Etymologie, Etimología, Étymologie, Etimologia, Etymology
UK Vereinigtes Königreich Großbritannien und Nordirland, Reino Unido de Gran Bretaña e Irlanda del Norte, Royaume-Uni de Grande-Bretagne et d'Irlande du Nord, Regno Unito di Gran Bretagna e Irlanda del Nord, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Linguistik, Lingüística, Linguistique, Linguistica, Linguistics

A

abc-der-menschheit
Anglistik

(E?)(L?) http://www.abc-der-menschheit.de/coremedia/generator/wj/de/03__Geisteswissenschaften/01__Vermitteln/Anglistik_2C_20Amerikanistik.html

Ausgangspunkt
"Do you speak English?" Sollte der Gesprächspartner nach dieser Frage immer noch große Augen machen, hilft im Ausland nur noch die Verständigung mit Händen und Füßen. Englisch - das ist die Lingua Franca der Welt. Überall, wo Fremdsprachen gelehrt werden, steht Englisch ganz oben auf den Lehrplänen. Kaum ein Stellenangebot in Deutschland, das Englischkenntnisse nicht voraussetzt. Die Beherrschung dieser Fremdsprache entscheidet oftmals über das "To-be-or-not-to-be" im Job. Jenseits dieser praktischen Erwägungen gilt aber auch: Wenige europäische Sprachen verfügen über einen größeren Wortschatz und die englische Sprache ist überaus reich an literarischen Zeugnissen. Die "Anglistik" ist jener Zweig der Philologien, der sich mit der englischen Literatur, Kultur, Landeskunde und Sprache auseinander setzt.
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alphadictionary
Dr. Goodword Linguistics Minicourse

(E1)(L1) http://www.alphadictionary.com/articles/index.html#basics




Erstellt: 2010-02

B

bangor
Linguistics
What is Linguistics?
By David Crystal

(E?)(L?) http://www.bangor.ac.uk/linguistics/
About Us: How to Contact Us | Departmental Staff | Department Seminars | What is Linguistics | Location | Bangor Linguistics Society | What our Students say Amdanom Ni: Sut i gysylltu â ni | Staff yr adran | Seminarau'r Adran | Beth yw Ieithyddiaeth? | Lleoliad | Cymdeithas Ieithyddiaeth Bangor | Barn ein Myfyrwyr

(E?)(L?) http://www.bangor.ac.uk/linguistics/about/whatis.php
What is Linguistics? - By David Crystal

(E?)(L?) http://www.google.com/u/bangor?q=etymology
17.05.2005: Ergebnisse 1 - 6 von 6 für etymology. (0,14 Sekunden)
(E?)(L?) http://www.sees.bangor.ac.uk/~schmuel/etym.html
Ähnliche Seiten

(E?)(L?) http://biology.bangor.ac.uk/~bss166/ Publications/Drymarchon.pdf
[PDF] A NEW SPECIES OF INDIGO SNAKE FROM NORTH-WESTERN VENEZUELA ...... Etymology. The term "caudomaculatus" refers to the. spotted aspect of the tail of adult specimens. D. ESCRIPTION OF. H. OLOTYPE. Body scalation.

(E?)(L?) http://biology.bangor.ac.uk/~bss166/ Publications/!Lycodon_cardamomensis.pdf
[PDF] A NEW SPECIES OF WOLF SNAKE (SERPENTES: COLUBRIDAE: LYCODON ) FROM ...... Etymology. - ("L. cardamomensis") Named after the type locality, the "Cardamom Mountains" of southwestern Cambodia. D. ISCUSSION. The interrelationships of the new spe-

(E?)(L?) http://biology.bangor.ac.uk/~bss166/ Publications/!Naja_nubiae.pdf
[PDF] A new species of spitting cobra ( Naja ) from north-eastern Africa ...... Etymology. The species is named after the region of Nubia, home of. the first black African civilization, which occupied the
Etymology: The species is named after the region of Nubia, home ofthe first black African civilization, which occupied theNile Valley between Aswan and Khartoum, in present-day southern Egypt and northern Sudan. Most museumspecimens of this species originate from this region. Wesuggest the common name ‘Nubian spitting cobra’ for this species.

(E?)(L?) http://www.bangor.ac.uk/linguistics/about/coglinggen.PDF
[PDF] COGNITIVE LINGUISTICS AND GENDER REPRESENTATION... thought. Cambridge: CUP pp. 43-77. ______ 1991. From etymology to pragmatics: metaphorical and cultural aspects of semantic - Ähnliche Seiten

(E?)(L?) http://www.bangor.ac.uk/linguistics/about/applicants-2.PDF
[PDF] Applicants must be pleasant looking. ... From etymology to pragmatics: metaphorical and cultural aspects of semantic. structure. Cambridge: CUP. Talmy, Leonard. 1983. - Ähnliche Seiten

bbc
Linguistics, Speech & Semantics

(E?)(L?) http://h2g2.com/dna/h2g2/alabaster/C740




BNC (W3)

"BNC" steht für "British National Corpus".

(E?)(L1) http://www.natcorp.ox.ac.uk/


(E?)(L?) http://www.natcorp.ox.ac.uk/corpus/index.xml

What is the BNC?

The "British National Corpus" ("BNC") is a 100 million word collection of samples of written and spoken language from a wide range of sources, designed to represent a wide cross-section of British English from the later part of the 20th century, both spoken and written.

The latest edition is the BNC XML Edition, released in 2007.

The written part of the BNC (90%) includes, for example, extracts from regional and national newspapers, specialist periodicals and journals for all ages and interests, academic books and popular fiction, published and unpublished letters and memoranda, school and university essays, among many other kinds of text. The spoken part (10%) consists of orthographic transcriptions of unscripted informal conversations (recorded by volunteers selected from different age, region and social classes in a demographically balanced way) and spoken language collected in different contexts, ranging from formal business or government meetings to radio shows and phone-ins.

The corpus is encoded according to the Guidelines of the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) to represent both the output from CLAWS (automatic part-of-speech tagger) and a variety of other structural properties of texts (e.g. headings, paragraphs, lists etc.). Full classification, contextual and bibliographic information is also included with each text in the form of a TEI-conformant header.

Work on building the corpus began in 1991, and was completed in 1994. No new texts have been added after the completion of the project but the corpus was slightly revised prior to the release of the second edition BNC World (2001) and the third edition BNC XML Edition (2007). Since the completion of the project, two sub-corpora with material from the BNC have been released separately: the BNC Sampler (a general collection of one million written words, one million spoken) and the BNC Baby (four one-million word samples from four different genres).
...


C

canoo
Glossar der sprachlichen Fachbegriffe

(E?)(L1) http://www.canoo.net/services/Index/ueberblick/glossaryIndex.html
Neuentwicklungen der Canoo Engineering AG (09.08.2002): Die Canoo.net Wörterbücher und Regeln sind jetzt in Englisch verfügbar. Über 450 .html Seiten sind übersetzt worden. Ziel ist, die linguistischen Inhalte einem internationalen Publikum zugänglich zu machen. Folgende Canoo.net Wörterbücher und Grammatiken sind jetzt auch in Englisch verfügbar:
Spezialwörterbücher für Flexion, und Morphologie
Glossar der sprachlichen Fachbegriffe
Glossar der Finanzbegriffe
Index für sprachliche Fachbegriffe, und Wortbestandteile
Die Umschaltung zwischen Deutsch und Englisch ist auf jeder Seite möglich: ein Klick auf "English" bzw. "Deutsch" im Bereich der globalen Funktionslinks ("Sitemap", "Help", ...) schaltet auf die entsprechende Sprache um.
Seit Juli sind Canoo.net und das englisch-deutsche Online Wörterbuch Leo noch stärker verlinkt. Leo bietet jetzt einen Grammatik-Button, der direkt auf das Canoo Flexionswörterbuch zugreift.


D

davidcrystal
David Crystal

(E?)(L?) http://www.davidcrystal.com/

About this site

Welcome to my website. It contains details of my books, articles, and other materials, along with some biodata. Books and articles are listed on two general pages in chronological order, and are also classified under fifteen themes. The articles are downloadable - apart from a few cases where I no longer have a copy (please get in touch if you can supply copy for these missing links).




Erstellt: 2012-09

dummies
Tending to Word Roots

(E?)(L?) http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/tending-to-word-roots.html

A "root" is the basic element of a word, and it is the foundation on which the meaning of a word is built. Many roots are real words in their own right: "graph" (a diagram) and "term" (a fixed time or date), for example. Although these roots can have other elements, they don't need other elements to be complete. Most roots, however, do need other elements. For example, the roots "archy" (government) and "dox" (opinion or belief) need to be combined with other word elements, like prefixes, suffixes, or even other roots: The following sections give you the lowdown on roots and how you can use them to uncover the meaning of words you don't know - yet.
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E

Etymology
logic
lexicon
lecture
legend
leech
lex
legis
law
legislation
intellect (W1)

Middle English "etimologie", from Old French "ethimologie", from Medieval Latin "ethimologia", from Latin "etymologia", from Greek "etumologia" : "etumon" = "true sense of a word"; see "etymon" + "-logia", "-logy".

(E?)(L?) http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/asguru/english/05languageframeworks/22semantics/semantics_10.shtml


(E?)(L?) http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?eu=33746


(E?)(L?) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=Etymology


(E?)(L?) http://www.everything2.com/index.pl?node=etymology


(E?)(L?) http://fun-with-words.com/etym_explain.html
What is etymology?

(E?)(L?) http://dictionary.reference.com/


(E1)(L1) http://www.takeourword.com/
Issue 51 Spotlight Another internet hoax: hungry, angry, and ?
Words to the Wise: Geek, etymology, abecedarium, memorize by heart, plague and ague 8/23/99
Curmudgeons' Corner This is so different
Letters to the Editors Spurious obscenity etymologies, brogue and Mick

(E1)(L1) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Etymology

...
"Etymology" is the study of the historical meaning of a word. It comes from the Greek word "etumon" = "true meaning". Many people feel that we should go back and find the original meaning of a word and stick to it, to stop language degenerating. However, this does bring problems.
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(E?)(L1) http://wiktionary.org/wiki/Etymology


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/wotd/dictionary.pl?letter=e


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/cgi-bin/wotd.cgi?word=etymology
"Etymology" is the history of a word or word element, including its origins and derivation. Although the etymologizing of proper names appears in the Old Testament and Plato dealt with etymology in his dialogue Cratylus, lack of knowledge of other languages and of the historical developments that languages undergo prevented ancient writers from arriving at the proper etymologies ...


"Etymology" is the study of the origins of words. Some words have been derived from other languages, possibly in a changed form (the source words are called etymons). Through old texts and comparisons with other languages, etymologists try to reconstruct the history of words - when they entered a language, from what source, and how their form and meaning changed.
Etymologists also try to reconstruct information about languages that are too old for any direct information (such as writing) to be known. By comparing words in related languages, one can learn about their shared parent language. In this way, word roots have been found which can be traced all the way back to the origin of the Indo-European language family.

(E?)(L?) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Etymology
Bei "wikipedia" findet man einen 1-seitigen Artikel zu "Etymology" mit vielen verlinkten Begriffen und damit zu weiteren interessanten sprachlichen Artikeln.

The word "etymology" (the etymology of "etymology") comes from the Greek "étymos" = "true meaning of a word" and "lògos" = "science".

Table of contents [showhide]


...


The word "etymology" is derived from the Greek "etumos" which means "real" or "true". The ending "-ology" suggests the "study/science of something", as in biology or geology. And that is the etymology of "etymology". It is the study of the origins of words; how they evolved.


Dazu gibt es weitere interessante Wortangebote

From French "étymologie", which via Latin "etymologia" derives from Greek "etumologia". Originally looking for the truth in and through words.
...

