Etymologie, Etimología, Étymologie, Etimologia, Etymology
UK Vereinigtes Königreich Großbritannien und Nordirland, Reino Unido de Gran Bretaña e Irlanda del Norte, Royaume-Uni de Grande-Bretagne et d'Irlande du Nord, Regno Unito di Gran Bretagna e Irlanda del Nord, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Kaffee, Café, Café, Caffè, Coffee

A

B

C

Cappuccino (W3)

Das Häubchen aus aufgeschäumter Milch erinnert an die "Kapuzen" der "Kapuzinermönche", geht also zurück auf die "Capuchin-Mönche" des Franziskaner-Ordens (St. Francis of Assisi); die "Kapuziner" wurden so genannt, wegen ihrer "Kapuze" ("capuchin", "cappuccio"), einem Teil ihrer braunen Kutte.

Eine andere Erklärung nimmt Bezug auf die braunen Kutten der Kapuziner. Durch die Hinzugabe der Milch erhält der Kaffee / Espresso die braune Farbe dieser Kutten.

(E?)(L?) http://wordcraft.infopop.cc/eponyms.htm

cappuccino


(E?)(L?) http://www.oedilf.com/db/Lim.php?Word=cappuccino

Limericks on "cappuccino"


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=Cappuccino
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Dt. "Cappuccino" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1750 / 1800 auf.

Erstellt: 2015-01

Caffeine (W3)

Engl. "Caffeine", dt. "Kaffein", "Koffein" (19. Jh.), geht zurück auf frz. "caféine" bzw. frz. "café", engl. "coffee" = dt. "Kaffee". Es ist die wissenschaftliche Bezeichnung für einen pflanzlichen Wirkstoff, der in Kaffee enthalten ist und auch zu medizinischen Zwecken eingesetzt wird.

Dt. "Kaffein" (Trimethyl-Derivat von Xanthin) wurde im Jahr 1830 von dem Chemiker F.F. Runge (1795-1867) nach dt. "Kaffee" geprägt. Die Endsilbe dt. "-in", engl. "-ine" dient in der Chemie u.a. zur Bezeichnung von organischen Verbindungen, die aus Naturstoffen extrahiert oder abgeleitet sind. Vermutlich wurde engl. "caffeine" über frz. "caféine" vermittelt.



(E?)(L?) https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/molecule-of-the-week/archive/c/caffeine.html

Molecule of the Week: Caffeine

November 11, 2006

Ah, caffeine. For many people, productivity at school, work, and home would slip without a morning dose of this alkaloid found in tea leaves, coffee beans, cocoa beans, and kola nuts. Caffeine acts as a central nervous system and respiratory stimulant and is also a diuretic.

Get more information on this molecule from CAS (Chemical Abstracts Service)


(E?)(L?) http://www.ascii-art.de/ascii/index_c.shtml


(E?)(L?) http://www.ascii-art.de/ascii/c/caffeine.txt

caffeine


(E?)(L2) http://www.britannica.com/

caffeine (chemical compound)


(E?)(L?) http://www.coffeereview.com/glossary.cfm?alpha=A

"Caffeine". An odorless, bitter alkaloid responsible for the stimulating effect of coffee and tea.

"Coffea Canephora". Also Robusta. Currently the only significant competitor among cultivated coffee species to Coffea arabica. Robusta produces about 30% of the world's coffee. It is a lower-growing, higher-bearing tree that produces full-bodied but bland coffee of inferior cup quality and higher "caffeine" content than Coffea arabica. It is used as a basis for blends of instant coffee, and for less expensive blends of preground commercial coffee. It is not a factor in the specialty coffee trade except as a body-enhancing component in some Italian-style espresso blends.

"Decaffeination Processes". Specialty coffees are decaffeinated in the green state, currently by one of four methods. The direct solvent method involves treating the beans with solvent, which selectively unites with the "caffeine" and is removed from the beans by steaming. The indirect solvent or solvent-water method involves soaking the green beans in hot water, removing the "caffeine" from the hot water by means of a solvent, and recombining the water with the beans, which are then dried. Both processes using solvents often are called European Process or Traditional Process. The water-only method, commonly known by the proprietary name Swiss Water ProcessTM, involves the same steps, but removes the "caffeine" from the water by allowing it to percolate through a bed of activated charcoal. In the carbon dioxide method, which is only beginning to be established in the specialty-coffee trade, the "caffeine" is stripped directly from the beans by a highly compressed semi-liquid form of carbon dioxide.

"Robusta", "Coffea Canephora". Currently the only significant competitor among cultivated coffee species to Coffea arabica. Robusta produces about 30% of the world's coffee. It is a lower-growing, higher-bearing tree that produces full-bodied but bland coffee of inferior cup quality and higher "caffeine" content than Coffea arabica. It is used as a basis for blends of instant coffee, and for less expensive blends of preground commercial coffee. It is not a factor in the specialty coffee trade except as a body-enhancing component in some Italian-style espresso blends. See also Coffea Arabica.

"Swiss Water Process". A trademarked decaffeination method that removes "caffeine" from coffee beans using hot water, steam, and activated charcoal rather than chemicals or solvents.

"Traditional Process", "European Process". A group of decaffeination methods that use solvents to remove "caffeine" from green coffee beans. The direct solvent method involves treating the beans with solvent, which selectively unites with the "caffeine" and is removed from the beans by steaming. The indirect solvent or solvent-water method involves soaking the green beans in hot water, removing the "caffeine" from the hot water by means of a solvent, and recombining the water with the beans, which are then dried.


(E2)(L1) http://www.dictionary.com/browse/caffeine

caffeine


(E?)(L?) http://www.drmardy.com/dmdmq/r

If you’re looking for youth, you’re looking for longevity, just take a dose of rock ’n’ roll. Hank Ballard, in a 1966 radio interview; quoted in his Associated Press obituary (March 4, 2003)

Ballard, who wrote “The Twist” in 1958 and released it in early 1959 as a B-Side (to “Teardrops on Your Letter”) continued: “It keeps you going, just like the "caffeine" in your coffee. Rock ’n’ Roll is good for the soul, for the well-being, for the psyche, for your everything.”


(E?)(L?) http://www.drmardy.com/dmdmq/w

? What hashish was to Baudelaire, opium to Coleridge, cocaine to Robert Louis Stevenson, nitrous oxide to Robert Southey, mescaline to Aldous Huxley, and Benzedrine to Jack Kerouac, "caffeine" was to Balzac. Anne Fadiman, in At Large and At Small: Familiar Essays (2007)

AUTHOR NOTE: Balzac, who often worked up to eighteen hours a day, drank forty to fifty cups of coffee a day. Over time, he gradually reduced the amount of water used in order to concentrate the "caffeine" dosage. Near the end of his life, he eliminated the water entirely, simply eating dry coffee grounds (many believe he ultimately died of "caffeine" poisoning). Balzac was the prototype of a person who carries things to excess. In The Literary Life and Other Curiosities (1981), Robert Hendrickson called him the world's greatest literary glutton, writing: “A typical meal for the French novelist consisted of a hundred oysters for starters; twelve lamb cutlets; a duckling with turnips; two roast partridges; sole a la Normandy; various fruits; and wines, coffee, and liqueurs to wash it all down.”

