibility for carbon emissions and to limit global temperature rise to 2 degrees Celsius.

IT IS 5 MINUTES TO MIDNIGHT

2007: The world stands at the brink of a second nuclear age. The United States and Russia remain ready to stage a nuclear attack within minutes, North Korea conducts a nuclear test, and many in the international community worry that Iran plans to acquire the Bomb. Climate change also presents a dire challenge to humanity. Damage to ecosystems is already taking place; flooding, destructive storms, increased drought, and polar ice melt are causing loss of life and property.

IT IS 7 MINUTES TO MIDNIGHT

2002: Concerns regarding a nuclear terrorist attack underscore the enormous amount of unsecured - and sometimes unaccounted for - weapon-grade nuclear materials located throughout the world. Meanwhile, the United States expresses a desire to design new nuclear weapons, with an emphasis on those able to destroy hardened and deeply buried targets. It also rejects a series of arms control treaties and announces it will withdraw from the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty.

IT IS 9 MINUTES TO MIDNIGHT

1998: India and Pakistan stage nuclear weapons tests only three weeks apart. "The tests are a symptom of the failure of the international community to fully commit itself to control the spread of nuclear weapons - and to work toward substantial reductions in the numbers of these weapons," a dismayed Bulletin reports. Russia and the United States continue to serve as poor examples to the rest of the world. Together, they still maintain 7,000 warheads ready to fire at each other within 15 minutes.

IT IS 14 MINUTES TO MIDNIGHT

1995: Hopes for a large post-Cold War peace dividend and a renouncing of nuclear weapons fade. Particularly in the United States, hard-liners seem reluctant to soften their rhetoric or actions, as they claim that a resurgent Russia could provide as much of a threat as the Soviet Union. Such talk slows the rollback in global nuclear forces; more than 40,000 nuclear weapons remain worldwide. There is also concern that terrorists could exploit poorly secured nuclear facilities in the former Soviet Union.

IT IS 17 MINUTES TO MIDNIGHT

1991: With the Cold War officially over, the United States and Russia begin making deep cuts to their nuclear arsenals. The Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty greatly reduces the number of strategic nuclear weapons deployed by the two former adversaries. Better still, a series of unilateral initiatives remove most of the intercontinental ballistic missiles and bombers in both countries from hair-trigger alert. "The illusion that tens of thousands of nuclear weapons are a guarantor of national security has been stripped away," the Bulletin declares.

IT IS 10 MINUTES TO MIDNIGHT

1990: As one Eastern European country after another (Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania) frees itself from Soviet control, Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev refuses to intervene, halting the ideological battle for Europe and significantly diminishing the risk of all-out nuclear war. In late 1989, the Berlin Wall falls, symbolically ending the Cold War. "Forty-four years after Winston Churchill's 'Iron Curtain' speech, the myth of monolithic communism has been shattered for all to see," the Bulletin proclaims.

IT IS 6 MINUTES TO MIDNIGHT

1988: The United States and Soviet Union sign the historic Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty, the first agreement to actually ban a whole category of nuclear weapons. The leadership shown by President Ronald Reagan and Soviet Premier Mikhail Gorbachev makes the treaty a reality, but public opposition to U.S. nuclear weapons in Western Europe inspires it. For years, such intermediate-range missiles had kept Western Europe in the crosshairs of the two superpowers.

IT IS 3 MINUTES TO MIDNIGHT

1984: U.S.-Soviet relations reach their iciest point in decades. Dialogue between the two superpowers virtually stops. "Every channel of communications has been constricted or shut down; every form of contact has been attenuated or cut off. And arms control negotiations have been reduced to a species of propaganda," a concerned Bulletin informs readers. The United States seems to flout the few arms control agreements in place by seeking an expansive, space-based anti-ballistic missile capability, raising worries that a new arms race will begin.

IT IS 4 MINUTES TO MIDNIGHT

1981: The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan hardens the U.S. nuclear posture. Before he leaves office, President Jimmy Carter pulls the United States from the Olympic Games in Moscow and considers ways in which the United States could win a nuclear war. The rhetoric only intensifies with the election of Ronald Reagan as president. Reagan scraps any talk of arms control and proposes that the best way to end the Cold War is for the United States to win it.