From Greek "etymologia" "etymology" from "etymon" = "true sense of a word" (from "etymos" = "true") + "logos" = "word", "speech", "reason". The Greek word "logos", from which English gets "logic" and the suffix "-ology", is the noun of "legein" = "to speak", "talk" which underlies "lexicon", "lecture", and "legend". The root which produced Greek "legein" entered Germanic languages as "*lekjaz" = "enchanter", which developed into Old English "laece" = "physician", "doctor" whence Modern English "leech". "Legere" in Latin meant "to collect" or "read" and it produced "lex", "legis", "law" (a collection of rules), which turns up in "legislation" and "intellect".

F

G

Glottochronology (W3)

"Glottochronology" is a method of dating based on lexicostatistics.

(E?)(L?) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glottochronology

"Glottochronology" (from Att.-Greek "glotta" = engl. "tongue", "language" and "kronos" = engl. "time") is that part of lexicostatistics dealing with the chronological relationship between languages.

The idea has been developed by Morris Swadesh under two assumptions: First that there exists a relatively stable "basic vocabulary" (therefore called "Swadesh lists") in all languages of the world, and secondly that any replacements happen in a way analogical to that in radioactive decay in constant percentages per time elapsed. Meanwhile there exist many different methods, partly extensions of the Swadesh method, now more and more methods under biological assumptions of replacements in genes. However, Swadesh's technique is so well known that, for many people, "glottochronology" refers to it alone.
...


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=Glottochronology
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "Glottochronology" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1850 auf.

Erstellt: 2011-10

H

hathitrust.org
Sullivan, Robert
A dictionary of derivations
An introduction to etymology

(E?)(L?) http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=hvd.hwp9a1

About this Book

Catalog Record Details

A dictionary of derivations; or, An introduction to etymology, ... Sullivan, Robert, 1800-1868.

Rights: Public Domain, Google-digitized.




Erstellt: 2016-01

HS Augsburg
Moritz, Karl Philipp
Tabelle von der Englischen Etymologie

(E?)(L1) http://www.hs-augsburg.de/~harsch/germanica/Chronologie/18Jh/Moritz/mor_intr.html
Der Autor Karl Philipp Moritz (1756 - 1793) hat u.a. ein Werk geschrieben mit dem Titel "Tabelle von der Englischen Etymologie (1779)".


Karl Philipp Moritz wird 1756 in Hameln geboren. In ärmlichen und streng pietistischen Familienverhältnissen verbringt er eine qualvolle Kindheit, die er in seinem «Anton Reiser» autobiographisch verarbeitet. Nach einer Hutmacherlehre ist er 1777 Schauspieler in Leipzig. später Student der Theologie in Wittenberg, von 1778 an dann in Berlin im Schuldienst tätig. 1782 reist er nach England, 1786 nach Italien, dort befreundet er sich mit Goethe. 1788 kehrt er zurück und wird 1789 als Professor an die Akademie der Künste in Berlin berufen. 1791 wird er Mitglied der Königlich-Preußischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. 1793 ist er sechsunddreißigjährig in Berlin an einem chronischen Lungenleiden gestorben.

Das Werk
...


Online findet man hier die folgenden Werke:

I

ideasillustrated.com
Visualizing English Word Origins

(E?)(L?) http://www.wired.com/2012/04/etymologies-at-a-glance/

Etymologies at a Glance
By Samuel Arbesman
04.25.12

Mike Kinde, who writes an incredible blog over at Ideas Illustrated, recently explored a way to see, at a glance, the historical origins of different words. Specifically, he wanted to computationally highlight text based on which words came from specific languages.

So that’s what Kinde did. He constructed a simple program that takes text and highlights it based on language origin. Here is an excerpt from Tom Sawyer, where the colors represent Old English (pink), Middle English (red), Anglo-French (orange), Old French (light orange), Middle French (pale orange), and Classical and Medieval Latin (both yellow), Gallo-Roman and Middle Low German (both colored in gray), and American (green):
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The whole article is well worth checking out.


(E?)(L?) http://ideasillustrated.com/blog/2012/04/01/visualizing-english-word-origins/

Visualizing English Word Origins

I have been reading a book on the development of the English language recently and I’ve become fascinated with the idea of word etymology — the study of words and their origins. It’s no secret that English is a great borrower of foreign words but I’m not enough of an expert to really understand what that means for my day-to-day use of the language. Simply reading about word history didn’t help me, so I decided that I really needed to see some examples.

Using Douglas Harper’s online dictionary of etymology, I paired up words from various passages I found online with entries in the dictionary. For each word, I pulled out the first listed language of origin and then re-constructed the text with some additional HTML infrastructure. The HTML would allow me to associate each word (or word fragment) with a color, title, and hyperlink to a definition.

The results look like this:
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Erstellt: 2014-08

inchoative, inchoativ (W3)

Der linguistische Begriff dt. "inchoativ", span., ital. "incoativo", frz., engl. "inchoative" = "einen Beginn ausdrückend" geht zurück auf lat. "inchoativus", lat. "incohare" = "anfangen", "beginnen", "einleiten".

(E?)(L?) http://www.cnrtl.fr/etymologie/inchoativité


(E?)(L?) http://www.cnrtl.fr/definition/inchoativité

... dér. du lat. class. "inchoare" = "commencer". ...


(E?)(L?) https://www.owid.de/wb/elexiko/glossar/index.html

inchoativ (siehe Handlungsprädikator bzw. Vorgangsprädikator)
... inchoativ (den Beginn ausdrückend, z. B. einschlafen) ...


(E?)(L?) http://dictionary.reference.com/
inchoative

(E?)(L?) http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsInchoativeAspect.htm
What is inchoative aspect?

(E?)(L?) http://culturitalia.uibk.ac.at/hispanoteca/Lexikon%20der%20Linguistik/i/Inchoativ%20Incoativo.htm
INCHOATIV Incoativo

(E?)(L?) http://linguistik.uni-regensburg.de:8080/lido/Lido

Linguistic Documentation
Terminological und bibliographical database

Inchoativ | Inchoativität
inchoative | inchoativity


(E?)(L?) http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/epc/langueXIX/dg/14_t3.htm

§ 630. -- Création d'une nouvelle conjugaison en IRE dite inchoative.

De ce chaos que nous venons d'exposer est sortie une nouvelle conjugaison, qui devait jouer un rôle très important dans la formation du verbe français.

Le latin possédait des verbes en "-scere-" qui ajoutaient à l'idée du radical l'idée d'une action commencée, d'où le nom d'inchoatifs. Le radical pouvait être un verbe simple, un nom ou un adjectif. Les uns étaient en "-esco-": "claresco", "nigresco", "rubesco", etc., les autres en "-isco-": "disco", "glisco", "resipisco", "tremisco"; d'autres en "-asco-": "inveterasco"; quelques-uns en "-osco-": "nosco", "cognosco", "posco". Or cette formation de verbes en "-sco-", déjà très fréquente dans le latin populaire, si l'on en juge par Plaute, prend un développement considérable dans les derniers temps de l'Empire, et en particulier dans les écrits ecclésiastiques. Un grand nombre de verbes en "-ere-", quelquefois même des verbes en "-ire-" ou "-ere-", possédaient une forme parallèle inchoative en "-escere-" ou "-iscere-": "claresco" à côté de "clareo", "(con)cupisco" à côté de "cupio", "(in)gemisco" à côté de "gemo", "paciscor" à côté de "pacio", "stupeo" à côté de "stupesco".

Peu à peu, on en vint à préférer, au présent, la forme allongée accentuée sur la terminaison à la forme simple accentuée sur le radical pour ces doubles séries, et, par suite, une foule de verbes en "-ere-", "-ire-", "-ere-" furent, par analogie, pourvus de cette terminaison "-sco-" et enrichirent la liste déjà longue des verbes qui la possédaient dans le latin classique et dans le latin populaire. Par suite, aussi, de son extension presque illimitée, le suffixe "-sco-" perdit bien vite l'idée "inchoative" qui, d'ailleurs déjà dans le latin classique, si elle avait persisté dans "cresco", "disco", "glisco", "nosco", avait disparu dans "cognosco", "posco".

On comprend donc que cette terminaison ait graduellement pénétré toutes les conjugaisons autres que la conjugaison en "-are-". Le gallo-roman, plus que toute autre langue romane, se l'appropria et en fit un type de conjugaison s'étendant à la grande majorité des verbes en "-ire-", que cet "-ire-" fût primitif ou non ; de là "-isco-" avec un "i"; et ainsi de finire fut tiré "*finisco", de "florere", devenu "florire", fut tiré "*florisco". Telle est l'origine de notre conjugaison en "-ir" de "finir", où l'ancienne particule inchoative "-isc-", devenue simple caractéristique de verbes, est représentée par la syllabe intercalaire "-iss-".


(E?)(L1) http://www.usingenglish.com/glossary/inchoative-verb.html
Inchoative Verb

(E?)(L?) http://www.wordsmith.org/awad/archives/0995
inchoative

J

JLLING (W3)

"JLLING" steht für "Journal for Language and Linguistics".

(E?)(L?) http://www.shakespeare.uk.net/journal/jlling_home.html
An International Journal for Language and Linguistic Studies - ISSN 1475 - 8989
Mit Links zu Artikeln im PDF-Format.

Volume Five Issue One - March 2006 Volume Five Issue Two - December 2006 Volume Four Issue Two - September 2005 Volume Four Issue One - March 2005 Volume Three Issue One - March 2004 - Articles Volume Three Issue Two - September 2004 - Articles Volume Two Issue One - January 2003 - Articles Volume Two Issue Two - September 2003 - Articles Volume One Issue One - January 2002 - Editorial - Articles Volume One Issue Two - April 2002 - Editorial - Articles Volume One Issue Three - July 2002 - Articles Volume One Issue Four - October 2002 - Editorial - Articles

K

L

Lexicostatistics (W3)

"Lexicostatistics" is a measure of linguistic similarity.

(E?)(L?) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lexicostatistics

"Lexicostatistics" is an approach to comparative linguistics that involves quantitative comparison of lexical cognates. Lexicostatistics is related to the comparative method but does not reconstruct a proto-language. It is to be distinguished from "glottochronology", which attempts to use lexicostatistical methods to estimate the length of time since two or more languages diverged from a common earlier proto-language. This is merely one application of lexicostatistics, however; other applications of it may not share the assumption of a constant rate of change for basic lexical items.

The term "lexicostatistics" is misleading in that mathematical equations are used but not statistics. Other features of a language may be used other than the lexicon, though this is not usual. Whereas the comparative method used shared identified innovations to determine sub-groups, lexicostatistics does not identify these. The latter is a distance based method but the comparative method considers language characters directly. The lexicostatistics method is a simple and fast technique relative to the comparative method but has limitations that are discussed below. It can be validated by cross-checking the trees produced by both methods.

History

"Lexicostatistics" was developed by Morris Swadesh in a series of articles in the 1950s, based on earlier ideas. The concept's first known use was by Dumont d'Urville in 1834 who compared various "Oceanic" languages and proposed a method for calculating a coefficient of relationship. Hymes (1960) and Embleton (1986) both review the history of lexicostatistics.
...


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=Lexicostatistics
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "Lexicostatistics" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1890 / 1950 auf.

Erstellt: 2011-10

linguistics-online
Virtual Linguistics Campus

(E6)(L?) http://www.linguistics-online.de/
Die Site wird zwar in Marburg, Deutschland, verantwortet, ist aber in Englisch.


Welcome to the Virtual Linguistics Campus (VLC), the world's largest e-learning platform for linguistics. The VLC offers fully certified linguistic courses and course material for theoretical and applied linguistics. Furthermore, it includes a variety of linguistic tools and all the communicative facilities necessary for successful e-learning.


logology

(E?)(L?) http://www.wordways.com/

For more than thirty years, Word Ways has explored the many facets of "logology" (an old word resurrected by the late Dmitri Borgmann to describe recreational linguistics).
Dmitri wrote the classic book on this topic - Language on Vacation (Scribner's, 1965), now out of print -- and was the first Word Ways editor in 1968. Word Ways is currently edited by Ross Eckler, author of the recent book Making the Alphabet Dance (St. Martin's, 1996), a survey of the field and the many new discoveries made in the last thirty-five years.