Writing is about hypnotizing yourself into believing in yourself, getting some work done, then unhypnotizing yourself and going over the material coldly. Anne Lamott, in Bird by Bird: Some Instructions on Writing and Life (1994)

The act of writing turns out to be its own reward. Anne Lamott, in Bird by Bird: Some Instructions on Writing and Life (1994)

Lamott preceded the observation by writing: “Writing has so much to give, so much to teach, so many surprises. The thing you had to force you to do — the actual act of writing — turns out to be the best part. It’s like discovering that while you thought you needed the tea ceremony for the "caffeine", what you really needed was the tea ceremony.”


(E?)(L?) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=caffeine

"caffeine" (n.) trimethyl-derivative of xanthine, 1830, from German "Kaffein", coined by chemist F.F. Runge (1795-1867), apparently from German "Kaffee" "coffee" (see "coffee") + chemical suffix "-ine" (2) (German "-in"). The form of the English word may be via French "caféine".


(E?)(L?) http://h2g2.com/edited_entry/A622414

"Caffeine" ("C8H10N4O2"), known medically as "1,3,7-trimethylxanthine", is a legal stimulant and diuretic used by a large percentage of the Earth's human inhabitants. It can be found naturally in drinks like coffee and tea, and has been artificially introduced into sodas like 'Coke', 'Mountain Dew', and 'Surge'. Additionally, small amounts can be found in solid foods like chocolate. The primary method of obtaining pure caffeine is through the decaffeination of coffee and tea, and in this state caffeine appears as a fine white powder. When ingested, this powder is very bitter.
...


(E?)(L?) http://h2g2.com/search?search_type=article_quick_search&searchstring=Caffeine&approved_entries_only_chk=1




(E6)(L1) http://home.howstuffworks.com/caffeine.htm

caffeine


(E?)(L?) http://www.howstuffworks.com/big.htm




(E?)(L?) http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=11068

Definition of Caffeine


(E?)(L?) http://magma.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0501/feature1/

Slurped in black coffee or sipped in green tea, gulped down in a soda or knocked back in a headache pill, caffeine is the world's most popular psychoactive drug.
...


(E?)(L?) http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0501/feature1/assignment1.html

Field Notes From Caffeine
...


(E?)(L?) https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/caffeine.html

Summary

"Caffeine" is a bitter substance found in coffee, tea, soft drinks, chocolate, kola nuts, and certain medicines. It has many effects on the body's metabolism, including stimulating the central nervous system. This can make you more alert and give you a boost of energy.
...


(E?)(L?) https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/encyclopedia_C.htm




(E?)(L?) http://www.oedilf.com/db/Lim.php?Word=caffeine

Limericks on "caffeine"

caffeine addict | caffeine addiction | caffeine citrate


(E?)(L?) https://vimeo.com/20461921

Brandt Brauer Frick - Caffeine

von Danae Diaz |mehr


(E?)(L?) http://www.vocabulary.com/dictionary/phylum#word=A




(E?)(L?) http://www.webmd.com/diet/rm-quiz-caffeine-myths

Quiz: Myths and Facts About Caffeine


(E?)(L?) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caffeine

"Caffeine" is a "central nervous system" ("CNS") stimulant of the methylxanthine class. It is the world's most widely consumed psychoactive drug, but — unlike many other psychoactive substances — it is legal and unregulated in nearly all parts of the world. There are several known mechanisms of action to explain the effects of caffeine. The most prominent is that it reversibly blocks the action of adenosine on its receptor and consequently prevents the onset of drowsiness induced by adenosine. Caffeine also stimulates certain portions of the autonomic nervous system.
...


(E?)(L1) http://www.wolframalpha.com/examples/FoodAndNutrition.html

compare the amount of a particular nutrient in multiple foods

caffeine in 24 oz. coffee, 24 oz. soda


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/




(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=Caffeine
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "Caffeine" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1760 / 1840 auf.

(E?)(L?) http://www.wordmap.co/#Caffeine

This experiment brings together the power of Google Translate and the collective knowledge of Wikipedia to put into context the relationship between language and geographical space.


Erstellt: 2016-06

chicory (W3)

Die Bezeichnung der Pflanze dt. "Zichorie", span. "achicoria", frz. "chicorée", ital. "cicoria", engl. "chicory", deren Wurzeln auch zur Herstellung von Kaffeeersatz verwendet wird, geht über ital. "cicoria" zurück auf lat. "cichorea", "cichoreum", griech. "kichorion" = dt. "Wegwarte", "Endivie".

Die als Salat verwendete Pflanze, die man auch als dt., frz. "Chicorée" kaufen kann, ist eine im 20. Jh. veredelte Form der "Zichorie".

Die Bezeichnungen dt. "Bleichzichorie" und "Treibzichorie" beziehen sich auf das Austreiben aus Chicoréewurzeln unter Lichtausschluss wodurch auch die Entwicklung von Chlorophyll verhindert wird und die Pflanze ihre blassgelbe Farbe erhält.

Verwirrend ist, dass die dt. "Zichorie" der frz. "endivie" entspricht und umgekehrt der dt. "Endiviensalat" dem frz. "chicorée" entspricht. Die botanisch-sprachliche korrekte Zuordnung überlasse ich deshalb lieber den Fachleuten. Wie man bei ARTE erfahren kann, war auch in diesem Fall Napoleon indirekt beteiligt.


"Chicory" als Farbe: - #8a7f8e - Chicory
"Chicory Blue" als Farbe: - #f0d698 - Chicory Blue
"Chicory Blue" als Farbe: - #8a7f8e - Chicory Blue
"Chicory Blue" als Farbe: - #837da2 - Chicory Blue
"Chicory Blue" als Farbe: - #876c99 - Chicory Blue
"Deep Chicory Blue" als Farbe: - #755d9a - Deep Chicory Blue
"Light Chicory Blue" als Farbe: - #876c99 - Light Chicory Blue



(E?)(L?) http://germanfood.about.com/od/saladsandsides/r/Chicory-Radicchio-Salad.htm

Chicory Radicchio Salad With Red Lentil Dressing


(E?)(L?) http://greekfood.about.com/od/greekfoodphotogalleries/ig/Greek-Ingredient-Photos/Spiny-Chicory---Stamnagathi.htm

Spiny Chicory - Stamnagathi


(E?)(L?) http://greekfood.about.com/od/greekfoodphotogalleries/ig/Greek-Ingredient-Photos/Wild-Chicory.htm

Wild Chicory - Rathikio


(E?)(L?) http://www.bachblueten-liste.de/bachbluete/chicory.htm

"Chicory" - Deutscher Name "Wegwarte" - Botanischer Name "Chicorium intybus"
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.backyardgardener.com/plantname/pda_28e8.html

Cichorium intybus ( intybus Chicory )


(E?)(L?) http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/search?searchTerm=chicory#/titles

Coffee and chicory: their culture, chemical composition, preparation for market, and consumption, with simple tests for detecting adulteration, and practical hints for the producer and consumer. By P.L. Simmonds.
By: Simmonds, P. L.
Publication info: London,E. & F.N. Spon,1864.
Contributed by: University of California Libraries (archive.org)
View Book

Witloof chicory (Belgian endive) and radiccio trials -- 1987-1988 /
By: Hill, David E. - Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station.
Publication info: New Haven [Conn.] :Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station,[1989]
Series: Bulletin (Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station) ;
Contributed by: University of Connecticut Libraries (archive.org)
View Book