IT IS 7 MINUTES TO MIDNIGHT

1980: Thirty-five years after the start of the nuclear age and after some promising disarmament gains, the United States and the Soviet Union still view nuclear weapons as an integral component of their national security. This stalled progress discourages the Bulletin: "[The Soviet Union and United States have] been behaving like what may best be described as 'nucleoholics' - drunks who continue to insist that the drink being consumed is positively 'the last one,' but who can always find a good excuse for 'just one more round.'"

IT IS 9 MINUTES TO MIDNIGHT

1974: South Asia gets the Bomb, as India tests its first nuclear device. And any gains in previous arms control agreements seem like a mirage. The United States and Soviet Union appear to be modernizing their nuclear forces, not reducing them. Thanks to the deployment of multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles (MIRV), both countries can now load their intercontinental ballistic missiles with more nuclear warheads than before.

IT IS 12 MINUTES TO MIDNIGHT

1972: The United States and Soviet Union attempt to curb the race for nuclear superiority by signing the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT) and the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty. The two treaties force a nuclear parity of sorts. SALT limits the number of ballistic missile launchers either country can possess, and the ABM Treaty stops an arms race in defensive weaponry from developing.

IT IS 10 MINUTES TO MIDNIGHT

1969: Nearly all of the world's nations come together to sign the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. The deal is simple - the nuclear weapon states vow to help the treaty's non-nuclear weapon signatories develop nuclear power if they promise to forego producing nuclear weapons. The nuclear weapon states also pledge to abolish their own arsenals when political conditions allow for it. Although Israel, India, and Pakistan refuse to sign the treaty, the Bulletin is cautiously optimistic: "The great powers have made the first step. They must proceed without delay to the next one - the dismantling, gradually, of their own oversized military establishments."

IT IS 7 MINUTES TO MIDNIGHT

1968: Regional wars rage. U.S. involvement in Vietnam intensifies, India and Pakistan battle in 1965, and Israel and its Arab neighbors renew hostilities in 1967. Worse yet, France and China develop nuclear weapons to assert themselves as global players. "There is little reason to feel sanguine about the future of our society on the world scale," the Bulletin laments. "There is a mass revulsion against war, yes; but no sign of conscious intellectual leadership in a rebellion against the deadly heritage of international anarchy."

IT IS 12 MINUTES TO MIDNIGHT

1963: After a decade of almost non-stop nuclear tests, the United States and Soviet Union sign the Partial Test Ban Treaty, which ends all atmospheric nuclear testing. While it does not outlaw underground testing, the treaty represents progress in at least slowing the arms race. It also signals awareness among the Soviets and United States that they need to work together to prevent nuclear annihilation.

IT IS 7 MINUTES TO MIDNIGHT

1960: Political actions belie the tough talk of "massive retaliation." For the first time, the United States and Soviet Union appear eager to avoid direct confrontation in regional conflicts such as the 1956 Egyptian-Israeli dispute. Joint projects that build trust and constructive dialogue between third parties also quell diplomatic hostilities. Scientists initiate many of these measures, helping establish the International Geophysical Year, a series of coordinated, worldwide scientific observations, and the Pugwash Conferences, which allow Soviet and American scientists to interact.

IT IS 2 MINUTES TO MIDNIGHT

1953: After much debate, the United States decides to pursue the hydrogen bomb, a weapon far more powerful than any atomic bomb. In October 1952, the United States tests its first thermonuclear device, obliterating a Pacific Ocean islet in the process; nine months later, the Soviets test an H-bomb of their own. "The hands of the Clock of Doom have moved again," the Bulletin announces. "Only a few more swings of the pendulum, and, from Moscow to Chicago, atomic explosions will strike midnight for Western civilization."

IT IS 3 MINUTES TO MIDNIGHT

1949: The Soviet Union denies it, but in the fall, President Harry Truman tells the American public that the Soviets tested their first nuclear device, officially starting the arms race. "We do not advise Americans that doomsday is near and that they can expect atomic bombs to start falling on their heads a month or year from now," the Bulletin explains. "But we think they have reason to be deeply alarmed and to be prepared for grave decisions."

IT IS 7 MINUTES TO MIDNIGHT

1947: As the Bulletin evolves from a newsletter into a magazine, the Clock appears on the cover for the first time. It symbolizes the urgency of the nuclear dangers that the magazine's founders - and the broader scientific community - are trying to convey to the public and political leaders around the world.