M

N

neuter, neutral (W3)

Die Bezeichnung engl. "neuter" = "sächlich", (in der Biologie) "geschlechtslos" geht zurück auf lat. "neuter" = "neither" = "not either (sex)", worauf auch dt. "neutral" zurück geht (lat. "neutralis" = "keiner Partei angehörend").

O

ojohaven
The Linguistic Fun Page

(E?)(L?) http://www.ojohaven.com/fun/

This whole thing started because linguistics is my second love (it's preceded by mathematics, if you're curious). Here are the links:

Local Articles Remote Articles Local Sites Remote Sites Local Utilities Remote Utilities


Erstellt: 2011-06

P

privative, privativ (W3)

Der linguistische Begriff dt. "privativ", span., ital. "privativo", engl. "privative" = "das Fehlen, die Ausschließung kennzeichnend", "Wegnehmen des im Grundwort Angesprochenen", geht zurück auf lat. "privativus" = "eine Beraubung anzeigend", "verneinend".

In England ist "privative" seit 1590 als negativierender Präfix nachweisbar, vergleichbar mit "un-", "a-", und anderen.

"alpha privative"
The prefix "a-" or "an-" before vowels, used in Greek and in English words borrowed from Greek to express absence or negation.

...
ETYMOLOGY: Middle English "privatif", from Latin "privativus", from "privatus", past participle of "privare" = "to deprive". See "private".
...

"private"
...
ETYMOLOGY: Middle English "privat", from Latin "privatus" = "not in public life", past participle of "privare" = "to release", "deprive", from "privus" = "single", "alone". See "per" in Appendix I.
...

(E1)(L1) http://web.archive.org/web/*/http://www.bartleby.com/61/roots/IE395.html

ide. "*per-"
...
Base of prepositions and preverbs with the basic meanings of "forward", "through", and a wide range of extended senses such as "in front of", "before", "early", "first", "chief", "toward", "against", "near", "at", "around".

Derivatives include "far", "paradise", "afford", "first", "protein", "veneer", "probe", "privy", "pristine", and "priest".
...
VI. ...
3. Suffixed form "*prei-wo-".
a. "private", "privilege", "privity", "privy"; "deprive", from Latin "privus" = "single", "alone" (wörtlich "standing in front", "isolated from others"); ...
...


(E?)(L1) http://www.cigarettespedia.com/index.php/BrandDirezione_Generale_Delle_Privative-Roma


(E?)(L?) http://www.cigarettespedia.com/index.php/Direzione_Generale_Delle_Privative-Roma_S-25-B_-_Italy
"Direzione Generale Delle Privative-Roma" - eine italienische Zigarettenmarke.

(E?)(L?) http://www.cnrtl.fr/etymologie/privativement


(E?)(L?) http://www.cnrtl.fr/definition/privativement
privativement


...
Étymol. et Hist.
...
c) gramm. 1570 [éd.] "particule privative" (G. Hervet, La Cité de Dieu, trad., I, fo 31a); 1794 subst. masc. (Pougens, Vocab. des Privatifs fr.);
...


(E1)(L1) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=privative


(E1)(L1) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=privative


(E?)(L?) https://www.owid.de/wb/elexiko/glossar/index.html#P
Privativum (siehe Gattungsprädikator)

(E?)(L?) http://dictionary.reference.com/


(E?)(L?) http://linguistik.uni-regensburg.de:8080/lido/Lido

Linguistic Documentation
Terminological und bibliographical database

Privativ | privative Opposition | privative opposition


(E?)(L?) http://www.verbatimmag.com/all_toc.html
XIV 3 Echols, Edward C. - Alpha Privative = A-Negative

(E6)(L?) http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alpha_privativum
"Alpha privativum" (lat.: "beraubendes Alpha")

Q

R

S

stackexchange.com
English Language & Usage Stack Exchange

(E?)(L?) http://english.stackexchange.com/

English Language & Usage Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for linguists, etymologists, and serious English language enthusiasts. It's 100% free, no registration required.


(E?)(L?) http://french.stackexchange.com/

French Language Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for students, teachers, and linguists wanting to discuss the finer points of the French language. It's 100% free, no registration required.


Erstellt: 2016-02

stancarey
etymology

(E?)(L?) https://stancarey.wordpress.com/tag/etymology/

Sentence first

An Irishman's blog about the English language.


Erstellt: 2016-12

Swadesh list (W3)

Die "Swadesh-List" ist nach dem Linguisten "Morris Swadesh" benannt. Er benutzte diese Liste um die Verwandschaft von Sprachen zu quantifizieren.

(E?)(L?) http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Appendix:Swadesh_lists

Swadesh lists were originally devised by the linguist Morris Swadesh. In the 1940s to 1950s, Swadesh developed 100-word and 207-word lists of body parts, verbs, natural phenomena, and other words for comparative purposes. Swadesh proposed to use the words as a means of measuring the closeness of any pair of languages, a method he called lexicostatistics. This method has since been widely argued to be of little real scientific merit, giving results of no predictable reliability. He even proposed that they could be used to estimate the amount of time elapsed since any two related languages first began to diverge, proposing a technique called glottochronology. However, for most linguists this method is even more unreliable than lexicostatistics.

The Swadesh list is also a useful tool for learning languages, and can be used to rapidly achieve basic knowledge of other languages. This is because, for basic communication, knowledge of vocabulary is more important than knowledge of grammar and syntax. Sometimes it is even possible to achieve (very) basic communication skills with no knowledge of the target language syntax whatsoever.

To sort the table columns here (or for any other table in any HTML page), copy the javascript link from here (control-click the "sort table" link to copy the link) and once you have come back to this page, paste the javascript code you have copied into your URL window and run it. (The other table scripts there can also be used here.) Alternatively, instead of copying the link, you could drag it into your bookmarks toolbar, allowing the link to be accessible in the future from the toolbar. This sorting feature could be particularly useful if and when the categories of the Swadesh template and/or Basic English template are fleshed out.

Contents Swadesh lists

Afrikaans – Albanian – Antillean Creole – Arabic (standard) (p), Egyptian Arabic (p), Palestinian Arabic (p), Tunisian Arabic (t) – Armenian (t,p) – Aromanian – Bangala – Bashkir – Basque – Belarusian – Breton – Bulgarian (t) – Burmese (t,p) – Catalan – Chinese: Cantonese, Gan (p), Mandarin (t), Min Nan (Amoy), Old Chinese (p) – Croatian – Czech – Danish – Dutch – Egyptian (Middle) – Esperanto – Estonian – Finnish – French (p) – Frisian (West) – Friulian – Georgian (t,p) – German (p) – Greek (modern) (p), Greek (ancient) – Guaraní – Haida – Haitian Creole – Hausa – Hindi – Hittite – Hmong (White) – Hungarian – Icelandic – Indonesian – Irish – Istro-Romanian – Italian (p) – Japanese (t) – Kashubian – Khmer (p) – Korean (t) – Kurdish – Latvian – Lingala – Lithuanian – Luwian – Macedonian (t) – Malagasy – Malay – Maltese – Megleno-Romanian – Ossetian (p) – Polish (p) – Portuguese (p) – Proto-Indo-European – Purepecha – Quechua – Romani – Romanian – Russian – Sanskrit (t) – Scottish Gaelic – Serbian – Slovenian – Spanish (p) – Sranan – Swahili – Swedish – Tagalog – Tajik (t) – Tahitian – Thai (t) – Tocharian B – Turkish – Vietnamese – Walloon – Zulu
...


(E?)(L?) http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Appendix:German_Swadesh_list

German Swadesh list


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=Swadesh list
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "Swadesh list" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1950 auf.

Erstellt: 2011-10

T

trigram (W3)

Dt. "Trigramm", frz. "trigramme", engl. "trigram", setzt sich zusammen aus lat. "tri" = dt. "drei" und griech. "grámma" = dt. "Schrift", "Geschriebenes", "Darstellung", "Abbildung", "Bild" (griech. "gráphein" = dt. "einritzen", "schreiben".

In einem Schriftsystem bezeichnet ein "Trigramm" eine Zeichenfolge mit drei Buchstaben. Ein Trigramm kann aber auch als eine Folge aus drei Worten oder drei Zeichen bezeichnen.

(E?)(L?) http://www.biroco.com/yijing/glossary.htm

Glossary of Chinese Yijing terms

This is a glossary of Yijing technical terms that appear on this site, in alphabetical order of pinyin syllables, so xiantian comes before xiangshu. If you need a Chinese font, you can download one.

bachungua

'Eight pure hexagrams' – The eight hexagrams where upper and lower trigrams are the same (1, 2, 29, 30, 51, 52, 57, 58). Each heads a 'palace' of Jing Fang's Eight Palaces arrangement, so such hexagrams are also known as 'palace hexagrams' (GONGGUA).

bagong

'Eight Palaces' – The Eight Palaces arrangement of Jing Fang. Sometimes called 'Eight Houses', though this is less accurate.

bagua

'Eight trigrams'
...


(E?)(L?) http://bookofthrees.com/trigram/

trigram

n. – figure of three lines; inscription of three letters. trigrammatic, adj.


(E?)(L?) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ks.html

Flag description:

white with a red (top) and blue yin-yang symbol in the center; there is a different black trigram from the ancient I Ching (Book of Changes) in each corner of the white field; the Korean national flag is called Taegukki; white is a traditional Korean color and represents peace and purity; the blue section represents the negative cosmic forces of the yin, while the red symbolizes the opposite positive forces of the yang; each trigram (kwae) denotes one of the four universal elements, which together express the principle of movement and harmony


(E?)(L?) http://www.fileformat.info/info/unicode/char/2630/index.htm

&X2630

Unicode Character 'TRIGRAM FOR HEAVEN' (U+2630)


(E?)(L?) http://www.fishbase.org/Country/CountrySpeciesSummary.php?c_code=238&id=60950

Notothenia trigramma Regan, 1913

Falkland Islands (Malvinas) country information


(E?)(L?) http://www.kith.org/logos/words/indexes/index.html

Trigrammatic Anatomical Council: jaw


(E?)(L?) http://www.kokogiak.com/logolepsy/ow_t.html

trigram


(E2)(L1) http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/trigram

trigram


(E?)(L?) http://www.unicode.org/charts/PDF/U2600.pdf

Yijing Mono-, Di- and Trigrams




(E?)(L?) http://www.wordways.com/articles/web/ASURVEYOFAMERICANINDIANLOGOLOGY.pdf

ALPHABETICALLY-CONSECUTIVE LETTERS

1. Each of these words has a trigram of alphabetically-consecutive letters: 2. Each of these words has a trigram of alphabetically-consecutive letters in reverse:


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/trigram#websters

trigram


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/trigrammatic#wiktionary

trigrammatic


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/trigrammic#wiktionary

trigrammic


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/trigrams#wiktionary

trigrams


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=trigram
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "trigram" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1800 / 1880 auf.

Erstellt: 2015-08

U

Uni Erfurt
ASSIDUE
Arbeitspapiere des Seminars für Sprachwissenschaft der Universität Erfurt
Skopeteas, Stavros
Texts and communicative practices
An encoding scheme

(E?)(L?) http://www2.uni-erfurt.de/sprachwissenschaft/index.htm

Publikationen: ASSidUE - Arbeitspapiere des Seminars für Sprachwissenschaft der Universität Erfurt


(E?)(L?) http://www2.uni-erfurt.de/sprachwissenschaft/ASSidUE/ASSidUE02.pdf

ABSTRACT
The principle that linguistic activity can only be understood in relation to the surrounding communicative events goes back to the Prague school linguistics and it is taken as evident in most functional studies on language for the last decades. In this respect there is a need for language documentation to deal not only with the archiving of texts but also with the description of their context, i.e. the communicative events and cultural environments, within which they are produced. This paper offers an encoding scheme for this purpose in form of attribute-value matrices.