Fruits and vegetables under glass; apples, apricots, cherries, figs, grapes, melons, peaches and nectarines, pears, pineapples, plums, strawberries; asparagus, beans, beets, carrots, chicory, cauliflowers, cucumbers, lettuce, mushrooms, radishes, rhubarb, sea kale, tomatoes,
By: Turner, William,
Publication info: New York,A. T. De La Mare Printing and Pub. Co.,1912.
Contributed by: NCSU Libraries (archive.org)
View Book

Practical instructions for the cultivation of the potato, containing the competition essay for the prize of 1000 francs offered by the Belgium government : also, instructions on the management of asparagus, sea kale, rhubarb, vegetable marrow, scarlet runner, strawberry, melon, cucumber; the tomato, or love apple; chicory and lamb lettuce as salads; the Lisianthus Rusellianus, the tree mignonette; the destruction of woodlice and green fly; and peat charcoal as a manure /
By: Cuthill, James.
Publication info: London :Printed for the author and sold by him only,1850.
Contributed by: University of Southampton (archive.org)
BHL Collections: Perkins Agricultural Library
View Book


(E?)(L?) http://www.bladmineerders.nl/plantenf/pfasteraceae/cichorium.htm

Cichorium, cichorei - fam. Asteraceae
...
Cichorium, chicory - fam. Asteraceae
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/c/chicor61.html

"Chicory"
Botanical: "Cichorium intybus" (LINN.)
Family: N.O. Compositae
Synonyms: "Succory". "Wild Succory". "Hendibeh". "Barbe de Capucin".
Habitat

"Wild Chicory" or "Succory" is not uncommon in many parts of England and Ireland, though by no means a common plant in Scotland.
...
History

It has been suggested that the name "Succory" came from the Latin "succurrere" ("to run under"), because of the depth to which the root penetrates. It may, however be a corruption of "Chicory", or "Ctchorium", a word of Egyptian origin, which in various forms is the name of the plant in practically every European language. The Arabian physicians called it "Chicourey". "Intybus", the specific name of the "Chicory", is a modification of another Eastern name for the plant - "Hendibeh". The "Endive", an allied but foreign species (a native of southern Asia and northern provinces of China) derives both its common and specific names from the same word. The "Endive" and the "Succory" are the only two species in the genus "Cichorium". There is little doubt that the "Cichorium" mentioned by Theophrastus as in use amongst the ancients was the "wild Chicory", since the names by which the wild plant is known in all the languages of modern Europe are merely corruptions of the original Greek word, while there are different names in the different countries for the "Garden Endive".
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.coffeereview.com/glossary.cfm?alpha=A

"Chicory". The root of the "endive", roasted and ground, it is blended with coffee in New Orleans style coffee.

"New Orleans Coffee". Traditionally, dark-roast coffee blended with up to forty percent roasted and ground chicory root. Most New Orleans blends sold in specialty stores today contain no chicory, however. They are essentially dark-roast blends, heavy on dry-processed Brazil coffees.


(E?)(L?) http://cool.conservation-us.org/don/dt/dt0673.html

chicory


(E?)(L?) http://www.deliaonline.com/ingredients/ingredients-a-z/ingredients-a-c/Chicory-heads.html

Chicory heads


(E2)(L1) http://www.dictionary.com/browse/chicory

chicory


(E?)(L?) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=chicory

"chicory" (n.) late 14c., "cicoree" (modern form from mid-15c.), from Middle French "cichorée" "endive", "chicory" (15c., Modern French "chicorée"), from Latin "cichoreum", from Greek "kikhorion" (plural "kikhoreia") "endive", which is of unknown origin. Klein suggests a connection with Old Egyptian "keksher". The modern English form is from French influence.


(E2)(L1) http://www.flowersofindia.net/botanical.html

Cichorium intybus Asteraceae Chicory


(E?)(L?) http://home.howstuffworks.com/chicory.htm

Chicory


(E6)(L1) http://www.imagines-plantarum.de/cname1frm.html

chicory


(E?)(L1) https://www.lebensmittellexikon.de/c0000110.php#0

Chicorée, Brüsseler Endivie, Brüsseler Salat, Chicon, Salatzichorie, Bleichzichorie, Treibzichorie
Cichorium intybus L. var. foliosum Hegi
Witloof chicory, Brussels chicory, French endive
Chicorée de Bruxelles, Chicorée witloof
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.oedilf.com/db/Lim.php?Word=asparagus chicory

Limericks on "asparagus chicory"


(E?)(L?) http://www.oedilf.com/db/Lim.php?Word=chicory

Limericks on "chicory"


(E?)(L?) http://www.oedilf.com/db/Lim.php?Word=Chicory Tip

Limericks on "Chicory Tip"


(E?)(L?) http://botany.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/imaxxast.htm




(E?)(L?) http://www.plants.usda.gov/java/imageGallery?txtparm=&category=sciname&familycategory=all&duration=all&growthhabit=all&nativestatus=all&wetland=all&artist=all©right=all&imagetype=all&cite=all&location=all&viewsort=text&sort=sciname&submit2.x=42&submit2.y=11




(E?)(L?) https://www.rhs.org.uk/advice/grow-your-own/vegetables/chicory

Chicory

There are three types of chicory: forcing types like "Witloof" grown for their plump leafy heads or "chicons" when blanched; "red chicory" or "radicchio" which responds to change in day length by turning red; finally non-forcing or sugar loaf types that produce large hearted lettuce-like heads (heading forms) for autumn harvest. Chicory is used as a bitter flavouring to autumn and spring salads – add tomatoes or sweet dressing to reduce bitterness.
...


(E?)(L?) https://www.vocabulary.com/dictionary/chicory




(E?)(L?) https://www.vocabulary.com/dictionary/Cichorium




(E?)(L?) https://www.vocabulary.com/dictionary/genus%20Cichorium

genus Cichorium chicory


(E?)(L?) https://www.vocabulary.com/dictionary/Postum

Postum trade mark for a coffee substitute invented by C. W. Post and made with chicory and roasted grains


(E?)(L?) https://www.vocabulary.com/dictionary/radicchio




(E?)(L?) http://wisflora.herbarium.wisc.edu/taxa/index.php?taxon=563

chicory - Cichorium spp. - Family: Asteraceae


(E?)(L?) http://wisflora.herbarium.wisc.edu/taxa/index.php?taxon=3127

Cichorium intybus L.
Family: Asteraceae
"blue-sailors", "chicory"
["Cichorium intybus f. albiflorum L.", "Cichorium intybus f. roseum L."]

Etymology: "Cichorium": Latinized version of an Arabic name for one species of this genus from the Greek "kichore", which usually carries a common name of "chicory" or "endive".
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/chicory

chicory
...
Origin of chicory

Middle English "cicory"; from Old French "cicorée"; from Classical Latin "cichorium"; from Classical Greek "kichora", "kichoreia", "chicory", "endive", "succory"

Webster's New World College Dictionary Copyright © 2010 by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio.
...
Middle English "cicoree" (from Old French "cichoree") and French "chicorée", both from Latin "cichorium", "cichoreum", from Greek "kikhoreia", pl. diminutive of "kikhora".

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 5th edition Copyright © 2013 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company.
...
From Middle French "chicorée", from Old French "cicoree", from Late Latin "*cichoria", from Latin "cichorium", from Ancient Greek "kichorion".
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/chicorylike

chicorylike


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=chicory
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "chicory" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1770 auf.

