Etymologie, Etimología, Étymologie, Etimologia, Etymology
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*bhergh-

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bartleby.com
*bhergh- (W3)

(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20080726143746/http://www.bartleby.com/61/IEroots.html

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition.   2000.

Indo-European Roots Index


(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20080629202611/http://www.bartleby.com:80/61/roots/IE57.html

ENTRY: "*bhereg-"

DEFINITION:

To "shine"; "bright", "white". Oldest form "*bhereg-", becoming "*bhereg-" in centum languages.

1. "bright", from Old English "beorht" = "bright", from Germanic "*berhtaz" = "bright".

2. "The white tree" = "the birch" (also "the ash").

a. "birch", "birk", from Old English "birc", "birce", "birch", from Germanic "*birkjn-";

b. probably suffixed zero-grade form "*bhrag-s-". "fraxinella", from Latin "fraxinus" = "ash tree".

(Pokorny "*bhereg-" 139.)




(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20080629012929/http://www.bartleby.com:80/61/roots/IE58.html

ENTRY: "*bhergh" (1)

DEFINITION:

To "hide", "protect". Oldest form "*bhergh-", becoming "*bhergh-" in centum languages.

1a. Germanic compound "*hals-berg-", "*hwals-berg-" (see "kwel" (1));

1b. Germanic compound "*sker-berg-" (see "*sker-" (1)).

Both a and b from Germanic "*bergan" = "to protect".

2. Zero-grade form "*bhrgh-".

2a. "bury", from Old English "byrgan" = "to bury", from Germanic "*burgjan";

2b. "burial", from Old English "byrgels" = "burial", from Germanic derivative "*burgisli-".

3a. "borrow", from Old English "borgian" = "to borrow", from Germanic "*borgen" = "to pledge", "lend", "borrow";

3b. "bargain", from Old French "bargaignier" = "to haggle", from Germanic derivative "*borganjan".

(Pokorny "*bhergh-" 145.)




(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20080627204059/http://www.bartleby.com:80/61/roots/IE59.html

ENTRY: "*bhergh" (2)

DEFINITION:

"High"; with derivatives referring to "hills" and "hill-forts". Oldest form "*bhergh-", becoming "*bhergh-" in centum languages.

Derivatives include "iceberg", "bourgeois", "burglar", "force", and "fortify".

1a. "barrow", from Old English "beorg" = "hill";

1b. "iceberg", from Middle Dutch "bergh" = "mountain";

1c. "inselberg", from Old High German "berg" = "mountain";

1d. Germanic compound "*harja-bergaz" (see "*koro-").

a–d all from Germanic "*bergaz" = "hill", "mountain".

2. "belfry", from Old French "berfroi" = "tower", from Germanic compound "*berg-frij-" = "high place of safety", "tower" ("*frij-" = "peace", "safety"; see "*pri-").

3. Zero-grade form "*bh?gh-".

3a. "borough", "burg", from Old English "burg", "burh", "byrig" = "(fortified) town";

3b. "burgomaster", from Middle Dutch "burch" = "town";

3c. "bourg", "bourgeois", "burgess", "burglar"; "faubourg", from Late Latin "burgus" = "fortified place", and Old French "burg" = "borough";

3d. "burgher", from Old High German "burgari" = "townsman", from Germanic compound "*burg-waron-" = "city protector" ("*waron-" = "protector"; see "*wer-" (4)).

a–d all from Germanic "*burgs" = "hill-fort".

4. Possibly suffixed zero-grade form "*bh?gh-to-" = "force", "fort", "fortalice", "forte1", "forte", "fortis", "fortissimo", "fortitude", "fortress"; "comfort", "deforce", "effort", "enforce", "fortify", "pianoforte", "reinforce", from Latin "fortis" = "strong" (but this is also possibly from "*dher-").

(Pokorny "*bheregh-" 140.)




Erstellt: 2017-07

bergen (W3)

Die ursprüngliche Bedeutung von dt. "bergen" kann als "sich vor einer Flut, einer Überschwemmung oder sonstigen Gefahr auf einen Berg begeben und so in Sicherheit bringen", "auf einer Fluchtburg unterbringen" interpretiert werden.