Uni Erfurt
Lindenlaub, Juliane
Text typology - A compilation of parameters

(E?)(L?) http://www2.uni-erfurt.de/sprachwissenschaft/index.htm

Publikationen: ASSidUE - Arbeitspapiere des Seminars für Sprachwissenschaft der Universität Erfurt


(E?)(L?) http://www2.uni-erfurt.de/sprachwissenschaft/ASSidUE/ASSidUE11.pdf

Contents ...


Uni Essen
Einstieg in die Linguistik (englisch)

(E?)(L?) http://www.uni-essen.de/ELE/

Information | Information on current courses (WS 2007/8) | Presentation template for students | Student presentations from current term | Next term: SS 2008 | Further websites by author | Search this website for text | Ringvorlesung presentation | Examinations and essays | Possible exam topics | Literature for exams and essays | Introduction | Language in perspective | Introduction as PDF file | Levels of language | Levels chart | Phonetics, phonology | Material on Phonetics | Alphabets | Morphology | Lexicology | Syntax | Semantics | Pragmatics | Language Levels as PDF file | Summary and Dictionary | Summary as PDF file | Dictionary as PDF file | Areas and applications | Sociolinguistics | Anthropological linguistics | Language and gender | Corpus linguistics | Text linguistics | Language acquisition | Language and the brain | History of linguistics | Language change | Language typology | Linguistic theory | History of English | Varieties of English | Pidgins and Creoles | Areas as PDF file | Varieties as PDF file | History of Linguistics as PDF file | Language Families as PDF file | Language Change | Language Change as PDF file | Timelines | Indo-European | History of Linguistics | History of English | Varieties of English | Terms and people | Glossary | Gallery | Help for students | Oral presentations | Term essays | Essay template | Guide to phonetics | Free downloads | Get linguistic texts | Get the phonetic font | Technical help | Listening to sound files | | Google | Links | Linguist list | LINSE server (Essen)


Uni Laval
L'aménagement linguistique dans Royaume-Uni
Langues dans Royaume-Uni

(E1)(L1) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/


(E1)(L1) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/europe/royaumeuni.htm

(anglais)


Uni Laval
L'aménagement linguistique dans Angleterre
Langues dans Angleterre

(E1)(L1) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/


(E1)(L1) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/europe/angleterre.htm

(anglais)


Uni Laval
L'aménagement linguistique dans Écosse
Langues dans Écosse

(E1)(L1) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/


(E1)(L1) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/Europe/ecosse.htm

(anglais) = R.-U.


Uni Laval
L'aménagement linguistique dans Irlande du Nord
Langues dans Irlande du Nord

(E1)(L1) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/


(E1)(L1) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/europe/irlandenord.htm

(anglais) = R.-U.


Uni Laval
L'aménagement linguistique dans Pays de Galles
Langues dans Pays de Galles

(E1)(L1) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/


(E1)(L1) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/europe/paysgalles.htm

(anglais-gallois) = R.-U.


Uni Laval
L'aménagement linguistique dans Territoire britannique de l'Antarctique
Langues dans Territoire britannique de l'Antarctique

(E1)(L1) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/


(E1)(L1) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/amsudant/R-U-Arctique.htm

(anglais)


(E?)(L?) http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/monde/anglais.histoire.htm

Histoire de la langue anglaise


unigram (W3)

Dt. "Unigramm", engl. "unigram", setzt sich zusammen aus lat. "unus" = dt. "einer", "ein Einziger", "einzig" und griech. "grámma" = dt. "Schrift", "Geschriebenes", "Darstellung", "Abbildung", "Bild" (griech. "gráphein" = dt. "einritzen", "schreiben".

Die Aussage "... to be or not to be ..." kann je nach sichtweise (Buchstabe / Zeichen oder Wort) zerlegt werden und die Unigramme, (auch "Monogramme") "t", "o", "_", "b", "e", "_", "o", "r", "_", "n", "o", "t", "_", "t", "o", "_", "b", "e" oder in die Unigramme "to", "be", "or", "not", "to", be".

(E?)(L?) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/N-gram

...
An n-gram of size 1 is referred to as a "unigram"; size 2 is a "bigram" (or, less commonly, a "digram"); size 3 is a "trigram". Larger sizes are sometimes referred to by the value of n, e.g., "four-gram", "five-gram", and so on.
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/unigram#wiktionary

"unigram": (linguistics) An n-gram consisting of a single item from a sequence.


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=unigram
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "unigram" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1970 auf.

Erstellt: 2015-08

usingenglish
Etymology and History
Links

(E?)(L1) http://www.usingenglish.com/links/Etymology_and_History/index.html




V

vimeo
Etymology videos

(E?)(L?) http://vimeo.com/search?q=Etymologie




(E?)(L?) http://vimeo.com/search?q=Etymology




(E?)(L?) http://www.golem.de/specials/vimeo/

Vimeo
...


(E?)(L?) http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vimeo

...
Namensherkunft

Der Name "Vimeo" stammt von Mitgründer Jakob Lodwick und ist ein Anagramm des englischen Wortes "movie" (deutsch: "Film"). Der Name spielt außerdem mit den Worten "Video", und "me" (deutsch: "ich") und betont somit noch einmal den Bezug zwischen den Filmen und ihren Eigentümern.
...


Erstellt: 2011-09

W

wikipedia
Linguistics

(E?)(L?) http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/linguistics

Linguistics is the scientific study of natural language.[1][2] Traditionally one of the fields of anthropology,[3] it is now usually treated as an independent academic discipline. Linguistics encompasses a number of sub-fields. An important topical division is between the study of language structure (grammar) and the study of meaning (semantics). Grammar encompasses morphology (the formation and composition of words), syntax (the rules that determine how words combine into phrases and sentences) and phonology (the study of sound systems and abstract sound units). Phonetics is a related branch of linguistics concerned with the actual properties of speech sounds (phones), non-speech sounds, and how they are produced and perceived. Someone who engages in linguistics is called a linguist.
...


wikipedia
Lists of etymologies

(E1)(L1) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lists_of_etymologies
Diese Seite verlinkt viele weitere etymologischen Seiten der Online-Enzyklopädie "Wikipedia". Sehr umfangreich und ist auf jeden Fall einen Besuch wert!



WJMLL (W3)

"WJMLL" steht für "Web Journal of Modern Language Linguistics".

(E?)(L?) http://wjmll.ncl.ac.uk/
Published by the School of Modern Languages
University of Newcastle upon Tyne
ISSN 1461-4499

ISSUE 6 (2001)

(E?)(L?) http://wjmll.ncl.ac.uk/issue04-05/contents.htm

ISSUE 4-5 (1999-2000)
CONTENTS

ARTICLES CURRENT PROJECTS REVIEWS


(E?)(L?) http://wjmll.ncl.ac.uk/issue03/contents.htm

ISSUE 3
CONTENTS

ARTICLES REVIEWS


(E?)(L?) http://wjmll.ncl.ac.uk/issue02/contents.htm

ISSUE 2
CONTENTS

ARTICLES REVIEWS


(E?)(L?) http://wjmll.ncl.ac.uk/issue01/contents.htm

ISSUE 1
CONTENTS

ARTICLES REVIEWS


Word Family (W3)

Auf dem Etymologie-Portal wird die "Wortfamilie" (auch: "Wortsippe"), frz. "famille de(s) mots", engl. "word family", in Hinblick auf die selbe etymologische Wurzel verstanden.

Die Linguisten unterscheiden zwischen diachroner und synchroner Verwandtschaft. Die "diachrone Wortfamilie" ("entwicklungsgeschichtlich", griech. "chrónos" = dt. "Zeit") bezieht sich ausschließlich auf etymologisch verwandte Wörter. Die "synchrone Wortfamilie" bezieht sich auf die "relative Motiviertheit".

So gehören bei der diachronen Betrachtungsweise die Wörter "fahren", "abfahren", "nachfahren", "Fahrt", "Gefährt" auch "führen", "Fuhre", "Furt", "Förde" zu einer Wortfamilie mit dem Grundmorphem "fahr".

Nach der synchronen Betrachtungsweise zählen zur Wortfamilie nur solche Wörter bzw. Lexeme, die nach dem "Prinzip der Durchsichtigkeit (für etymologisch nicht geschulte Sprachteilhaber) formal erkennbar zusammengehören", so daß also die Wörter "führen", "Fuhre", "Furt", "Förde" nicht zur Wortfamilie von "fahren" gehören, sondern nur die Wörter die tatsächlich das Grundmorphem "fahr" enthalten, wie "fahren", "abfahren", "nachfahren", "Fahrt".

So würden nach der synchronen Betrachtungsweise "Kreisel" und "Kreißsaal" zur Wortfamilie von "kreisen" gerechnet werden, obwohl sie aufgrund ihrer Etymologie wahrscheinlich anderer Herkunft sind.

Der "Kreisel" wird etymologisch auf "Kräusel", der Verkleinerungsform von dt. "Krause" = dt. "Krug", "Topf", zurück geführt. Der "Kreißsaal" wird auf dt. "kreischen" zurück geführt.

(E?)(L?) http://www.americandialect.org/1998_words_of_the_year

2. Most Unnecessary: the entire "Monica Lewinsky" word family, 28 votes. This includes "Big She" as a synonym for "M.L.", and the verb "Lewinsky", "to engage in what might be sexual relations". Others: "phone family" (19), "group of people with the same phone number in different area codes"; Big She (7).


(E?)(L?) http://www.europeana.eu/portal/search?q=Etymology&qf%5B%5D=word+family

"word family": 17 results


(E?)(L?) http://hypermedia.ids-mannheim.de/pls/public/bib.ansicht


(E?)(L?) http://hypermedia.ids-mannheim.de/call/public/bib.ansicht

Sanchez 2008 Consociation and dissociation. An empirical study of word family integration in English and German

Titel: Consociation and dissociation. An empirical study of word family integration in English and German
Personen: Sanchez, Christina
Jahr: 2008
Typ: Monographie
Verlag: Narr
Ortsangabe: Tübingen
Reihe: Language in performance
Band: 37
Untersuchte Sprachen: Deutsch - Englisch
Schlagwörter: Etymologie, Wort

Abstract:

Since the middle of the twentieth century it has been widely believed that English words are less integrated into word families than German words. Ernst Leisi attributed this so-called dissociation to the large proportion of Romance words that have entered the originally Germanic English language in the course of its history. Even though fairly common, these hypotheses have not yet been tested empirically. This book thus presents a long-due study which subjects the 2,500 most frequent English and German lemmas to various analyses. For instance, they are analysed into constituents to which they are both formally and semantically related. In addition, morphosemantically related complex words containing the English and German list items are sought for. The approach adopted here, which considers a variety of variables such as formal differences and semantic obstacles, allows for a highly differentiated answer to the question whether the English vocabulary is dissociated or not. The last part of the book discusses the relevance of the study's surprising results with respect to the mental lexicon as well as language learning and teaching.


(E?)(L?) http://www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/grammar/word-families

...
Is there a specific term for words that share the same root? Words like education, educating, and uneducated? A friend asked me and I can't seem to find one.
...
Groups of words that all share the same root are called "word families".

A bunch of people suggested the word "cognates", which gets a little more complicated. Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary defines "word family" as "a group of cognate words especially within a single language".

What Is a "Cognate"?

The most simple definition of "cognates" is "words that share the same etymology", and the words in a "word family" do share the same etymology, but when you start reading about "cognates", you find that when people actually use the word, they’re almost always talking about "words from different languages that share the same etymology".