(E?)(L?) http://corpora.informatik.uni-leipzig.de/


(E?)(L?) http://www.wordmap.co/#chicory

This experiment brings together the power of Google Translate and the collective knowledge of Wikipedia to put into context the relationship between language and geographical space.


Erstellt: 2016-03

D

E

Espresso (W3)

Der "Espresso" wird "ex presso" = "ausdrücklich" (auf Bestellung) für eine Tasse Kaffee zubereitet; d.h. die Kaffee-Bohnen werden frisch gemahlen, daraus ein "Kuchen" "gepresst" und dann das Wasser "hindurchgedampft".

Ausgehend von ital. "caffé espresso" = dt. (mit heißem Wasserdampf) "ausgepresster Kaffee", engl. "pressed-out coffee" erscheint engl. "caffé espresso" um 1945 und engl. "espresso" um 1955 (auch als engl. "expresso") ("strong black coffee brewed by forcing steam through finely ground darkly roasted coffee beans")

Bei soviel Druck kann der Kaffe ja nur "Espresso" heissen.

Übrigens heißt er nicht "Expresso". Das "x" im lat. "expressus" = dt. "ausgedrückt", "ausdrücklich" ging bereits im ital. "caffé espresso" in ein "s" über.

(E1)(L1) http://web.archive.org/web/20080726192225/http://www.bartleby.com/61/50/e0215000.html

espresso


(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20070402202245/http://www.bartleby.com/68/76/2276.html

espresso, expresso


(E?)(L?) http://www.bettycrocker.com/search/searchresults?term=Espresso

Espresso


(E?)(L?) http://www.coffeereview.com/glossary.cfm?alpha=A

After-Dinner Roast, Espresso Roast, Continental Roast, and European Roast. Terms for coffee brought to degrees of roast ranging from somewhat darker than the traditional American norm to dark brown. Acidity diminishes and a rich bitter-sweetness emerges. Among many newer American specialty roasters, roast styles once called by these names may in fact constitute the typical, "regular" roast of coffee.

Americano, Caffè Americano. An espresso lengthened with hot water.

Caffè Americano. An espresso lengthened with hot water.

City Roast. Also Light French Roast, Viennese Roast, Light Espresso Roast, High Roast, and Full-City Roast. Terms for coffee brought to degrees of roast somewhat darker than the traditional American norm, but lighter than the classic dark roast variously called espresso, French, or Italian. In the cup, full-city and associated roast styles are less acidy and smoother than the traditional American "medium" roast, but may display fewer of the distinctive taste characteristics of the original coffee. Among many newer American specialty roasters, roast styles once called full-city, Viennese, etc. may constitute the typical, "regular" roast of coffee.

Continental Roast. Also known as Espresso Roast, After-Dinner Roast, and European Roast. Terms for coffee brought to degrees of roast ranging from somewhat darker than the traditional American norm to dark brown. Acidity diminishes and a rich bittersweetness emerges. Among many newer American specialty roasters, roast styles once called by these names may in fact constitute the typical, "regular" roast of coffee.

Crema. The pale brown foam covering the surface of a well-brewed tazzina of espresso.

Demitasse. "Half cup" in French; a half-size or three-ounce cup used primarily for espresso coffee.

Doppio. A double espresso, or three to six ounces of straight espresso.

"Espresso". Used to describe both a roast of coffee (see "Espresso Roast") and a method of brewing in which hot water is forced under pressure through a compressed bed of finely ground coffee. In the largest sense, an entire approach to coffee cuisine, involving a traditional menu of drinks, many combining brewed espresso coffee with steam-heated, steam-frothed milk.

"Espresso Roast", "After-Dinner Roast", "Continental Roast", "European Roast". Terms for coffee brought to degrees of roast ranging from somewhat darker than the traditional American norm to dark brown. Acidity diminishes and a rich bitter-sweetness emerges. Among many newer American specialty roasters, roast styles once called by these names may in fact constitute the typical, "regular" roast of coffee.

European Roast, Espresso Roast, After-Dinner Roast, Continental Roast. Terms for coffee brought to degrees of roast ranging from somewhat darker than the traditional American norm to dark brown. Acidity diminishes and a rich bitter-sweetness emerges. Among many newer American specialty roasters, roast styles once called by these names may in fact constitute the typical, "regular" roast of coffee.

French Roast, Heavy Roast, Spanish Roast. Terms for coffee brought to degrees of roast considerably darker than the American norm; may range in color from dark brown (see Espresso Roast) to nearly black (see Dark French Roast) and in flavor from rich and bittersweet to thin-bodied and burned.

Full-City Roast, Light French Roast, Viennese Roast, Light Espresso Roast, City Roast, High Roast. Terms for coffee brought to degrees of roast somewhat darker than the traditional American norm, but lighter than the classic dark roast variously called espresso, French, or Italian. In the cup, full-city and associated roast styles are less acidy and smoother than the traditional American "medium" roast, but may display fewer of the distinctive taste characteristics of the original coffee. Among many newer American specialty roasters, roast styles once called full-city, Viennese, etc. may constitute the typical, "regular" roast of coffee.

Heavy Roast. Also known as French Roast and Spanish Roast. Terms for coffee brought to degrees of roast considerably darker than the American norm; may range in color from dark brown (see Espresso Roast) to nearly black (see Dark French Roast) and in flavor from rich and bittersweet to thin-bodied and burned.

High Roast, Full-City Roast, Light French Roast, Viennese Roast, Light Espresso Roast, City Roast. Terms for coffee brought to degrees of roast somewhat darker than the traditional American norm, but lighter than the classic dark roast variously called espresso, French, or Italian. In the cup, full-city and associated roast styles are less acidy and smoother than the traditional American "medium" roast, but may display fewer of the distinctive taste characteristics of the original coffee. Among many newer American specialty roasters, roast styles once called full-city, Viennese, etc. may constitute the typical, "regular" roast of coffee.

Light Espresso Roast, Light French Roast, Vienna Roast, City Roast, Full-City Roast, High Roast. Terms for coffee brought to degrees of roast somewhat darker than the traditional American norm, but lighter than the classic dark roast variously called espresso, French, or Italian. In the cup, full-city and associated roast styles are less acidy and smoother than the traditional American "medium" roast, but may display fewer of the distinctive taste characteristics of the original coffee. Among many newer American specialty roasters, roast styles once called full-city, Viennese, etc. may constitute the typical, "regular" roast of coffee.

Neapolitan Roast. Term for coffee brought to a degree of roast darker than the typical espresso roast, but not quite black.

Spanish Roast, French Roast, Heavy Roast. Terms for coffee brought to degrees of roast considerably darker than the American norm; may range in color from dark brown (see Espresso Roast) to nearly black (see Dark French Roast) and in flavor from rich and bittersweet to thin-bodied and burned.

Viennese Roast. Term for coffee brought to a degree of roast slightly darker than the traditional American norm, but lighter than degrees of roast variously called espresso, French, or Italian. In the cup, Viennese roast (also called full-city, light French or light espresso roast) is less acidy and smoother than the characteristic American roast, but may display fewer of the distinctive taste characteristics of the original coffee. Viennese roast may also refer to a mixture of beans roasted to a dark brown and beans roasted to the traditional American medium brown.