Heute verbindet man mit dt. "bergen" ganz allgemein die Bedeutung "in Sicherheit bringen". Als Vorläufer und Verwandte findet man mhdt. "bergen", ahdt. "bergan", got. "baírgan", altengl. "beorgan", schwed. "bärga", und auch lit. "bìrginti" = dt. "sparen" und russ. "beregu" = dt. "hüte", "bewahre". Als Wurzel wird ide. "*bhergh" = dt. "befestigte Höhe" postuliert.

Als weitere Verwandte findet man dt. "borgen", "verbergen" (zu mhdt. "verbergen", althdt. "firbergan" = dt. "verstecken", "verheimlichen", "Herberge" (wörtlich "Heereschutz", mit althdt. "-berga" = dt. "schützender Ort").

(E?)(L?) http://www.gutenberg.org/files/39762/39762-h/39762-h.htm

Gustav Goedel: Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen Seemannssprache

"Bergen"

Am häufigsten findet sich im seemännischen Gebrauch die Wendung "Segel bergen", ein Kommando das immer ertönt, wenn die Segel "eingezogen" d. h. festgemacht werden sollen. Daneben spricht man vom "Bergen einer Ladung" bei gestrandetem oder sonst gefährdetem Schiffe, man sagt auch "sich bergen". Der gemeinschaftliche Begriff ist: "in Sicherheit bringen", und zwar ist, da dem Stamme "bhergh" die Bedeutung "hoch", "Anhöhe" beiwohnt, der ursprüngliche Sinn ohne Weiteres klar: "sich vor einer Flut, einer Überschwemmung oder sonstigen Gefahr auf einen Berg (womöglich in eine Burg) begeben und so in Sicherheit bringen".

Nur bei "Segel bergen" hat sich die Bedeutung so weit verflacht, daß es, auch wenn kein Sturm naht und kein Segel in Gefahr steht weggerissen zu werden, sondern auch beim Segelmanöver im Hafen und bei gutem Wetter gesagt wird. Eigentlich nur noch bei Seeleuten übrig, die andern sagen jetzt "verbergen" und haben noch den Begriff des heimlichen, des Versteckens hinzugetan. Althochdeutsch "pergan" (gothisch "bairgan") angelsächsisch "beorgan", niederländisch "bargen".

Vergl. "Herberge", althochdeutsch "heriberga", "Ort wo ein Heer geschützt lagern kann". Die älteste Bedeutung des jetzt so friedlichen Wortes ist also kriegerisch; italienisch "albergo", altspanisch, neuspanisch und portugiesisch "albergue", altfrz. "herberc", neufranzösisch "auberge". In alten Zeiten hatte man vielfach "Freiberge" (woher die zahlreichen Städtenamen), "Berge wohin ein Verfolgter fliehen konnte und wo er eine Zeit lang unverletzlich war". Es gab in Eiderstedt und Dithmarsen "Freyberge", davon 3 in Eiderstedt, einer bei jedem Gericht, "wo ein Missetäter auf drei Tage sich frei und sicher bergen konnte". Daher die Türme auf den Höfen mittelalterlicher Burgen "Bergfriede", richtiger "Bergfriete", "Bergfreite". Und was jetzt bei uns "Friedhof" heißt, müßte "Frithof" = "Freithof" geschrieben werden.


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=8&content=bergen
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Dt. "???" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1640 / 1700 auf.

(E?)(L?) http://corpora.informatik.uni-leipzig.de/


(E?)(L?) http://www.wordmap.co/#bergen

This experiment brings together the power of Google Translate and the collective knowledge of Wikipedia to put into context the relationship between language and geographical space.


Erstellt: 2017-07

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etymonline.com
*bhergh-

(E?)(L?) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?allowed_in_frame=0&search=*bhergh-

"fort" (n.)

mid-15c., "fortified place", "stronghold", from Old French "fort" = "fort", "fortress", "strong man", noun use of adjective meaning "strong", "stout", "sturdy", "hard", "severe", "difficult", "hard to understand", "dreadful", "terrible", "fortified" (10c.), from Latin "fortis" = "strong", "mighty", "firm", "steadfast", "brave", "spirited", from Old Latin "forctus", which is of unknown etymology. Possibly from PIE root "*bhergh-" (2) = "high", "elevated", with derivatives referring to hills and hill-forts (see "barrow" (n.2)). Or possibly from "*dher-" (2) "to hold firmly", "support". Figurative use of "hold the fort" attested from 1590s.

"borrow" (v.)