Examples of "Cognates"

The English word "night" and the German word "Nacht" are cognates because they have the same origin if you go all the way back to the very early language called Proto-Indo-European. Other examples are the English word "father" and the French word "pere" and the English word "history" and the Spanish word "historia". The existence of cognates makes some languages easier to learn than others. You have a head start if you’re learning a language that has a lot of cognates with your own language because you can start by learning the similar words.

"Grammar" and "Glamour" Are Cognates

When people talk about cognates within English, instead of talking about word families, they seem to talk about words that are different now but originally had the same origin, such as "grammar" and "glamour". Yup, "grammar" and "glamour" come from the same origin. In medieval times, "grammar" was a type of learning or scholarship and was especially associated with "magic" and "spells", and you’ve probably heard the word "glamour" used to describe a type of "magic" or "spell". You might hear that a vampire "glamoured" someone, for example. "Glamour" comes from the word "grammar"; the Oxford English Dictionary calls it "a corrupt form of grammar", So "glamour" and "grammar" have the same origin, making them cognates, but over time, the two spellings and meanings diverged, and sadly, "grammar" is no longer widely viewed as magical.

"Cognates" Versus "Word Families"

"Cognates" are really interesting, but after doing some research, I feel comfortable saying your quick and dirty tip is that "word family" is the best term to describe words in the same language that have the same root like "education", "educating", and "uneducated".


(E?)(L?) http://dictionary.reference.com/help/faq/language/index.html#Etymology

Where does the word "family" come from?

The word "family" first referred to the servants of a household and then to both the servants and the descendants of a common ancestor. It comes from the Latin word "familia", meaning "household", "household servants", which came from another Latin term "famulus", or "servant". It was not until 1667 that the term was used specifically for the group of persons consisting of parents and their children.

The word "daughter" is a very old English word, first recorded c. 1000 as "dohtor". It descends from Old English and is related to words in many other Indo-European languages, such as Greek "thugater". The modern spelling "daughter" was first used in a 16th century Bible and was popularized by Shakespeare.

The word "son" is quite a bit older, found in Beowulf in 645. It also descends from Old English and is related to words in many other Indo-European languages, such as Greek "huios".

"Mother" is one of the surviving words from Anglo-Saxon (starting as "modor"), which are among the most fundamental words in English. "Mother" has many cognates in other languages, including Old High German "muoter", Dutch "moeder", Old Norse "mothir", Latin "mater", Greek "meter", and Sanskrit "mat". These words share an Indo-European root. "Mother" is one of the Anglo-Saxon nouns that has an Anglo-Saxon adjective as well as a Latinate adjective - "motherly" and "maternal" - and "motherly" also came from Old English ("modorlic"). "Mom", a shortened form of "momma", was recorded in 1894; "momma" was first used in 1884. Both are chiefly North American uses. "Mamma" and "mama", created by children reduplicating an instinctive sound, are much earlier terms, showing up in the 1500s. In between came "mommy" (also North American in usage) in 1848, which was a variant of "mammy" (also 1500s).

"Father" is derived from Latin "pater" and has cognates in many other languages; the word entered Old English as "feder" and "foeder" (among others).


(E?)(L?) http://www.victoria.ac.nz/lals/about/staff/publications/paul-nation/1993-Bauer-Word-families.pdf

Word Families

Laurie Bauer and Paul Nation, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand

Abstract

The idea of a "word family" is important for a systematic approach to vocabulary teaching and for deciding the vocabulary load of texts. Inclusion of a related form of a word within a word family depends on criteria involving frequency, regularity, productivity and predictability. These criteria are applied to English affixes so that the inflectional affixes and the most useful derivational affixes are arranged into a graded set of seven levels. This set of levels and others like it have value in guiding teaching and learning, in standardising vocabulary load and vocabulary size research, in investigating lexical development and lexical storage, and in guiding dictionary making.
...


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=Word Family
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "Word Family" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1900 / 1950 auf.

(E?)(L?) http://corpora.informatik.uni-leipzig.de/


(E?)(L?) http://www.wordmap.co/#Word Family

This experiment brings together the power of Google Translate and the collective knowledge of Wikipedia to put into context the relationship between language and geographical space.


Erstellt: 2016-02

wordorigins.org
Etymological Sources & Links

(E?)(L?) http://www.wordorigins.org/index.php/resources/

General Dictionaries - These are general, all-purpose dictionaries that contain excellent etymological information. Specialty Dictionaries - These are dictionaries specializing in particular aspects of the English language and etymology. Out-of-Date Sources - These sources are dated and don't reflect current scholarship, but they can often provide useful or historical insight into the development of the English language. General Language References - These works do not specialize in etymology, although they often contain useful etymological information. Historical Linguistic Sources - These are sources, other than dictionaries, that address etymology, historical linguistics, and the history of the English language. Oft-Used Sources - These are the sources habitually consulted in the creation of the words on "The Big List." The sources in this category are also listed in the other resources categories, as appropriate. Online Databases - These are links to online databases of literature, journalism, and other writing; useful for etymological research Grammar & Style Manuals - Books and sources on style and usage. Popular Press Language Books - These are intended for a mass audience and are generally not useful for research. The quality of the scholarship is variable: excellent in some cases; less than admirable in others. Language Web Sites & Blogs - The following are links to web-based general language sources and blogs about language. Online sources that fall into other categories, such as online dictionaries, are listed in those categories.


X

Y

Z

Bücher zur Kategorie:

Etymologie, Etimología, Étymologie, Etimologia, Etymology
UK Vereinigtes Königreich Großbritannien und Nordirland, Reino Unido de Gran Bretaña e Irlanda del Norte, Royaume-Uni de Grande-Bretagne et d'Irlande du Nord, Regno Unito di Gran Bretagna e Irlanda del Nord, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Linguistik, Lingüística, Linguistique, Linguistica, Linguistics

A

B

Bauer, Laurie (Herausgeber)
Trudgill, Peter (Herausgeber)
Language Myths

(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/0140260234/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/0140260234/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/0140260234/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0140260234/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0140260234/etymologpor09-20
Taschenbuch: 208 Seiten
Verlag: Penguin (Non-Classics) (7. September 1999)
Sprache: Englisch


Synopsis
This is a unique collection of original essays by 21 of the world's leading linguists. The topics discussed focus on some of the most popular myths about language: the media are ruining English; children can't speak or write properly anymore; and, America is ruining the English language. The tone is lively and entertaining throughout and there are cartoons from Doonesbury and The Wizard of Id to illustrate some of the points. The book should have a wide readership not only amongst students who want to read leading linguists writing about popular misconceptions but also amongst the large number of people who enjoy reading about language in general.


Bryson, Bill
Dictionary for Writers and Editors

(E?)(L?) http://www.randomhouse.com.au/books/bill-bryson/brysons-dictionary-for-writers-and-editors-9780552773539.aspx

What is the difference between "cant" and "jargon", or "assume" and "presume"? What is a "fandango"? How do you spell "supersede"? Is it "hippy" or "hippie"? These questions really matter to Bill Bryson, as they do to anyone who cares about the English language. Originally published as "The Penguin Dictionary for Writers and Editors", Bill Bryson's Dictionary for Writers and Editors has now been completely revised and updated for the twenty-first century by Bill Bryson himself. Here is a very personal selection of spellings and usages, covering such head-scratchers as "capitalization", "plurals", "abbreviations" and "foreign names and phrases". Bryson also gives us the difference between British and American usages, and miscellaneous pieces of essential information you never knew you needed, like the names of all the Oxford colleges, or the correct spelling of "Brobdingnag". An indispensable companion to all those who write, work with the written word, or who just enjoy getting things right, it gives rulings that are both authoritative and commonsense, all in Bryson's own inimitably goodhumoured way.

Bill Bryson's bestselling travel books include "The Lost Continent" and "Notes From A Small Island", which in a national poll was voted the book that best represents Britain. Another travel book, "A Walk in the Woods", has become a major film starring Robert Redford, Nick Nolte and Emma Thompson. His new number one Sunday Times bestseller is "The Road To Little Dribbling".

His acclaimed book on the history of science, "A Short History Of Nearly Everything", won the Royal Society's Aventis Prize as well as the Descartes Prize, the European Union's highest literary award, and is the biggest selling popular science book of the 21st century. Bryson has also written books on language, on Shakespeare, on history, and on his own childhood in the hilarious memoir "The Life And Times Of The Thunderbolt Kid".

Bill Bryson was born in the American Mid-West, and now lives in the UK. A former Chancellor of Durham University, he was President of the Campaign to Protect Rural England for five years, and is an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society.


(E?)(L?) http://www.billbryson.co.uk/

Welcome to Bill Bryson’s official website


Erstellt: 2016-02

C

Crystal, David (Autor)
Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics

(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/1405152974/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/1405152974/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/1405152974/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.it/exec/obidos/ASIN/1405152974/etymologporta-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/1405152974/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1405152974/etymologpor09-20
Taschenbuch: 560 Seiten
Verlag: John Wiley & Sons; Auflage: 6. Auflage (6. Juni 2008)
Sprache: Englisch

(E?)(L?) http://www.odlt.org/
The Online Dictionary of Language Terminology (ODLT): Crystal, David

Erstellt: 2011-10

Crystal, David (Autor)
Linguistics

(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/0140135316/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/0140135316/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/0140135316/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.it/exec/obidos/ASIN/0140135316/etymologporta-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0140135316/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0140135316/etymologpor09-20
Taschenbuch: 288 Seiten
Verlag: Penguin Books Ltd; Auflage: New ed of 2 Revised ed (26. Juli 1990)
Sprache: Englisch

(E?)(L?) http://www.odlt.org/
The Online Dictionary of Language Terminology (ODLT): Crystal, David

Erstellt: 2011-10

D

Dascal, Marcelo / Racionero, Q. / Cardoso, A.
G.W. Leibniz
The Art of Controversies

(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/1402052278/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/1402052278/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/1402052278/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/1402052278/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1402052278/etymologpor09-20
(New Synthese Historical Library) (Gebundene Ausgabe)
Gebundene Ausgabe: 520 Seiten
Verlag: Springer-Verlag GmbH; Auflage: 1st ed. (30. Dez. 2006)
Sprache: Englisch


Synopsis
Leibniz is known to the wide public and to many scholars mainly as a logician and mathematician, and as the creator of a fascinating but strange metaphysical system. In these, as well as in other fields, his remarkable innovations were achieved by painstaking efforts to establish a fruitful critical dialogue with the leading contemporary thinkers. He was no less important, however, in his practical endeavor to bring opponents to negotiate reasonable solutions to key political and religious conflicts of his time. Both his theoretical and practical activities were informed by a philosophical mind that sought in all circumstances the most general underlying principles; by a juridical mind that sought to bring order and structure to human interaction, without sacrificing the necessary flexibility; by an argumentative mind that knows that persuading is often more important than proving; by a scientific mind eager to organize past and present knowledge so as not to miss any bit of information capable of pointing the way to new discoveries; by a theologian mind that refuses to admit that religious conflicts between true believers are irresolvable; and by an ethical and political mind whose major concern is to direct all our intellectual work towards improving the well-being of humankind.


Dent, Susie
What Made The Crocodile Cry?
101 questions about the English language

(E?)(L?) http://www.barnesandnoble.com/w/what-made-the-crocodile-cry-susie-dent/1111665816#productInfoTabs

In What Made the Crocodile Cry?, Susie Dent draws on her popular television segment on the curiosities of English to tackle these and many other fascinating puzzles. Writing with her customary charm and erudition, Dent offers a wonderfully readable and endlessly entertaining exploration of language, answering 101 of the most intriguing questions about the English language, from word origins and spelling to grammar and usage.

Dent ranges far and wide in her search for the oddities of language, pondering the ancient origin of the word "tragedy" (which originally meant "goat song" in Greek) as well as the modern meaning of the word "donk" in the Blackout Crew's song title "Put a Donk in It." And throughout, the book brims with fascinating tales.