(E2)(L1) http://www.dictionary.com/browse/espresso

espresso


(E?)(L?) http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/expressing-your-love-for-espresso-in-italian.html

Expressing Your Love for Espresso in Italian


(E?)(L?) http://www.espressomadeinitaly.com/

Espresso made in Italy

100 Jahre Geschichte, Kultur und Design der Espresso-Maschine.


(E?)(L?) http://espressostories.com/

This is "espresso stories", an idea by the writers Chris Worth and R.P. Bird. It explores a literary form for today's frothed-up, on-the-hoof, want-it-all-now consumer lifestyle: complete stories that take no longer to read than an espresso takes to slurp. The most basic rule is that they're just a sentence or two, totalling 25 words or less.
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=espresso

"espresso" (n.) coffee made under steam pressure, 1945, from Italian "(caffe) espresso", from "espresso" "pressed out", past participle of "esprimere", from Latin "exprimere" "press out", "squeeze out" (see "express" (v.1)). In reference to the steam pressure.


(E?)(L1) http://science.howstuffworks.com/innovation/edible-innovations/espresso.htm

How Espresso Works


(E?)(L?) http://home.howstuffworks.com/espresso-machine.htm

How Espresso Machines Work


(E?)(L?) http://recipes.howstuffworks.com/question645.htm

What is the difference between espresso and drip coffee?


(E?)(L?) http://blog.inkyfool.com/2011/01/expressly-expressing-express-espressos.html

Expressly Expressing Express Espressos


(E?)(L?) http://eggcorns.lascribe.net/english/321/expresso/

"espresso" » "expresso"


(E?)(L?) http://listserv.linguistlist.org/pipermail/ads-l/2006-July/061011.html

Espresso (1919) Bapopik


(E?)(L?) http://listserv.linguistlist.org/pipermail/ads-l/2002-October/026383.html

Espresso, Biscotti (Baedeker, 1928) Bapopik


(E?)(L?) http://listserv.linguistlist.org/pipermail/ads-l/2001-November/subject.html




(E?)(L?) http://listserv.linguistlist.org/pipermail/ads-l/2001-August/subject.html

Espresso (1939); Alfredo; Thin Mints Bapopik


(E?)(L?) http://www.oedilf.com/db/Lim.php?Word=espresso

Limericks on "espresso"


(E?)(L?) http://www.oedilf.com/db/Lim.php?Word=espresso ristretta

Limericks on "espresso ristretta"


(E?)(L?) http://www.oedilf.com/db/Lim.php?Word=espresso ristretto

Limericks on "espresso ristretto"


(E?)(L?) http://www.slate.com/blogs/lexicon_valley/2014/08/18/espresso_or_expresso_the_x_spelling_actually_has_considerable_historical.html

Why It's Not So Unreasonable to Spell "Espresso" With an "X"

By Ben Yagoda
...
"Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary of English Usage", predictably, is less judgmental, allowing only (on the matter of correctness) that "espresso" "is undoubtedly favored by the cognoscenti". (And good on "MWDEU" for resisting the urge to say "snobs"!) The dictionary explains that the drink is known in Italy, where it originated, as "caffe espresso", or just "espresso" for short. It goes on: "Contrary to a popular belief of English-speakers, the "espresso" means not just "fast" but "pressed out" — it refers to the process by which the coffee is made, not the speed of the process. The idea that "caffe espresso" means "fast coffee" may have contributed somewhat to the occurrence in English of the variant "expresso"."
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.takeourword.com/TOW153/page4.html#espresso

espresso


(E?)(L?) http://www.takeourword.com/TOW152/page2.html#espresso

espresso


(E?)(L?) http://www.takeourword.com/TOW151/page3.html

Curmudgeons' Corner expressing espresso


(E?)(L?) https://vimeo.com/20462199

Hello, I like espresso


(E?)(L?) https://vimeo.com/8709313

Espresso, Intelligentsia - properly make espresso


(E?)(L?) http://www.waywordradio.org/espresso-vs-expresso/

Espresso vs. Expresso


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/espresso

espresso


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=Espresso
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "Espresso" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1840 / 1920 auf.

(E?)(L?) http://corpora.informatik.uni-leipzig.de/


(E?)(L?) http://www.wordmap.co/#Espresso

This experiment brings together the power of Google Translate and the collective knowledge of Wikipedia to put into context the relationship between language and geographical space.


Erstellt: 2016-06

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Kaffeeklatsch (W3)

Der dt. "Kaffeeklatsch" (1840) hat es auch in die englische Sprache geschafft. Dort findet man ihn als engl. "kaffeeklatch", "kaffee klatch", "kaffee klatsch", "coffeeklatsch", "coffeeklatch", "coffee klatsch", "coffee klatch".

(E2)(L1) http://www.dictionary.com/browse/kaffeeklatsch

kaffeeklatsch


(E?)(L?) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=kaffeeklatsch

kaffeeklatsch


(E?)(L?) http://pauls-notes.blogspot.de/2009/09/100-german-words-youll-find-in-english.html

Friday, September 11, 2009

100 German Words You'll Find In English

abseil | Alzheimer | Angst | Auf Wiedersehen | Anschluss | Apfelstrudel | Aspirin | Autobahn | Blitz | Blitzkrieg | Bratwurst | Creutzfeldt-Jakob-Krankheit | Christkindl | Dachshund | Delikatessen | Dieselmotor | Dirndl | Dirndlkleid | Dobermann Pinscher | Doppelgänger | Doppler | Dummkopf | Edelweiß | Ersatz | Fahrenheit | Fahrvergnügen | Fest | Flak | Frau | Fräulein | Frankfurter | Wurst | Führer | Gasthaus | Gauß | Geigerzähler | gemütlich | Gemütlichkeit | Gestalt | Gesundheit | Gewürztraminer | Glockenspiel | Götterdämmerung | Hamburger | Hamster | Hertz | Hinterland | "Kaffeeklatsch" | Kaiser | kaputt | Kindergarten | Kitsch | kitschig | Knackwurst | Kobalt | Konzertmeister | Lebensraum | Leberwurst | Lederhose | Leitmotiv | Lied | Leberwurst | Masochismus | Neanderthal | Nickel | Ostpolitik | Panzer | Pinscher | Poltergeist | Putsch | Quarz | Realpolitik | Reich | Reichstag | Rottweiler | Rucksack | Sauerbraten | Sauerkraut | Schadenfreude | Schnapps | Schnauzer | Schnitzel | Schweinehund | Strudel | Übermensch | Umlaut | verboten | Volkswagen | Walzer | Waldsterben | Wanderlust | Wehrmacht | Weltanschauung | Weltschmerz | Wienerschnitzel | wunderbar | Wunderkind | Zeitgeist | Zeppelin | Zink and "Vorsprung durch Technik"


(E1)(L1) http://www.wordsmith.org/awad/archives.html

2012-11: Words borrowed from German: wunderkind | gemutlichkeit | blitzkrieg | kulturkampf | kaffeeklatsch | AWADmail 542


(E?)(L?) http://www.wordsmith.org/words/kaffeeklatsch.html

kaffeeklatsch
...
ETYMOLOGY: From German Kaffeeklatsch, from Kaffee (coffee) + Klatsch (gossip). Earliest documented use: 1888.
...


(E?)(L2) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_English_words_of_German_origin

kaffeeklatsch


(E?)(L?) http://wordsmith.org/words/kaffeeklatsch.html

kaffeeklatsch
...
ETYMOLOGY: From German Kaffeeklatsch, from Kaffee (coffee) + Klatsch (gossip). Earliest documented use: 1888.
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/kaffeeklatsch

kaffeeklatsch


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=kaffeeklatsch
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "kaffeeklatsch" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1900 auf.