(E?)(L?) http://www.tv-kult.de/index.php?site=sendungen&m=SD

Doom Watch


(E?)(L?) https://xkcd.com/1655/

Doomsday Clock


(E?)(L?) http://books.google.ca/books?id=tA0AAAAAMBAJ&hl=de&source=gbs_all_issues_r&cad=1

Juni 1947
32 Seiten
Band 3, Nr. 6
ISSN 0096-3402

Veröffentlicht von Educational Foundation for Nuclear Science, Inc.

The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists is the premier public resource on scientific and technological developments that impact global security. Founded by Manhattan Project Scientists, the Bulletin's iconic "Doomsday Clock" stimulates solutions for a safer world.


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=Doomsday Clock
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "Doomsday Clock" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1960 auf.

Erstellt: 2015-01

Doomsday machine (W3)

Engl. "Doomsday machine" = dt. "Weltuntergangsmaschine" erblickte 1960 das Licht der vor dem Abgrund stehenden Welt.

(E?)(L?) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=Doomsday

"Doomsday" (n.) Old English "domes dæg", from "domes", genitive of "dom" (see "doom" (n.)) + "dæg" "day" (see "day" (n.)).

In medieval England it was expected when the world's age reached 6,000 years from creation, which was thought to have been in 5200 B.C. Bede, c.720, complained of being pestered by rustici asking him how many years till the sixth millennium ended. There is no evidence for a general panic in the year 1000 C.E.

"Doomsday machine" "bomb powerful enough to wipe out human life on earth" is from 1960.


(E?)(L?) http://tracearchive.ntu.ac.uk/frame2/articles/borg/kahn.html

Herman Kahn's Machine

With the work of von Neumann, Turning, and Wiener, machines that were intended to merely model reality were anthropomorphized into "thinking objects" that were often considered more reliable than human actors. Such capabilities of computation coupled with the ability to "accurately" simulate "real" situations (or at least the strategists' perception that their models were correct) led quickly to the adoption of computers for complex decision making. Researchers at RAND asked, ‘If von Neumann's methodology of formalized games can be applied to physics, why not policy judgments?'

In 1952 Herman Kahn became involved with von Neumann in the design of the hydrogen bomb. To this end, Kahn simplified the Monte Carlo simulation while increasing its accuracy. Modeling a hypothetical hydrogen bomb became possible as a result. Later in his career, Kahn worked for the government's military consultation group, the RAND Corporation.

While working at RAND, Kahn settled in with a group working on nuclear strategy known as the Strategic Objectives Committee. Its members recognized that an all out nuclear war with an initial strategy to attack cities was not feasible. In response to such a strategy, Kahn (only half jokingly) proposed his "Doomsday Machine", "a massive computer connected to a stockpile of hydrogen bombs. When the computer sensed imminent and intolerable danger from a Soviet attack, it would detonate the bombs and cover the planet with radiation fallout and billions of dead. No one laughed (except for Stanley Kubrick, whose 1964 dark comedy, Dr. Strangelove or: How I learned to stop worrying and love the bomb, parodied Kahn's "Doomsday Device"). The "Doomsday Machine", nonetheless, was only a mildly absurd version of existing US policy: If the Soviets scare us, we destroy their cities and provoke them to retaliate. Kahn advanced the strategists' thinking to a new level by suggesting military installations as the next logical target. This work led Kahn to believe there could be such a thing as a winnable nuclear conflagration.
...


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=Doomsday machine
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "Doomsday machine" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1900 auf.

Erstellt: 2015-01

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Language Hotspots
Enduring Voices Project

(E?)(L?) http://www.languagehotspots.org/

Enduring Voices
Documenting the Planet's Endangered Languages
Losing Our World's Languages

Every 14 days a language dies. By 2100, more than half of the more than 7,000 languages spoken on Earth—many of them never yet recorded—will likely disappear, taking with them a wealth of knowledge about history, culture, the natural environment, and how the human brain works.

National Geographic's Enduring Voices Project strives to preserve endangered languages by identifying language hotspots—the places on our planet with the most unique, poorly understood, or threatened indigenous languages—and documenting the languages and cultures within them.
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.nationalgeographic.com/mission/enduringvoices/glossary.html

Glossary: Terms Related to Languages and Language Endangerment


(E?)(L?) http://www.nationalgeographic.com/mission/enduringvoices/resources.html

Resources

Language revitalization is the process of reversing language collapse or language decline. The Enduring Voices Project assists indigenous communities in their efforts to maintain their threatened languages. Examples of these efforts include the implementation of bilingual or language-learning programs for school-age children.