Readers learn, for instance, that the word "bankrupt" comes from the Italian "banca rotta" or "broken bench" and the word "broke" (meaning "out of funds") has the same origin. Dent explains that in the sixteenth century, money lenders conducted their business on benches outdoors and the usual Italian word for "bench" was "banca" (hence today's "bank"). The author also provides an entertaining account of the origin of the term "white elephant" (meaning "a useless, burdensome possession") that dates back to ancient Siam, where rare white elephants were always given to the king. But since by law white elephants couldn't be worked (and earn money) or even be ridden, the king often re-gifted these worthless burdens to courtiers whom he didn't like.

Sparkling with insight and linguistic curiosity, this delightful compendium will be irresistible to anyone fascinated with language—the perfect gift for word lovers everywhere.


(E?)(L?) https://global.oup.com/academic/product/what-made-the-crocodile-cry-9780199574155?cc=de&lang=en&

Susie Dent draws on her popular television coverage of curious questions about English

Supported by evidence from Oxford Dictionaries, the world's largest language research programme

Reveals fascinating facts about all areas of our language, from word origins and spelling to grammar and usage

Wonderfully accessible with entertaining examples given throughout

The perfect gift for linguistic browsers

The Blackout Crew have a song with the title "Put a donk on it" - but what is a "donk"? Which ending came first: "-ise" or "-ize"? Where does the idea of a "white elephant" come from? Who decides on the collective noun for something? And what is it that made the crocodile cry?

Sparkling with insight and linguistic curiosity, this delightful compendium answers 101 of the most intriguing questions about the English language, from word origins and spelling to grammar and usage. Irresistible to anyone with an interest in the words around them.

Supported by Oxford's celebrated dictionary research programme, Susie Dent tackles these and many other fascinating questions in this wonderfully accessible and endlessly entertaining exploration of the English language.


Erstellt: 2017-05

Durkin, Philip
The Oxford Guide to Etymology

(E?)(L?) http://www.kohlibri.de/xtcommerce/product_info.php/info/p667911_The-Oxford-Guide-to-Etymology.html

2009. 352 Seiten 25 cm
Gebunden
Sprache : Englisch

The best introduction to word history ever published combines scholarship with readability. OED's chief etymologist shows how words originate and change. He explores the histories of place and personal names and explains how to use different kinds of evidence, historical as well as linguistic. This is a book for everyone interested in words. Target group: everyone with a serious interest in words and their history. Students of historical linguistics and lexicography everywhere.

Autorenportrait:

Philip Durkin is Principal Etymologist of the Oxford English Dictionary. He trained as a medievalist and historian of the English language at the University of Oxford, where he completed a doctorate on previously unedited Middle English prose texts. He is a well-known speaker on English etymology. His publications include articles in scholarly journals, such as Transactions of the Philological Society, Dictionaries, and Critical Quarterly. He is Honorary Treasurer of teh Philological Society, the oldest learned society in Great Britain for the study of language and languages.


Erstellt: 2014-10

Durst-Andersen, Per (Autor)
Linguistic Supertypes
A Cognitive-Semiotic Theory of Human Communication
(Semiotics, Communication and Cognition Semiotics, Communicat)

(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110253135/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110253135/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110253135/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.it/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110253135/etymologporta-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110253135/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110253135/etymologpor09-20
Gebundene Ausgabe: 314 Seiten
Verlag: Gruyter (28. Februar 2011)
Sprache: Englisch


Kurzbeschreibung
By integrating ideas of Peirce, Bühler, Bakhtin, Piaget and Jakobson, in this book the author defines three linguistic supertypes each operating with either the situation in reality, the speaker's experience of it or his condensed information to the hearer. The theory is built step by step on the basis of a detailed examination of individual languages and their relationship to perception and cognition, their representation of situations and their use in oral and written discourse. The theory offers a completely new understanding of language and its role in perception, cognition and communication.

Über den Autor
Per Durst-Andersen, Copenhagen Business School, Denmark.


(E?)(L?) http://www.degruyter.de/cont/fb/sk/detail.cfm?id=IS-9783110253139-1

The book offers a completely new view of language and of languages such as Russian, Chinese, Bulgarian, Georgian, Danish and English by dividing them into three supertypes on the basis of a step-by-step examination of their relationship to perception and cognition, their representation of situations and their use in oral and written discourse. The dynamic processing of visual stimuli involves three stages: input (experience), intake (understanding) and outcome (a combination). The very choice among three modalities of existence gives a language a certain voice - either the voice of reality based on situations, the speaker's voice involving experiences or the hearer's voice grounded on information. This makes grammar a prime index: all symbols are static and impotent and need a vehicle, i.e. grammar, which can bring them to the proper point of reference. Language is shown to be a living organism with a determinant category, aspect, mood or tense, which conquers territory from other potential competitors trying to create harmony between verbal and nominal categories. It is demonstrated that the communication processes are different in the three supertypes, although in all three cases the speaker must choose between a public and a private voice before the grammar is put into use.


Erstellt: 2011-03

E

Everaert, Martin / Musgrave, Simon / Dimitriadis, Alexis
The Use of Databases in Cross-Linguistic Studies
Empirical Approaches to Language Typology Ealt 41

(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110193086/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110193086/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110193086/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110193086/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110193086/etymologpor09-20
Gebundene Ausgabe: 400 Seiten
Verlag: Gruyter; Auflage: 1 (30. März 2009)
Sprache: Englisch

(E?)(L?) http://www.degruyter.de/cont/fb/sk/detail.cfm?id=IS-9783110193084-1

Produktinfo
This book promotes the development of linguistic databases by describing a number of successful database projects, focusing especially on cross-linguistic and typological research. It has become increasingly clear that ready access to knowledge about cross-linguistic variation is of great value to many types of linguistic research. Such a systematic body of data is essential in order to gain a proper understanding of what is truly universal in language and what is determined by specific cultural settings. Moreover, it is increasingly needed as a tool to systematically evaluate contrasting theoretical claims. The book includes a chapter on general problems of using databases to handle language data and chapters on a number of individual projects.


F

G

Görlach, Manfred
Einführung in die englische Sprachgeschichte

(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/3825314103/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/3825314103/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/3825314103/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/3825314103/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/3825314103/etymologpor09-20
Broschiert - 228 Seiten - Universitätsverlag Winter
Erscheinungsdatum: November 2002
Auflage: 5., vollst. überarb. Aufl.


Kurzbeschreibung
Englische Sprachgeschichte soll in dieser Einführung an Texten erarbeitet werden. Unter Anwendung moderner linguistischer Methoden werden die strukturellen Wandlungen des Englischen auf den verschiedenen sprachlichen Ebenen - Schriftsysteme, Phonologie, Morphologie, Syntax, Lexik, Semantik, Lehnbeziehungen - exemplarisch behandelt. Das Buch ist als Arbeitsgrundlage für Proseminare gedacht und als Komplement zu einem Grundkurs Linguistik konzipiert.


Gries, Stefan Th. (Autor)
Statistics for Linguistics with R
A Practical Introduction

(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110205653/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110205653/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110205653/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110205653/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110205653/etymologpor09-20
Taschenbuch: 335 Seiten
Verlag: Gruyter (19. Mai 2010)
Sprache: Englisch


Kurzbeschreibung
This book is an introduction to statistics for linguists using the open source software R. It is aimed at students and professors with little or no statistical background, is written in a non-technical and reader-friendly style, and covers the structure of quantitative studies, descriptive and analytical statistics, multifactorial approaches and simple statistical graphs. Key features comes with many exercises, recommendations for further study, and answer keys reference to companion website aimed at beginners on every level of linguistic education presupposes no quantitative/statistical knowledge whatsoever begins at step 1 for every method and explains everything explicitly.

Über den Autor
Stefan Th. Gries, University of California, Santa Barbara, USA.


(E?)(L?) http://www.degruyter.de/cont/fb/sk/detail.cfm?id=IS-9783110205657-1&ad=nld

It first introduces in detail the overall logic underlying quantitative studies: exploration, hypothesis formulation and operationalization, and the notion and meaning of significance tests. It then introduces some basics of the software R relevant to statistical data analysis. A chapter on descriptive statistics explains how summary statistics for frequencies, averages, and correlations are generated with R and how they are graphically represented best. A chapter on analytical statistics explains how statistical tests are performed in R on the basis of many different linguistic case studies: For nearly every single example, it is explained what the structure of the test looks like, how hypotheses are formulated, explored, and tested for statistical significance, how the results are graphically represented, and how one would summarize them in a paper/article. A chapter on selected multifactorial methods introduces how more complex research designs can be studied: methods for the study of multifactorial frequency data, correlations, tests for means, and binary response data are discussed and exemplified step-by-step. Also, the exploratory approach of hierarchical cluster analysis is illustrated in detail.

The book comes with many exercises, boxes with short think breaks and warnings, recommendations for further study, and answer keys as well as a statistics for linguists newsgroup on the companion website.

The volume is aimed at beginners on every level of linguistic education: undergraduate students, graduate students, and instructors/professors and can be used in any research methods and statistics class for linguists. It presupposes no quantitative/statistical knowledge whatsoever and, unlike most competing books, begins at step 1 for every method and explains everything explicitly.


Erstellt: 2010-06

H

Harder, Peter (Autor)
Meaning in Mind and Society
From Conceptual Construal to Social Construction
(Cognitive Linguistics Research)

(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110205106/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110205106/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110205106/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110205106/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110205106/etymologpor09-20
Gebundene Ausgabe: 516 Seiten
Verlag: Gruyter; Auflage: 1 (15. September 2010)
Sprache: Englisch


Kurzbeschreibung
Cognitive Linguistics is becoming increasingly oriented towards the social dimension. This book describes this development and discusses some central issues for the emerging socio-cognitive synthesis. Mapping out the territory from individual embodied meaning to discourse struggles, it suggests principles for an analysis of the relation between conceptual and social processes.

Über den Autor
Peter Harder, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.


(E?)(L?) http://www.degruyter.de/cont/fb/sk/detail.cfm?id=IS-9783110205107-1

Produktinfo
Meaning is embodied - but it is also social. If Cognitive Linguistics is to be a complete theory of language in use, it must cover the whole spectrum from grounded cognition to nonsense and irony. This book tries to show how.

Cognitive Linguistics knocked down the wall between language and the experiential content of the human mind. Frame semantics, embodiment, conceptual construal, figure-ground organization, metaphorical mapping, and mental spaces are among the results of this breakthrough, which at the same time provided cognitive science as a whole with an essential human dimension. A new phase began when Cognitive Linguistics started to see itself as part of the wider movement of 'usage-based' linguistics. Bringing about an alliance between mind and discourse, it complemented the conceptual dimension that had been dominant until then with a 'use' dimension - thereby living up to the explicit 'experiential' commitment of Cognitive Linguistics. This outward expansion is continuing: The focus on 'meaning construction', which began with the theory of blending, highlights emergent, online effects rather than underlying mappings. Cognitive Linguistics is integrating the evolutionary perspective, which links up individual and population-based features of language. The empirical obligations incurred by this expansion have led to greatly increased attention to corpus and experimental methods, especially in relation to sociolinguistic and language acquisition research.

The book describes this development and goes on to discuss the foundational challenge that it creates for Cognitive Linguistics as it begins to cover issues that are also central to types of discourse analysis focusing on social processes of determination. The book argues for a synthesis based on a renewed Cognitive Linguistics, which can accommodate everything from bodily grounding to deconstructible floating signifiers in an integrated complete picture, which also covers the roles of arbitrariness and structure.