Old English "borgian" = "to lend", "to be surety for", from Proto-Germanic "*borg" = "pledge" (source also of Old English "borg" = "pledge", "security", "bail", "debt", Old Norse "borga" = "to become bail for", "guarantee", Middle Dutch "borghen" = "to protect", "to guarantee", Old High German "boragen" = "to beware of", German "borgen" = "to borrow", "to lend"), from PIE root "*bhergh-" (1) "to hide", "to protect" (see "bury"). Sense shifted in Old English to "borrow", apparently on the notion of collateral deposited as security for something borrowed. Related: "Borrowed", "borrowing".

"burial" (n.)

"act of burying", late 13c.; earlier "tomb" (c. 1200), false singular from Old English "byrgels" = "tomb", from "byrgan" = "to bury" + suffix "-els"; a compound also found in Old Saxon "burgisli", suggesting a Proto-Germanic "*burgisli-", from PIE root "*bhergh-" (1) = "to hide", "to protect" (see "bury"). The Germanic suffix "*-isli-" (also in Old English "hydels" = "hiding place", fætels "bag") became obsolete and was felt as a plural of the Latin-derived suffix "-al" (2) forming nouns of action from verbs ("survival", "approval", etc.).

"borough" (n.)

Old English "burg", "burh" = "a dwelling or dwellings within a fortified enclosure", from Proto-Germanic "*burgs" = "hill fort", "fortress" (source also of Old Frisian "burg" = "castle", Old Norse "borg" = "wall", "castle", Old High German "burg", "buruc" = "fortified place", "citadel", German "Burg" = "castle", Gothic "baurgs" = "city"), from PIE root "*bhergh-" (2) = "high", with derivatives referring to "hills", "hill forts", "fortified elevations" (source also of Old English "beorg" = "hill"; see "barrow" (n.2)).

In German and Old Norse, chiefly as "fortress", "castle"; in Gothic, "town", "civic community". Meaning shifted in Middle English from "fortress", to "fortified town", to simply "town" (especially one possessing municipal organization or sending representatives to Parliament). In U.S. (originally Pennsylvania, 1718) often an "incorporated town"; in Alaska, however, it is the equivalent of a "county". The Scottish form is "burgh". The Old English dative singular "byrig" survives in many place names as "-bury".

"barrow" (n.2)

"mound", "hill", "grave-mound", Old English "beorg" (West Saxon), "berg" (Anglian) = "barrow", "mountain", "hill", "mound", from Proto-Germanic "*bergaz" (source also of Old Saxon, Old Frisian, Old High German "berg" = "mountain", Old North "bjarg" = "rock"), from PIE root "*bhergh-" (2) "high", "elevated" (source also of Old Church Slavonic "bregu" = "mountain", "height"; Old Irish "brigh" = "mountain"; Welsh "bera" = "stack", "pyramid"; Sanskrit "b'rhant" = "high", "brmhati" = "strengthens", "elevates"; Avestan "brzant-" = "high", Old Persian "bard-" = "be high"; Greek "Pergamos", name of the citadel of Troy). Obsolete by c. 1400 except in place-names and southwest England dialect; revived by modern archaeology.

In place-names used of small continuously curving hills, smaller than a dun, with the summit typically occupied by a single farmstead or by a village church with the village beside the hill, and also of burial mounds. [Cambridge Dictionary of English Place-Names]

Meaning "mound erected over a grave" was in late Old English. "Barrow-wight" first recorded 1869 in Eirikr Magnusson and William Morris's translation of the Icelandic saga of Grettir the Strong.

"bury" (v.)

Old English "byrgan" = "to raise a mound", "hide", "bury", "inter", akin to "beorgan" = "to shelter", from Proto-Germanic "*burzjan-" = "protection", "shelter" (source also of Old Saxon "bergan", Dutch "bergen", Old Norse "bjarga", Swedish "berga", Old High German "bergan" = "protect", "shelter", "conceal", German "bergen", Gothic "bairgan" = "to save", "preserve"), from PIE root "*bhergh-" (1) = "to hide", "protect" (source also of Old Church Slavonic "brego" = "I preserve", "guard"). Related: "Buried"; "burying". "Burying-ground" = "cemetery" attested from 1711.

The Old English "-y-" was a short "oo" sound, like modern French "-u-". Under normal circumstances it transformed into Modern English "-i-" (in "bridge", "kiss", "listen", "sister", etc.), but in "bury" and a few other words (as in "merry", "knell") it retained a Kentish change to "e" that took place in the late Old English period. In the West Midlands, meanwhile, the Old English "-y-" sound persisted, slightly modified over time, giving the standard modern pronunciation of "blush", "much", "church".