The long-term success of revitalization programs depends on state or official support. Languages benefiting from revitalization include Hawaiian, Maori, and Israeli Hebrew.

Technology—especially video, photography, sound recordings, and the Internet—helps small language groups encourage interest in their languages and cultures, both within their communities and throughout the world.

The following Web sites showcase efforts to revitalize indigenous languages:

Northwest Pacific Plateau | Canada | Anishinaabe | Klamath | Salish | Siletz Dee-ni | Oklahoma and the Southwest | North America | California | Oklahoma | Cherokee | Cherokees of California | Kanza | Lenape | Mesoamerica | Nawat | Mixtec | Northern South America | Caribbean | Guyana | Carib | Taino | U'wa | Wayuu Taya | Central South America | Aymara (in Spanish) | Enlhet (Lengua, in Spanish and German) | Southern South America | Chile (in English, Spanish, Aymara, Rapa Nui, and Mapudungun) | Mapuche | Southern Africa | Shiyeyi | Western Africa | N'Ko (alphabet used for Manden languages) | Australia | Northern Territory | Australia | Victoria | Katherine | Western Australia | Gumbaynggirr | Taiwan and the Philippines | Taiwan | Eastern Siberia | Alaska | Eastern India and Malaysia | Santal


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DoBeS - Dokumentation bedrohter Sprachen

"DoBeS" steht für "Dokumentation bedrohter Sprachen". (E?)(L?) http://www.mpi.nl/dobes


(E?)(L?) http://www.mpi.nl/DOBES/projects/

Documentation Projects
Within the DOBES programme, the following documentation projects are documenting highly endangered languages:

Africa
| ?Akhoe Hai//om (corpus) | Baïnounk | Bakola (corpus) | Bubia/Isubu | Oyda | Taa (corpus) | Tima (corpus) |

North and Mezo America
| Beaver (corpus) | Chontal (corpus) | Hocank (corpus) | Lacandon (corpus) | Wichita (corpus) |

South America
| Aché (corpus) | Awetí (corpus) | Baure (corpus) | Cashinahua (corpus) | Chaco Languages (corpus) | Chipaya (corpus) | Mawé/Bakairí/Katxuyana (corpus) | Kuikuro (corpus) | Movima (corpus) | People of the Center (corpus) | Trumai (corpus) | Tsafiki (corpus) | Yurakaré (corpus) |

Eurasia
| Chintang/Puma (corpus) | Even (corpus) | Gorani (corpus) | Kola-Sámi (corpus) | Kurumba Languages (corpus) | Minderico (corpus) | Nenets (corpus) | Salar/Monguor (corpus) | Sri Lanka Malay (corpus) | Svan/Udi/Tsova-Tush (corpus) | Tangsa/Tai/Singpho (corpus) | Tofa (corpus) |

South East Asia, Oceania and Australia
| Ambrym Languages (corpus) | Iwaidja (corpus) | Jaminjung (corpus) | Marquesan (corpus) | MEL project / Tuamotuan (corpus) | Saliba/Logea (corpus) | Savosavo (corpus) | Semang (corpus) | Semaq Beri/Batek (corpus) | Teop (corpus) | Totoli (corpus) | Vurës/Vera'a (corpus) | Waima'a (corpus) | Wooi (corpus)


Erstellt: 2011-11

msn
Arctic peoples at loss for words

(E?)(L?) http://msnbc.msn.com/id/6530026/

REYKJAVIK, Iceland - What are the words used by indigenous peoples in the Arctic for "hornet", "robin", "elk", "barn owl" or "salmon?"
...


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Foundation for Endangered Languages

(E?)(L?) http://www.ogmios.org/

Welcome to the Foundation for Endangered Languages. This website announces our varied activities, and includes details of previous conferences and back numbers of our newsletter.


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Sprachen sterben - total egal?

(E?)(L?) http://www.alumni.uni-bremen.de/neues/newsletter6/newsletter6.pdf

Kurz notiert bei Christel Stolz

Eine Sprache ist "vom Aussterben bedroht", wenn sie in immer weniger sozialen Funktionen verwendet wird, sei es im öffentlichen Leben oder in den Familien. Und die Sprache ist tot, wenn sie niemand mehr spricht. Meistens kommt das dadurch, dass nicht die Sprache, sondern ihre Sprecher bedroht sind - Völkermord, Ausrottung durch Krankheiten und Verfolgung sorgten und sorgen noch dafür, dass ganze Volksgruppen umkommen.
...