Erstellt: 2011-05

Herbst, Thomas (Autor)
English Linguistics

(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110203677/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110203677/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110203677/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110203677/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110203677/etymologpor09-20
Taschenbuch: 400 Seiten
Verlag: Gruyter; Auflage: 1 (30. Mai 2010)
Sprache: Englisch


Kurzbeschreibung
This book provides an introduction to central areas of English linguistics. The book consists of six large sections: language and linguistics - sounds - words - sentences - utterances - applied linguistics. Each of these sections is subdivided into a number of chapters, some of which address beginners, some of which are intended for more advanced students. The book is written from a foreign student's perspective of the English language, i.e. aspects relevant to foreign language teaching and didactics are especially focussed on. The book also provides basic facts concerning the history of the language and differences between British and American English. The main idea is to demonstrate that usually in linguistics there is not just one way of describing certain facts. This is why each section contains a chapter written for beginners providing a broad outline of the area and introducing the basic terminology for each field. The other chapters in each section highlight certain linguistic facts in more detail and give an idea of how particular theories account for them. The book can thus be used from the first semester onwards but is also intended to serve as an important study aid for final B.A.-examinations. Key features comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of English linguistics highly accessible through a strongly didactic, reader-friendly orientation

Über den Autor
Thomas Herbst, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany.


(E?)(L?) http://www.degruyter.de/cont/fb/sk/detail.cfm?id=IS-9783110203677-1&ad=nld

The book introduces the reader to the central areas of English linguistics. The main sections are: the English language and linguistics - sounds - meaning-carrying units - sentences: models of grammar - meaning - utterances - variation. Notably, the book is written from a foreign student's perspective of the English language, i.e. aspects relevant to foreign language teaching receive particular attention. A great deal of emphasis is put on the insights to be gained from the analysis of corpora, especially with respect to the idiomatic character of language (idiom principle, valency approach). In addition, the text offers basic facts about the history of the language and elaborates on the differences between British and American English.

The author demonstrates that a linguistic fact can usually be described in more than one way. To this end, each section contains a chapter written for beginners providing a broad outline and introducing the basic terminology. The remaining chapters in each section highlight linguistic facts in more detail and give an idea of how particular theories account for them.

The book can be used both from the first semester onwards and as perfect study aid for final B.A.-examinations.

Key features


Erstellt: 2010-06

Hinterhölzl, Roland / Petrova, Svetlana
Information Structure and Language Change
New Approaches to Word Order Variation and Change in the Germanic Languages
Trends in Linguistics
Studies and Monographs

(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110205912/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110205912/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110205912/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110205912/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110205912/etymologpor09-20
Gebundene Ausgabe: 350 Seiten
Verlag: Walter de Gruyter (15. Juli 2009)
Sprache: Englisch

(E?)(L?) http://www.degruyter.de/cont/fb/sk/detail.cfm?id=IS-9783110205916-1

Produktinfo
The volume presents new approaches to explaining word order variation and change in the Germanic languages and thus relates to one of the most prominent and widely discussed topics in the theory of language change and diachronic syntax.

The novelty of our approach consists in three main points. First of all, we aim at describing functional variety in the field of word order and verb placement in the early Germanic languages not as a result of language contact, but rather as a language-internal phenomenon related to stylistic and grammatical conditions in information packaging. Second, given that information structure is directly accessible in texts from historical corpora that are available only in written form and bear no or little information on prosody and intonation, it presents various methods of retrieving information-structural categories in such texts. Third, it presents empirical studies on the relation between word order and information structure of the four main texts of the Old High German period and embeds these results in the wider picture of word order change in Germanic.

The volume will be of interest to students of German, English, and general linguistics as well as to researchers interested in diachronic syntax, philology of Older German, language change, information structure, discourse semantics, language typology, computational linguistics and corpus studies.


Horn, Laurence R. (Herausgeber)
The Expression of Negation
Expression of Cognitive Categories

(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110219298/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110219298/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110219298/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110219298/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110219298/etymologpor09-20
Gebundene Ausgabe: 342 Seiten
Verlag: Gruyter (18. Mai 2010)
Sprache: Englisch


Kurzbeschreibung
Negation is at the core of human language; without negation there can be no denial, contradiction, irony, or lies. This book examines the form and function of negative sentences in a variety of languages and offers state-of-the-art surveys of the acquisition of negation by children, its processing by adults, its historical development, and its interaction with other operators and predicates within natural language sentences. Topics covered include the nature of negative polarity, the phenomenon of pleonastic or illogical negation, and the role of morphological, syntactic, semantic, pragmatic, and typological factors in negative expression. Über den Autor Laurence R. Horn, Yale University, New Haven, USA.


(E?)(L?) http://www.degruyter.de/cont/fb/sk/detail.cfm?id=IS-9783110219296-1&ad=nld

Negation is a sine qua non of every human language but is absent from otherwise complex systems of animal communication. In many ways, it is negation that makes us human, imbuing us with the capacity to deny, to contradict, to misrepresent, to lie, and to convey irony. The apparent simplicity of logical negation as a one-place operator that toggles truth and falsity belies the intricate complexity of the expression of negation in natural language. Not only do we find negative adverbs, verbs, copulas, quantifiers, and affixes, but the interaction of negation with other operators (including multiple iterations of negation itself) can be exceedingly complex to describe, extending (as first detailed by Otto Jespersen) to negative concord, negative incorporation, and the widespread occurrence of negative polarity items whose distribution is subject to principles of syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. The chapters in this book survey the patterning of negative utterances in natural languages, spanning such foundational issues as how negative sentences are realized cross-linguistically and how that realization tends to change over time, how negation is acquired by children, how it is processed by adults, and how its expression changes over time. Specific chapters offer focused empirical studies of negative polarity, pleonastic negation, and negative/quantifier scope interaction, as well as detailed examinations of the form and function of sentential negation in modern Romance languages and Classical Japanese.


Erstellt: 2010-06

I

J

K

Kenneally, Christine
The first word
The Search of the Origins of Language

(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/0143113747/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/0143113747/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/0143113747/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0143113747/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0143113747/etymologpor09-20
Taschenbuch: 368 Seiten
Verlag: Penguin Books; Auflage: Reprint (Juni 2008)
Sprache: Englisch


From Publishers Weekly
This book grows out of Kenneally's conviction that investigating the evolution of language is a good and worthwhile pursuit - a stance that most in the field of linguistics disparaged until about 20 years ago. The result is a book that is as much about evolutionary biology as it is about linguistics. We read about work with chimpanzees, bonobos, parrots and even robots that are being programmed to develop language evolutionarily. Kenneally, who has written about language, science and culture for the New Yorker and Discover among others, has a breezily journalistic style that is occasionally witty but more often pragmatic, as she tries to distill academic and scientific discourses into terms the casual reader will understand. She introduces the major players in the field of linguistics and behavioral studies - Noam Chomsky, Steven Pinker, Sue Savage-Rumbaugh and Philip Lieberman - as well as countless other anthropologists, biologists and linguists. Kenneally's insistence upon seeing human capacity for speech on an evolutionary continuum of communication that includes all other animal species provides a respite from ideological declamations about human supremacy, but the book will appeal mainly to those who are drawn to the nuts and bolts of scientific inquiry into language.
Copyright © Reed Business Information, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Kristiansen, Gitte / Dirven, René
Cognitive Sociolinguistics
Language Variation, Cultural Models, Social Systems

(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110196255/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110196255/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110196255/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110196255/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110196255/etymologpor09-20
Gebundene Ausgabe: 545 Seiten
Verlag: Gruyter; Auflage: 1 (30. November 2008)
Sprache: Englisch


Kurzbeschreibung
A union of Cognitive Linguistics and Sociolinguistics was bound to happen. Both proclaim a usage-based approach to language and aim to analyse actual language use in objective ways. Whereas Sociolinguistics is by nature on the outlook forlanguage in its variety, CL can no longer afford to ignoresocial variation in language as it manifests itself in the usagedata. Nor can it fail to adopt an empirical methodology thatreflects variation as it actually occurs, beyond the limitedknowledge of the individual observer. Conversely, while CL canonly benefit from a heightened sensitivity to social aspects,the rich, bottom-up theoretical framework it has developed islikely to contribute to a much better understanding of themeaning of variationist phenomena. This volume brings together fifteen chapters written by prominent scholars testifying of rich empirical and theoretizing research into the social aspects of language variation. Taking a broad view on Cognitive Sociolinguistics, the volume covers three main areas: corpus-based research on language variation, cognitive cultural models, and the ideologies of sociopolitical and socio-economic systems.


(E?)(L?) http://www.degruyter.de/cont/fb/sk/detail.cfm?id=IS-9783110196252-1&ad=nld

Produktinfo
A union of Cognitive Linguistics and Sociolinguistics was bound to happen. Both proclaim a usage-based approach to language and aim to analyse actual language use in objective ways.

Whereas Sociolinguistics is by nature on the outlook for language in its variety, CL can no longer afford to ignore social variation in language as it manifests itself in the usage data. Nor can it fail to adopt an empirical methodology that reflects variation as it actually occurs, beyond the limited knowledge of the individual observer. Conversely, while CL can only benefit from a heightened sensitivity to social aspects, the rich, bottom-up theoretical framework it has developed is likely to contribute to a much better understanding of the meaning of variationist phenomena.

The volume brings together fifteen chapters written by prominent scholars testifying of rich empirical and theoretizing research into the social aspects of language variation. Taking a broad view on Cognitive Sociolinguistics, the volume covers three main areas: corpus-based research on language variation, cognitive cultural models, and the ideologies of sociopolitical and socio-economic systems.


L

Lee, Chungmin / Gordon, Matthew / Büring, Daniel (Hg)
Topic and Focus
Cross-Linguistic Perspectives on Meaning and Intonation
Studies in Linguistics and Philosophy

(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/1402047959/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/1402047959/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/1402047959/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/1402047959/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1402047959/etymologpor09-20
Gebundene Ausgabe: 304 Seiten
Verlag: Springer-Verlag GmbH; Auflage: 1st ed. (3. Januar 2007)
Sprache: Englisch


Synopsis
This book contains a collection of papers exploring the cross-linguistic expression of topic and focus. A diverse set of perspectives from some of the leading scholars in the areas of semantics and intonation are represented in the collection, which is based on papers presented at the Topic and Focus Workshop at the 2001 LSA Summer Institute in Santa Barbara. This book is unique in the breadth of its typological coverage of topic and focus phenomena. Material is presented from nine languages, including several that are severely under-documented from a theoretical perspective. The expression of topic and focus are integral aspects of linguistic communication that introduce the content of discourse and emphasize its most crucial elements. Topic and focus phenomena are complex and involve both a meaning and a prosodic component. This book is the first collection of papers devoted to the rigorous examination of both semantic and intonational features of topic and focus from a broad typological perspective.


Liberman, Anatoly (Autor)
A Bibliography of English Etymology
Sources and Word List

(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/0816667721/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/0816667721/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/0816667721/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.it/exec/obidos/ASIN/0816667721/etymologporta-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0816667721/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0816667721/etymologpor09-20
Gebundene Ausgabe: 896 Seiten
Verlag: Univ of Minnesota Pr (25. Dezember 2009)
Sprache: Englisch


Kurzbeschreibung
Distinguished linguistics scholar Anatoly Liberman set out the frame for this volume in An Analytic Dictionary of English Etymology. Here, Liberman's landmark scholarship lay the groundwork for his forthcoming multivolume analytic dictionary of the English language. A Bibliography of English Etymology is a broadly conceptualized reference tool that provides source materials for etymological research. For each word's etymology, there is a bibliographic entry that lists the word origin's primary sources, specifically, where it was first found in use. Featuring the history of more than 13,000 English words, their cognates, and their foreign antonyms, this is a full-fledged compendium of resources indispensable to any scholar of word origins.

Über den Autor
Anatoly Liberman is professor of Germanic philology at the University of Minnesota. He has published many works including linguistics, etymology, and structuralism.