(E?)(L?) http://corpora.informatik.uni-leipzig.de/


(E?)(L?) http://www.wordmap.co/#Kaffeeklatsch

This experiment brings together the power of Google Translate and the collective knowledge of Wikipedia to put into context the relationship between language and geographical space.


Erstellt: 2016-04

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melange (W3)

Dt. "Melange" (18. Jh.), engl. "melange" (17. Jh.) (= engl. "mixture", "medley"), wurde von frz. "mélange" = dt. "Gemisch", "Mischung" übernommen. Das Verb frz. "mêler" (altfrz. "mesler") = dt. "mischen" geht wiederum zurück auf lat. "miscere", lat. "misculare" = dt. "mischen". In Österreich wurde "Melange" (19. Jh.) zur Bezeichnung für "Milchkaffee". Frz. "mélange" kann im passenden Kontext dt. "Mörtel" bedeuten. Dt. "Melange" kann auch "aus verschiedenfarbigen Fasern hergestelltes Garn" bezeichnen.

Als Verwandten kann man auch das Adjektiv dt. "meliert" (17. Jh.) = dt. "gefleckt", "gesprenkelt" - vor allem als "grau meliert" - antreffen. Zu dieser Zeit konnte man auch noch das Verb dt. "melieren" = dt. "mischen", "sprenkeln" antreffen. Dieses basiert ebenfalls auf frz. "mêler".

Übrigens ist auch dt "mischen" über althdt. "miskan", altengl. "miscian" mit lat. "miscere" = dt. "mischen", "vermischen" verwandt oder ist sogar aus diesem übernommen worden.

Als weitere Ahnen trifft man noch auf griech. "meígnymi" = dt. "ich mische", "ich vermenge", altind. "mí-miks-ati" = dt. "er mischt".

Und als weitere Abkömmlinge findet man dt. "mixen", "Mixer", "Mixedpickles", "Mischmasch" und Kombinationen wie etwa die einstige dt. "Mischehe", die es heute zwar immer noch gibt, die aber niemand mehr sonderlich wahrnimmt und deshalb ist es auch zu begrüßen, dass diese Bezeichnung für "gemischt konfessionelle Ehen" verschwindet. Auch engl. "meddle" und engl. "mix" gehören in diese Wortfamilie.



(E?)(L?) http://geology.about.com/od/geotours_ca/ig/stinson_beach/stinsonmelange.htm

This example of Franciscan mélange shows the intimate mixing of rock types created deep in subduction zones.


(E?)(L?) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=melange

"melange" (n.) 1650s, from French "mélange" (15c.), from "mêler" "to mix", "mingle", from Old French "mesler" (see "meddle").


(E?)(L?) http://listserv.linguistlist.org/pipermail/ads-l/2002-May/022229.html

Schnitzel, Gulasch, Melange, Schill (Baedeker, 1868) Bapopik

SOUTHERN GERMANY AND THE AUSTRIAN EMPIRE
HANDBOOK FOR TRAVELLERS
K. Baedeker, Coblenz, 1868

(Compare this with the Murray 1838 I'm going to post--ed.)

Pg. 157 (Vienna, Restaurants):

(Some of the Vieneese dishes have peculiar names, e. g. "Gulasch in Saft" a kind of stew, "Schnitzel" veal cutlets, "Firsolen" beans, "Carviol" cauliflower, "Kren" horse-radish, "Aspic" jelly, "Schill" and "Fogasch" good kinds of fish.)

(OED has 1885 for "schill"--ed.)

Pg. 157: Glass of coffee 16 kr. (with milk "melange"), rolls 2 kr. each, waiter ("marqueur") 2 kr.

(OED has 1922 for "melange". "Marqueur"?--ed.)

Pg. 157 (Vienna, Confectioners):

Sacher, Raubensteig 12, emporium of all kinds of delicacies.

Pg. 158: _Wines._ _Voslauer_ and _Gumpolskirchener_ are the best Austrian wines.


(E?)(L?) http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=melange

melange


(E?)(L?) http://dictionary.reference.com/wordoftheday/archive/2001/02/01.html

melange


(E?)(L?) http://www.visualthesaurus.com/?word=melange

melange


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/melange

melange


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=melange
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "melange" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1720 auf.

(E?)(L?) http://corpora.informatik.uni-leipzig.de/


(E?)(L?) http://www.wordmap.co/#melange

This experiment brings together the power of Google Translate and the collective knowledge of Wikipedia to put into context the relationship between language and geographical space.


Erstellt: 2016-

Mooreeffoc (W3)

Das Wort engl. "Mooreeffoc" wurde von Charles Dickens (07.02.1812 (Portsmouth) - 09.06.1870 (Gadshill Place (bei Rochester)) kreiert und in seiner Autobiographie veröffentlicht. Dickens saß in einem Londoner Kaffeehaus und las die Bezeichnung des Cafés "coffee room", die auf der Scheibe stand von der Rückseite, so daß sich "moor eeffoc" ergab. Dieses Wort wurde von G.K. Chesterton und J.R.R. Tolkien aufgenommen. Sie gaben dem Wort "mooreeffoc" die Bedeutung engl. "something suddenly seen in a strangely new way". Im Deutschen könnte man etwa sagen "plötzlich etwas durch eine andere Brille sehen" oder "etwas von der anderen Seite betrachten". Das Wort engl. "mooreeffoc" ist im Alltag eher selten, dennoch gibt es viele Kommentare dazu.

Bei Tolkien erfährt engl. "mooreeffoc" eine eher negative Auslegung, indem er es definiert als "Entzauberung von Dingen, wenn man sie von einer anderen Warte aus betrachtet".

(E?)(L?) http://americanchestertonsociety.blogspot.de/2006/09/mooreeffoc.html

Friday, September 15, 2006

The "Mooreeffoc"

So, you say you've read Chesterton, and Tolkien, and Dickens, and Rowling, and you know all the strange names for their characters and creatures... I ask you, on your honour as a knight, a defender of Notting Hill, a true seneschal of the High Court of Beacon, a card-carrying member of the Last Crusade:

Do you know the Mooreeffoc?
...
"Mooreeffoc" is a fantastic word, but it could be seen written up in every town in this land. It is "Coffee-room", viewed from the inside through a glass door, as it was seen by Dickens on a dark London day; and it was used by Chesterton to denote the "queerness of things that have become trite, when they are seen suddenly from a new angle". That kind of "fantasy" most people would allow to be wholesome enough; and it can never lack for material. But it has, I think, only a limited power; for the reason that recovery of freshness of vision is its only virtue.
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.dictionary.com/browse/mooreeffoc

mooreeffoc


(E?)(L?) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=mooreeffoc

"mooreeffoc" (n.) "coffee-room", viewed from the inside through a glass door, as it was seen by Dickens on a dark London day; ... used by Chesterton to denote the queerness of things that have become trite, when they are seen suddenly from a new angle." [J.R.R. Tolkien]


(E?)(L?) http://blog.inkyfool.com/2010/01/mooreeffoc.html

Tuesday, 5 January 2010

Mooreeffoc

I was reading about Yemen this morning and I thought of the immensely useful word mooreeffoc. My train of thought went something like this.
...
But the greatest, the most exalted, the king of caffeinated words is "mooreeffoc". It was invented by Charles Dickens himself, which is a good thing for any word. Here is the word at the moment of its birth in Dickens' autobiography describing a coffee shop in St Martin's Lane:

In the door there was an oval glass plate, with "COFFEE-ROOM" painted on it, addressed towards the street. If I ever find myself in a very different kind of "coffee-room" now, but where there is such an inscription on glass, and read it backward on the wrong side "MOOR-EEFFOC" (as I often used to do then, in a dismal reverie,) a shock goes through my blood.
...
J.R.R.Tolkein took up the word (or "Chestertonian fantasy" as he called it) in his essay On Fairy Stories, where he defined it as "the queerness of things that have become trite when they are seen suddenly from a new angle".
...