Uni Erfurt
ASSIDUE - Arbeitspapiere des Seminars für Sprachwissenschaft der Universität Erfurt
Lehmann, Christian
Documentation of endangered languages

(E?)(L?) http://www2.uni-erfurt.de/sprachwissenschaft/index.htm

Publikationen: ASSidUE - Arbeitspapiere des Seminars für Sprachwissenschaft der Universität Erfurt


(E?)(L?) http://www2.uni-erfurt.de/sprachwissenschaft/ASSidUE/ASSidUE01.pdf
A priority task for linguistics
Christian Lehmann



Uni Pennsylvania
Arctic folk at loss for words
fehlende Wörter in der Arktis

(E?)(L?) http://itre.cis.upenn.edu/~myl/languagelog/archives/001665.html
The idiocy of journalists writing stories about people not having words for things continues. ...

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Wunderlich, Dieter
Was verlieren wir, wenn Sprachen sterben?

(E?)(L?) http://www.entwicklungspolitik.org/home/18-19-006-01/

Was verlieren wir, wenn Sprachen sterben?
Dieter Wunderlich

Gegenwärtig stirbt beinahe jede Woche eine Sprache aus; ein in vielen Generationen gewachsenes und überliefertes eigenes Sprachsystem einer ethnischen Gruppe, in dem ihre Riten, Geschichten, Erinnerungen, ihre gesamte Identität bewahrt sind, verschwindet. Sprachen existieren nur als Software: in den lebendigen Gehirnen von Menschen und den lebendigen Gesprächen zwischen Menschen. Soweit es keine Schrift gibt, bleiben keinerlei Spuren, es gibt keine Hardware.
...


(E?)(L?) http://user.phil-fak.uni-duesseldorf.de/~wdl/Bedroht.pdf

Was verlieren wir, wenn Sprachen sterben?
Dieter Wunderlich (Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf),
Radiovortrag AULA, SWR2, 18.Oktober 1998, 8.30-9.00.

Wieviele lebende Sprachen gibt es? - 50? 200? vielleicht auch 1000? Die richtige Antwort ist: ungefähr 6.000, Tendenz fallend. Es könnte sein, daß irgendwo in der Welt gerade jetzt die letzte Sprecherin einer weitgehend unbekannten Sprache stirbt, dann gäbe es eine lebende Sprache weniger. Was genau eine Sprache ist und nicht nur der Dialekt einer größeren Sprache, läßt sich kaum objektiv sagen: wieviel eigene Wörter oder Ausdrücke braucht man, um eine Einzelsprache abgrenzen zu können? Es hängt auch von den Einschätzungen der Sprecher ab, ob sie etwas als eigene Sprache empfinden. Wir sagen, daß Niederländisch, Friesisch und Jiddisch eigene Sprachen sind, aber Plattdeutsch und Alemannisch oder Bairisch nur Dialekte der deutschen Sprache. Wenn man über die Zahl der Sprachen spricht, muß man dies im Auge behalten.
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.studgen.uni-mainz.de/manuskripte/wunderlich.pdf

Was verlieren wir, wenn Sprachen sterben?
Dieter Wunderlich (Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf),
05. Juni 2002, Mainzer Universitätsgespräche
...


Erstellt: 2014-06

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Bücher zur Kategorie:

Etymologie, Etimología, Étymologie, Etimologia, Etymology
@_ Welt, Mundo, Monde, Mondo, World
untergegangene Wörter, Archaismen, Arcaísmo, Archaïsme, Arcaismo, Archaism

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Evans, Nicholas
Wenn Sprachen sterben und was wir mit ihnen verlieren

(E?)(L?) http://www.chbeck.de/Evans-Sprachen-sterben/productview.aspx?product=12220834

2014. 416 S.: mit zahlreichen Abbildungen, Karten und Tabellen. Gebunden
C.H.BECK ISBN 978-3-406-65327-8
Auch als E-Book lieferbar.
Von Nicholas Evans. Aus dem Englischen von Robert Mailhammer
Erschienen: 08.05.2014, sofort lieferbar!

Mehr zum Buch

In den nächsten hundert Jahren wird die Hälfte der rund 6000 Sprachen, die es noch auf der Welt gibt, verschwinden. Die meisten davon werden untergehen, ohne vorher dokumentiert zu werden. Noch enthält jede von ihnen das Denken, Wissen und die Kultur derer, die sie sprechen. Dieses Buch beleuchtet die Konsequenzen für unser gemeinsames intellektuelles und geistiges Erbe.