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koeblergerhard.de
*bhergh- (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.koeblergerhard.de/idg/4A/idg.html

ide. "*bhergh-"

idg., V.: neuhdt. bergen, verwahren, bewahren; engl. hide (V.); RB.: Pokorny 145 (228/61), kelt.?, germ., balt., slaw.; Hw.: s. *bheregh-, *bher- (1) (?); E.: s. *bher- (1) (?); Weiterleben: germ. *bergan, st. V., bergen, schützen; got. baír-g-an* 2, st. V. (3), bergen, bewahren, erhalten (V.); Weiterleben: germ. *bergan, st. V., bergen, schützen; an. bjar-g-a, st. V. (3b), bergen, retten; Weiterleben: germ. *bergan, st. V., bergen, schützen; an. bir-g-ja, sw. V., bergen, helfen, versorgen; Weiterleben: germ. *bergan, st. V., bergen, schützen; altengl. beor-g-an (1), st. V. (3b), bergen, retten, schützen, verteidigen, sich hüten; Weiterleben: germ. *bergan, st. V., bergen, schützen; afries. ber-g-ia 1 und häufiger?, sw. V. (2), bergen, schützen; Weiterleben: germ. *bergan, st. V., bergen, schützen; anfrk. ber-g-an* 2, st. V. (3b), "bergen", verbergen; Weiterleben: germ. *bergan, st. V., bergen, schützen; althdt. bergan* 65, st. V. (3b), "bergen", verbergen, verstecken; mhd. bërgen, st. V., bergen, verbergen, in Sicherheit bringen; neuhdt. bergen, st. V., bergen, DW 1, 1507; Weiterleben: s. germ. *gabergan, st. V., verbergen, bergen; got. ga-baír-g-an* 1, st. V. (3), bergen, bewahren, erhalten (V.); Weiterleben: s. germ. *gabergan, st. V., verbergen, bergen; anfrk. gi-ber-g-an* 1, st. V. (3b), verbergen; Weiterleben: s. germ. *gabergan, st. V., verbergen, bergen; as. gi-ber-g-an* 1, st. V. (3b), bergen, bewahren; Weiterleben: s. germ. *gabergan, st. V., verbergen, bergen; althdt. gibergan* 60, st. V. (3b), "bergen", verbergen, verstecken; mhd. gebergen, st. V., bergen, verbergen, schützen; Weiterleben: s. germ. *bergo, st. F. (o), Schutz, Berge (F.); got. *bair-g-o, *bergo, st. F. (o), Berge (F.); Weiterleben: s. germ. *bergo, st. F. (o), Schutz, Berge (F.); an. bjor-g, st. F. (o), Bergung, Schutz, Hilfe; Weiterleben: s. germ. *bergo, st. F. (o), Schutz, Berge (F.); altengl. *beor-g (3), *beor-h (3), st. F. (o), Berge (F.), Schutz; Weiterleben: s. germ. *berga-, *bergam, st. N. (a), Zuflucht; altengl. beor-g (2), beor-h (2), st. N. (a), Schutz, Zuflucht, Verteidigung; Weiterleben: vgl. germ. *bergja-, *bergjaz, Adj., gut ausgestattet; an. bir-g-r, Adj., wer sich zu helfen weiß; Weiterleben: vgl. germ. *bergiþo, *bergeþo, st. F. (o), Vorrat, Ausstattung; an. bir-g-ð, st. F. (o), Unterhalt, Speisevorrat; Weiterleben: s. germ. *burg, F. (kons.), Burg; got. baúr-g-s (1) 59, F. (kons.), Turm, Burg, Stadt; Weiterleben: s. germ. *burg, F. (kons.), Burg; an. borg (1), F. (kons.), Anhöhe, Wall, Burg, Stadt; Weiterleben: s. germ. *burg, F. (kons.), Burg; altengl. bur-g, bur-h, byr-g (3), byr-ig (4), F. (kons.), Burg, Stadt; Weiterleben: s. germ. *burg, F. (kons.), Burg; afries. bur-ch 35, bur-g, F. (kons.), Burg, Stadt; Weiterleben: s. germ. *burg, F. (kons.), Burg; anfrk. bur-g 9, st. F. (i, athem.), Burg, Stadt; Weiterleben: s. germ. *burg, F. (kons.), Burg; as. bur-g 53, st. F. (i, athem.), Burg, Ort, Stadt; mnd. borch, F.; Weiterleben: s. germ. *burg, F. (kons.), Burg; lat.