(E?)(L?) http://blog.inkyfool.com/2010/10/high.html

...
It is a strange and "mooreeffocish" thing to look upon the photograph of a dear, bald friend in the days when he had hair.
...


(E?)(L?) https://www.google.de/search?q=mooreeffoc

Ungefähr 4.180 Ergebnisse (0,33 Sekunden)


(E?)(L?) http://michaelgates.blogspot.de/2012/03/word-of-day-mooreeffoc.html

mooreeffoc (n or adj)

Something that appears strange when seen from an unusual angle.

The word comes originally from Charles Dickens, who used it in his abandoned autobiography. He was sitting in a London cafe one day and noticed that "Moor-eeffoc" is "coffee room" spelled backwards; Dickens was looking at the establishment's name from the "wrong" side of the window. G.K. Chesterton and J.R.R. Tolkien later used "mooreeffoc" in print to mean something suddenly seen in a strangely new way. (You might say that David Lynch films are full of mooreeffoc places, objects, and people.)
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.mooreeffoc.com/

moor eeffoc

life as viewed through the eye of photographer Richard Agudelo

www.richardagudelo.com


(E?)(L?) http://themooreeffoc.tumblr.com/

The Mooreeffoc

"The queerness of things that have become trite, when they are seen suddenly from a new angle." - G. K. Chesterton

(Nolite te bastardes carborundorum.)


(E?)(L?) http://wordcraft.infopop.cc/Archives/2004-4-Apr.htm

Words that made me laugh (Week of April 26, 2004)

These are words, unlikely to fit under any other category, whose theme is simply, "I laughed when I learned of these words." Something, be it the sound, the meaning, or the etymology, was irresistible. I hope they tickle your fancies too.

"mooreeffoc"
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.worldwidewords.org/weirdwords/ww-mor2.htm

...
Tolkien read more into it still in his work On Fairy-stories:

The word Mooreeffoc may cause you to realise that England is an utterly alien land, lost either in some remote past age glimpsed by history, or in some strange dim future reached only by a time-machine; to see the amazing oddity and interest of its inhabitants and their customs and feeding-habits.
...


(E?)(L?) https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/wwftd/conversations/messages/198

mooreeffoc


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=Mooreeffoc
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "Mooreeffoc" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1940 auf.

(E?)(L?) http://corpora.informatik.uni-leipzig.de/


(E?)(L?) http://www.wordmap.co/#Mooreeffoc

This experiment brings together the power of Google Translate and the collective knowledge of Wikipedia to put into context the relationship between language and geographical space.


Erstellt: 2016-04

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surrogate (W3)

Das eher selten auftretende Wort dt. "Surrogat" bedeutet dt. "Ersatz", "Ersatzmittel", "Behelf". Heute kennt man es vor allem als "Surrogatkaffee" - obwohl auch diese Bezeichnung nur noch selten auftritt. Im 16. Jh. tauchte "Surrogat" als Bezeichnung für einen dt. "Stellvertreter" auf. Im 17. Jh. hatte es dann die allgemeine Bedeutung "Ersatz", "Ersatzmittel" angenommen und wurde auch schon zu dieser Zeit vor allem auf Genussmittel und insbesondere für "Kaffeeersatz" verwendet.

Das Wort dt. "Surrogat" geht zurück auf lat. "surrogare" = dt. "ersetzen", "nachwählen in der Volksversammlung", "wählen", "erheben", kirchenlat. "surrogare ad sedem apostolicam" = dt. "auf den päpstlichen Stuhl heben". Die Zusammensetzung aus lat. "sub-", "sup-", "sur-", "sus-" = dt. "unter", "in the place of" und lat. "rogare" = dt. "bitten", "fragen", "vorschlagen" bedeutet wörtlich "als einen von unten Nachfolgenden bitten", "jemanden an die Stelle eines anderen wählen lassen", engl. "put in another's place", "to substitute".

Engl. "surrogate" hat heute noch die Bedeutung dt. "Stellvertreter", "Stellvertreter eines Bischofs". Als rechtlicher Begriff bezeichnet es einen "Nachlaßrichter", "Vormundschaftsrichter" und im Alltag steht engl. "surrogate" für dt. "Ersatz", "Surrogat". Die Bezeichnung "surrogate coffee" findet man wohl vorwiegend in den Kriegszeiten, in denen kaum echter Kaffe zur Verfügung stand.

Engl. "surrogate mother" (~1970) = dt. "die Leihmutter", engl. "a woman who is made pregnant by artificial means and bears a child for someone else" = dt. "Frau, die für eine andere Frau, ein Kind austrägt". In den 1970er Jahren wurde Louise Brown, das erste durch "in vitro fertilisation" ("IVF") gezeugte Kind geboren. Als Substantiv wurde engl. "surrogacy" gebildet.

(E?)(L?) http://sexuality.about.com/od/glossary/g/sex_surrogates.htm

Sexual Surrogates


(E?)(L?) http://sexuality.about.com/od/sexualhealthqanda/a/Are-Sex-Surrogates-Legal-In-The-United-States.htm

Is It Legal to See a Sexual Surrogate in the United States?


(E?)(L1) http://www.alanwood.net/unicode/

Low Surrogates

Surrogate characters are intended to allow mapping of additional character planes into the 16-bit Unicode system, thus allowing more than 65,536 characters to be represented. The individual surrogate code points do not represent characters; they are intended to be used in pairs, a high code point followed by a low code point, to stand in for a character in one of the supplementary planes. Their use is restricted to UTF-16. They can be used for characters in Linear B Syllabary and higher-numbered ranges. High Surrogates

Surrogate code points are intended to allow mapping of additional character planes into the 16-bit Unicode system, thus allowing more than 65,536 characters to be represented. The individual surrogate code points do not represent characters; they are intended to be used in pairs, a high code point followed by a low code point, to stand in for a character in one of the supplementary planes. Their use is restricted to UTF-16. They can be used for characters in Linear B Syllabary and higher-numbered ranges. Private Use High Surrogates

Surrogate characters are intended to allow mapping of additional character planes into the 16-bit Unicode system, thus allowing more than 65,536 characters to be represented. The individual surrogate code points do not represent characters; they are intended to be used in pairs, a high code point followed by a low code point, to stand in for a character in one of the supplementary planes. Their use is restricted to UTF-16. The high surrogates in this range are intended to allow representation of characters in Plane 15 and Plain 16.


(E?)(L?) http://www.alphadictionary.com/goodword/word/surrogate

surrogate
...
Notes: Today's Good Word may be used as an adjective in phrases such as "surrogate mother" and "surrogate brother". It may also be used as a verb meaning "to substitute" by slightly increasing the accent to the final syllable [sêr-ê-gayt], as "to surrogate an imposter for the president". The noun of this verb is "surrogation".
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(E?)(L?) http://www.apple.com/trailers/touchstone/surrogates/

Trailer for the film "Surrogates"


(E?)(L?) http://trailers.apple.com/trailers/independent/surrogatevalentine/

Surrogate Valentine


(E?)(L?) http://www.artcyclopedia.com/scripts/glossary-art-s.html

"surrogate image" - A representation, usually in photographic form, used for study.