Nicholas Evans fragt nach dem Verlust, den dieser massive Sprachentod für die Menschheit bedeutet, und findet bei der Suche nach der Antwort eine ganze Reihe von Themen, die höchstes Interesse verdienen: Wieso gibt es überhaupt so viele Sprachen auf der Welt? Wäre eine nicht genug? Was wissen wir über den Zusammenhang von Denken und Sprechen? Denkt man in unterschiedlichen Sprachen unterschiedlich? Kann die Varietät der Sprachen Auskunft über die Welt und die Geschichte geben? Wie lassen sich bedrohte Sprachen, die es noch nicht in die Schriftlichkeit geschafft haben, vor ihrem Tod dokumentieren, und warum sollte man das tun? Können kleine Sprachen es ermöglichen, alte Schriften zu entziffern? Evans ist einer der weltweit prominentesten Sprachwissenschaftler. Sein Buch lebt vom Reichtum an Beispielen, die er vor Ort präsentiert – von Australien, Asien und Afrika bis Amerika und Europa. Es vermittelt faszinierende Einsichten in das, was Sprachen eigentlich sind.


Erstellt: 2014-06

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Haarmann, Harald
Lexikon der untergegangenen Sprachen

(E?)(L?) http://www.chbeck.de/Haarmann-Lexikon-untergegangenen-Sprachen/productview.aspx?product=15983

2., durchgesehene Auflage 2004. 229 S.: mit 1 Karte. Paperback
ISBN 978-3-406-47596-2

Die "toten" Sprachen leben weiter in unserem kulturellen Gedächtnis. Dem Altgrie-chischen und dem Lateinischen verdanken wir einen großen Teil unseres Kulturwortschatzes, dem Phönizischen die Alphabetschrift, und viele andere alte Sprachen wie das Althebräische, Sumerische, Akkadische und Sanskrit haben sich durch Werke der Weltliteratur unsterblich gemacht. Dieses Lexikon beschreibt in mehr als 100 Artikeln die wichtigsten untergegangenen Sprachen. Es informiert über Gebiete und Zeiträume ihrer Verbreitung, ihre Zugehörigkeit zu Sprachfamilien, Schriftsysteme, überlieferte Literatur sowie ihren Einfluß auf bis heute gesprochene Sprachen. Ein Register und Literaturhinweise runden diese kompetente Einführung ab.


Haarmann, Harald
Lexikon der untergegangenen Völker
Von Akkader bis Zimbern

(E?)(L1) http://www.chbeck.de/Haarmann-Lexikon-untergegangenen-Voelker/productview.aspx?product=9891904

2., durchgesehene und aktualisierte Auflage 2012. 297 S.: mit 9 Karten. Paperback
ISBN 978-3-406-63469-7

Dieses Lexikon beschreibt in rund 200 Artikeln knapp und allgemeinverständlich die wichtigsten untergegangenen Völker der Erde, die spätere Völker und Kulturen nachhaltig beeinflußt haben. Je nach unserem Wissensstand informiert es über Geschichte, Verbreitungsgebiet und Migrationen eines Volkes, die politische, gesellschaftliche und wirtschaftliche Organisation, Kultur und Religion sowie Sprache und Schrifttum. Überblicksartikel zu Kontinenten und Großregionen erleichtern die Orientierung über benachbarte und miteinander verwandte Völker und erschließen zahlreiche kleine Gruppen, die keinen eigenen Artikel haben. Ein unentbehrliches Nachschlagewerk für alle, die sich jenseits von ideologischen Vereinnahmungen für alte Völker und ihr kulturelles Erbe interessieren.

Harald Haarmann, Dr. phil. habil., geb. 1946, studierte Allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft und verschiedene philologische Einzeldisziplinen an den Universitäten Hamburg, Bonn, Coimbra (Portugal) und Bangor (Wales). Er lehrte und forschte an verschiedenen deutschen und japanischen Universitäten. Er ist Mitglied im Forscherteam des Research Centre on Multilingualism (Brüssel). Für seine Arbeit erhielt er diverse Preise: Prix logos (1999) der Association européenne des linguistes et des professeurs de langues (Paris) und den Premio Jean Monnet (1999) im Bereich Essayliteratur. Harald Haarmann lebt und arbeitet in Finnland.




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