-althdt. burgus* 2 und häufiger, M., Wachturm, Kastell, Burg, Siedlung, Vorstadt, Hofstatt; Weiterleben: s. germ. *burg, F. (kons.), Burg; lat.-althdt. burgensis 20 und häufiger, M., Burgbewohner, burgus-Bewohner; Weiterleben: s. germ. *burg, F. (kons.), Burg; lat.-althdt. burica* 1?, F., Burg, Viehhütte?, Verschlag?; Weiterleben: s. germ. *burg, F. (kons.), Burg; althdt. burg 190, st. F. (i, athem.), Burg, Stadt, Schloss; mhd. burc, st. F., Burg, Schloss, Stadt; neuhdt. Burg, F., Burg, Bau, DW 2, 534; Weiterleben: s. germ. *burg, F. (kons.), Burg; althdt. Burgundara* 3, M.Pl. (a)=PN, Burgunder (Pl.); neuhdt. Burgunder, PN, Burgunder, DW 2, 544; Weiterleben: s. germ. *burgjan, sw. V., einschließen, bergen; an. byrg-ja (1), sw. V. (1), einschließen, hindern, verweigern; Weiterleben: s. germ. *burgjan, sw. V., einschließen, bergen; altengl. byr-g-an (1), sw. V. (1), begraben (V.), verbergen; Weiterleben: s. germ. *burgen, *burgæn, sw. V., borgen, bürgen; an. bor-g-a, sw. V. (3), bürgen, geloben; Weiterleben: s. germ. *burgen, *burgæn, sw. V., borgen, bürgen; altengl. bor-g-ian, sw. V. (2), borgen, leihen, bürgen; Weiterleben: s. germ. *burgen, *burgæn, sw. V., borgen, bürgen; altengl. bor-g (1), st. M. (a), Pfand, Sicherheit, Bürgschaft; Weiterleben: s. germ. *burgen, *burgæn, sw. V., borgen, bürgen; afries. bor-g-ia (2) 7, bur-g-ia (2), sw. V. (2), bürgen; Weiterleben: s. germ. *burgen, *burgæn, sw. V., borgen, bürgen; afries. bor-g-ia* (1) 3, bur-g-ia* (1), sw. V. (2), borgen, auf Borg nehmen; Weiterleben: s. germ. *burgen, *burgæn, sw. V., borgen, bürgen; afries. bor-ch* 1 und häufiger, bor-g, Sb., Borg, Kredit; Weiterleben: s. germ. *burgen, *burgæn, sw. V., borgen, bürgen; as. borg 1, st. M. (a?), Bürgschaft, Pfand; mnd. borch, N., mnd. borg (Gallée); Weiterleben: s. germ. *burgen, *burgæn, sw. V., borgen, bürgen; althdt. borgen 19, sw. V. (3), schonen, sich hüten, sich kümmern; mhd. borgen, sw. V., achtgeben, Nachsicht haben, schonen; neuhdt. borgen, sw. V., hergeben, borgen, DW 2, 241; Weiterleben: vgl. germ. *burgjo-, *burgjon, *burgja-, *burgjan, sw. M. (n), Bürge; altengl. byr-g-a, byr-ig-a, sw. M. (n), Bürge, Bürgschaft, Sicherheit; Weiterleben: vgl. germ. *burgjo-, *burgjon, *burgja-, *burgjan, sw. M. (n), Bürge; afries. bor-g-a 15, bur-g-a, sw. M. (n), Bürge; Weiterleben: vgl. germ. *burgjo-, *burgjon, *burgja-, *burgjan, sw. M. (n), Bürge; althdt. burgo (1) 47, sw. M. (n), Bürge, Gläubiger; mhd. bürge, sw. M., Bürge; neuhdt. Bürge, M., Bürge, DW 2, 536; Weiterleben: vgl. germ. *burgjo-, *burgjon, *burgja-, *burgjan, sw. M. (n), Bürge; lat.-althdt. burgarius* 1, M., Bürge; mhd. burgære, st. M., Bürge


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utexas.edu
*bhergh-

(E?)(L?) https://lrc.la.utexas.edu/lex/master




Erstellt: 2017-07

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