(E?)(L?) http://pruned.blogspot.de/2007/09/simulated-worlds.html

Simulated Worlds


(E?)(L?) http://www.classicsunveiled.com/romevd/html/derivr.html

"rogo": "abrogate", "arrogance", "arrogant", "derogate", "derogation", "derogatory", "interrogate", "interrogation", "interrogative", "prerogative", "rogation", "surrogate"


(E2)(L1) http://www.dictionary.com/browse/surrogacy

surrogacy


(E2)(L1) http://www.dictionary.com/browse/surrogate

surrogate


(E2)(L1) http://www.dictionary.com/browse/surrogate mother

surrogate mother


(E?)(L?) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=surrogate

"surrogate" (n.) early 15c., from Latin "surrogatus", past participle of "surrogare"/"subrogare" "put in another's place", "substitute", from assimilated form of "sub" "in the place of", "under" (see "sub-") + "rogare" "to ask", "propose" (see "rogation"). Meaning "woman pregnant with the fertilized egg of another woman" is attested from 1978 (from 1972 of animals; "surrogate mother" in a psychological sense is from 1971). As an adjective from 1630s.


(E?)(L1) http://www.fileformat.info/info/unicode/char/a.htm




(E?)(L?) http://www.fileformat.info/info/unicode/char/d800/index.htm

Unicode Character 'Non Private Use High Surrogate, First' (U+D800)


(E?)(L?) http://www.fileformat.info/info/unicode/char/dc00/index.htm

Unicode Character 'Low Surrogate, First' (U+DC00)


(E?)(L?) http://hirr.hartsem.edu/ency/Surrogates.htm

Surrogates for Religion
...
Such examples tend to be grouped together as "surrogate religions", "quasi-religions", "pseudo-religions" — or, rather more circumspectly, as "functional alternatives to religion".
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(E?)(L?) http://www.heritage.nf.ca/dictionary/a-z-index.php#




(E?)(L?) http://www.heritage.nf.ca/dictionary/a-z-index.php#4814

"surrogacy" n Cp OED (1811, 1829) rare. The office of a naval "SURROGATE".

[1767] 1828 CARTWRIGHT ii, 305 Herewith...the copies of my proceedings in the surrogacy at Trinity.
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(E?)(L?) http://www.heritage.nf.ca/dictionary/a-z-index.php#4815

"surrogate" n Cp OED ~ sb 1 c 'one appointed to act as judge in the vice-admiralty court in place of a regular judge' (1816, 1867 quots); DC Nfld (1793, 1818), ~ court Nfld (1818). Naval officer appointed to act as a judge by the governor; also attrib.
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(E?)(L?) http://www.heritage.nf.ca/dictionary/a-z-index.php#4816

"surrogating" vbl n Cp OED "surrogate" v 3: ~ (1679). The conduct of legal hearings in coastal settlements by naval officers appointed by the governor.
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(E?)(L?) http://www-306.ibm.com/software/globalization/terminology/index.jsp




(E?)(L?) http://www.nndb.com/people/268/000032172/

Lurleen Burns Wallace
First Lady
Wife and surrogate governor of George Wallace
...


(E1)(L1) http://www.onelook.com/wotd-archive.shtml




(E?)(L?) http://www.owad.de/owad-archive-quiz.php4?id=796


(E?)(L?) http://www.owad.de/owad-archive-quiz.php4?id=3731

surrogate mother


(E?)(L?) http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc-index2.html


(E?)(L?) http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc490

0490 Surrogate RJS for UCLA-CCN J.R. Pickens [ March 1973 ] ( TXT = 9858 bytes) (Status: UNKNOWN)


(E?)(L?) http://help.sap.com/saphelp_glossary/en/index.htm




(E?)(L?) http://www.sex-lexis.com/S

surrogate mother


(E?)(L?) http://plato.stanford.edu/contents.html

"surrogate" decision-making for incompetent individuals — see advance directives


(E?)(L?) http://www.traileraddict.com/trailer/surrogates/trailer

Trailer for the movie "Surrogates"


(E?)(L?) http://www.unicode.org/charts/

Surrogates: High Surrogates | Low Surrogates


(E?)(L?) http://www.unicode.org/charts/charindex.html




(E1)(L1) http://www.visualthesaurus.com/

Visual Thesaurus Word of the Day
March 2012
Friday, March 16th

"abrogate"

Outlaw's Word of the Day:

Great preparation goes into the development and passage of laws, so when folks want to undo one, it's suitable to have a $50 word for it, and that word is today's word, "abrogate". It means to abolish (a rule or law) authoritatively. The "ab-" bit is a familiar Latin way of saying "away from" or "off". the "-rogate" bit is a great workhorse in English, descended from "rogare", "propose a law", and appearing in various words such as "arrogate", "derogate", "interrogate", and "surrogate".


(E1)(L1) http://www.visualthesaurus.com/

Visual Thesaurus Word of the Day
November 2015
Friday, November 13th

August 2008
Wednesday, August 6th

"arrogate"

Stake Your Claim Word of the Day:

English has a small handful of verbs from Latin "rogare" ("ask", "propose"), all of them worth knowing because of their particular, rather narrow meanings. This one, "arrogate", means "claim (as one's own) unwarrantedly or unjustifiably". You might want to look at its cousins as well: "abrogate", "derogate", "interrogate", and "surrogate".


(E1)(L1) http://www.visualthesaurus.com/

Visual Thesaurus Word of the Day
March 2011
Monday, March 28th

"surrogate"

Worth Asking Word of the Day:

It's not immediately obvious that "surrogate" is related to other "-ogate" words in English because the others are all verbs and "surrogate", while it exists as a verb, is used mainly as a noun these days. The common ancestor is Latin "rogare", "ask". The verb "surrogate" came first and meant "put in place of another", which lead to the today's noun, a synonym of "substitute".


(E?)(L?) http://www.vocabulary.com/dictionary/phylum#word=A




(E?)(L?) http://www.vvork.com/?page_id=8343




(E?)(L?) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miko_Coffee

...
However with lots of hard work and creativity "Miko" managed to survive this difficult period in world history! One of the ideas which kept the business alive during the war years was the decision to start roasting “acorns” just like coffee beans; it made "Miko" the creator of “Acorn Coffee.” This bitter, black derivative also known as "surrogate coffee" was drunk in large volumes throughout the war years. To be frank nothing else and better was available!
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(E6)(L1) http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Surrogate.html

Surrogate

"Surrogate data" are artificially generated data which mimic statistical properties of real data. Isospectral surrogates have identical power spectra as real data but with randomized phases. Scrambled surrogates have the same probability distribution as real data, but with white noise power spectra.


(E?)(L?) ttp://www.yourdictionary.com/




(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=surrogate
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "surrogate" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1800 auf.

(E?)(L?) http://corpora.informatik.uni-leipzig.de/


(E?)(L?) http://www.wordmap.co/#surrogate

This experiment brings together the power of Google Translate and the collective knowledge of Wikipedia to put into context the relationship between language and geographical space.


Erstellt: 2016-03

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