Erstellt: 2011-06

Lindsey, W.M.
Isidore Etymologiae

(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/019814668X/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/019814668X/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/019814668X/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/019814668X/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/019814668X/etymologpor09-20
Isidore Etymologiae Vol. II. Books XI-XX.
von of Seville, Saint Isidore, W.M. Lindsey
Sprache: Englisch
Gebundene Ausgabe - Clarendon Press
Erscheinungsdatum: Juni 1985
Auflage: Reissue
ISBN: 019814668X

Linhares-Dias, Rui
How to Show Things with Words
A Study on Logic, Language and Literature

(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110179954/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110179954/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110179954/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110179954/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110179954/etymologpor09-20
Gebundene Ausgabe: 544 Seiten
Verlag: Gruyter; Auflage: 1 (21. April 2006)
Sprache: Englisch


Synopsis
This book straddles the border between linguistics and philosophy to address, on a sound interdisciplinary basis, the narrative-theoretical issue of proximal vs. distal stance adoption. In languages with no grammaticalized evidential systems, the epistemological structure of discourse underlying perspectival oppositions is heavily dependent on the selfexpression of language-using personae and must thereby be inferred from a well-defined set of surface markers. For that matter, the book provides an in-depth formal semantic account of tense, aspect and Aktionsart, supported by the cognitive processes inherent in eventuality-description types.


Locher, Miriam A. / Graham, Sage L.
Interpersonal Pragmatics

(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110214326/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110214326/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110214326/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110214326/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110214326/etymologpor09-20
Gebundene Ausgabe: 497 Seiten
Verlag: Gruyter, Walter De Gmbh (30. November 2010)
Sprache: Englisch


Kurzbeschreibung
This handbook focuses on the interpersonal aspects of language in use, exploring key concepts such as face, im/politeness, identity, or gender, as well as mitigation, respect/deference, and humour in a variety of settings. The volume includes theoretical overviews as well as empirical studies from experts in a range of disciplines within linguistics and communication studies and provides a multifaceted perspective on both theoretical and applied approaches to the role of language in relational work.

Über den Autor
Miriam A. Locher, University of Basel, Switzerland; Sage L. Graham, University of Memphis, USA.


(E?)(L?) http://www.degruyter.com/cont/fb/sk/detail.cfm?id=IS-9783110214321-1

Reihe: Handbooks of Pragmatics 6


Erstellt: 2010-11

Lüdeling, Anke (Herausgeber) / Kytö, Merja (Herausgeber)
Corpus Linguistics
An International Handbook, Volume 1
Handbucher Zur Sprach- Und Kommunikationswissenschaft

(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/311018043X/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/311018043X/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/311018043X/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/311018043X/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/311018043X/etymologpor09-20
Gebundene Ausgabe: 600 Seiten
Verlag: Gruyter (30. Januar 2009)
Sprache: Englisch

(E?)(L?) http://www.degruyter.de/cont/fb/sk/detail.cfm?id=IS-9783110180435-1&ad=nld

Produktinfo
In vielen Bereichen der Linguistik werden Textkorpora, Sprachkorpora oder multimodale Korpora heute als empirische Basis verwendet. Aufbauend auf Methoden des 19. Jahrhunderts haben sich dabei mit dem Aufkommen von elektronischen Korpora seit den 1940ern neue Standards für linguistische Annotation und Vorverarbeitung sowie für qualitative und quantitative Untersuchungen entwickelt.

Das Handbuch bietet einen umfassenden Überblick über Geschichte, Methoden und Anwendungen der Korpuslinguistik. Die einzelnen Überblicks- und Spezialartikel sind von Experten und Expertinnen der jeweiligen Gebiete geschrieben. Dabei wird auf klare und umfassende Darstellung, eine gute Vernetzung zwischen den Artikel und weiterführende Hinweise Wert gelegt.


Lüdeling, Anke (Herausgeber) / Kytö, Merja (Herausgeber)
Corpus Linguistics
An International Handbook, Volume 2
Handbücher Zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft

(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110207338/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110207338/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110207338/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110207338/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110207338/etymologpor09-20
Gebundene Ausgabe: 578 Seiten
Verlag: Walter de Gruyter (April 2009)
Sprache: Englisch

(E?)(L?) http://www.degruyter.de/cont/fb/sk/detail.cfm?id=IS-9783110207330-1

Produktinfo
In vielen Bereichen der Linguistik werden Textkorpora, Sprachkorpora oder multimodale Korpora heute als empirische Basis verwendet. Aufbauend auf Methoden des 19. Jahrhunderts haben sich dabei mit dem Aufkommen von elektronischen Korpora seit den 1940ern neue Standards für linguistische Annotation und Vorverarbeitung sowie für qualitative und quantitative Untersuchungen entwickelt.

Das Handbuch bietet einen umfassenden Überblick über Geschichte, Methoden und Anwendungen der Korpuslinguistik. Die einzelnen Überblicks- und Spezialartikel sind von Experten und Expertinnen der jeweiligen Gebiete geschrieben. Dabei wird auf klare und umfassende Darstellung, eine gute Vernetzung zwischen den Artikel und weiterführende Hinweise Wert gelegt.


M

N

Nichols, Johanna
Linguistic Diversity in Time and Space

(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/0226580571/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/0226580571/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/0226580571/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0226580571/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0226580571/etymologpor09-20
Paperback: 374 pages
Publisher: University Of Chicago Press (June 1, 1999)
Language: English


Product Description
In this ground-breaking book, Johanna Nichols proposes means of describing, comparing, and interpreting linguistic diversity, both genetic and structural, providing the foundations for a theory of diversity based upon population science. This book will interest linguists, archaeologists, and population specialists.


O

P

Pedersen, Holger
Linguistic Sciences in the Nineteenth Century
Methods and Results

(E?)(L?) http://www.degruyter.com/view/product/250647

Übers. v. Spargo, John Webster
HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS


Erstellt: 2013-12

Pishwa, Hanna
Language and Social Cognition

(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110205866/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110205866/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110205866/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110205866/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110205866/etymologpor09-20
Gebundene Ausgabe: 430 Seiten
Verlag: Walter de Gruyter (15. Juli 2009)
Sprache: Englisch

(E?)(L?) http://www.degruyter.de/cont/fb/sk/detail.cfm?id=IS-9783110205862-1

Produktinfo
In a collection of 16 papers, eminent scholars from several disciplines present diverse and yet cohering perspectives on the expression of social knowledge, its acquisition and management. Hence, the volume is an attempt to view the social functions of language in a novel, systematic way. Such an approach has been missing due to the complexity of the matter and the emphasis on purely cognitive properties of language.

The volume starts with a presentation of overarching issues of the social nature of humans and their language, providing strong evidence for the social fundaments of human nature and their reflection in language and culture. The second section demonstrates how social functions can be displayed in discourse by using language play and humor, irony and attributions as well as references to social schemas. The chapters in the third part examine a wide range of particular linguistic elements carrying social-cognitive functions. An important finding is that social-cognitive functions have to be inferred on the basis of social knowledge, frequently with the help of non-verbal cues, since languages offer only few direct expressions for them. In other words, linguistic devices used to express social content tend to be multifunctional. Interestingly, this multifunctionality does not prevent their rapid recognition.

The volume presents valuable information to linguists by widening the cognitive-linguistic framework and by contributing to a better understanding of the role of pragmatics. It is also beneficial to social and cognitive psychologists by offering a broader view on the encoding and decoding of social aspects. Finally, it offers a number of fruitful ideas to students of cultural and communication studies.


Q

R

Restle, David
Zaefferer, Dietmar (Autoren)
Sounds and Systems
Studies in Structure and Change
(Trends in Linguistics)
(A Festschrift for Theo Vennemann)

(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/311017569X/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/311017569X/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/311017569X/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/311017569X/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/311017569X/etymologpor09-20
Gebundene Ausgabe: 484 Seiten
Verlag: Gruyter; Auflage: 1 (30. Juli 2002)
Sprache: Englisch


Kurzbeschreibung
The integration of traditional and modern linguistics as well as diachrony and synchrony is the hallmark of an influential trend in contemporary research on language. It is documented in the present collection of 21 new papers on the history and structure of the sounds and other (sub-) systems of human languages, sharing the common reference point of Theo Vennemann, a leading figure in the above-mentioned trend, whom the authors want to honor with this Festschrift.


S

Skeat, Walter W.
The Concise Dictionary of English Etymology

(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/1853263117/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/1853263117/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/1853263117/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/1853263117/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1853263117/etymologpor09-20
Broschiert: 633 Seiten
Verlag: Gb (1993)
Sprache: Englisch


Synopsis
This work provides an exploration into the origins and development of the English language.


Stefanowitsch, Anatol / Gries, Stefan Th.
Metaphor and Metonymy

(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110186047/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110186047/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110186047/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110186047/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110186047/etymologpor09-20
Gebundene Ausgabe: 319 Seiten
Verlag: Gruyter; Auflage: 1., Aufl. (1. April 2006)
Sprache: Englisch


Synopsis
The papers in this volume deal with the issue of how corpus data relate to the questions that cognitive linguists have typically investigated with respect to conceptual mappings. The authors in this volume investigate a wide range of issues - the coherence and function of particular metaphorical models, the interaction of form and meaning, the identification of source domains of metaphorical expressions, the relationship between metaphor and discourse, the priming of metaphors, and the historical development of metaphors. The studies deal with a variety of metaphorical and metonymic source and target domains, including the source domains: space, animals, body parts, organizations and war, and the target domains verbal activity, economy, emotions and politics. In their studies, the authors present a variety of corpus-linguistic methods for the investigation of conceptual mappings, for example, corpora annotated for semantic categories, concordances of individual source - domain items and patterns, and concordances of target-domain items.

In sum, the papers in this volume show how a wide range of corpus-linguistic methods can be used to investigate a variety of issues in cognitive linguistics; the combination of corpus methods with a cognitive-linguistic view of metaphor and metonymy yields new answers to old questions (and to new questions) about the relationship between language as a conceptual phenomenon and language as a textual phenomenon.


Swinton, William (Autor)
A Grammar Containing the Etymology and Syntax of the English Language (1884)

(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/1164528300/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/1164528300/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/1164528300/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.it/exec/obidos/ASIN/1164528300/etymologporta-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/1164528300/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1164528300/etymologpor09-20
Taschenbuch: 382 Seiten
Verlag: Kessinger Publishing (September 2010)
Sprache: Englisch

Erstellt: 2011-12

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Trosborg, Anna (Herausgeber)
Pragmatics Across Languages and Cultures
(Handbooks of Pragmatics)

(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110214431/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110214431/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110214431/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110214431/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110214431/etymologpor09-20
Gebundene Ausgabe: 644 Seiten
Verlag: de Gruyter Mouton (31. Oktober 2010)
Sprache: Englisch

(E?)(L?) http://www.degruyter.de/cont/fb/sk/detail.cfm?id=IS-9783110214437-1&ad=nld

Pragmatics across Languages and Cultures
Ed. by Trosborg, Anna
2010 | Hardcover | RRP Euro [D] 199.00 / for USA, Canada, Mexico US$ 299.00. Standing Order price for subscribers to the complete work Euro [D] 149.00 / for USA, Canada, Mexico US$ 249.00. * ISBN 978-3-11-021443-7 Reihe: Handbooks of Pragmatics 7

Produktinfo
This handbook provides a comprehensive overview, as well as breaking new ground, in a versatile and fast growing field. It contains 4 sections: Contrastive, Cross-cultural and Intercultural Pragmatics, Interlanguage Pragmatics, Teaching and Testing of Second/Foreign Language Pragmatics, and Pragmatics in Corporate Culture Communication, covering a wide range of topics, from speech acts and politeness issues to Lingua Franca and Corporate Crises Communication. The approach is theoretical, methodological as well as applied, with a focus on authentic, interactional data. All articles are written by renowned leading specialists, who provide in-depth, up-to-date overviews, and view new directions and visions for future research.


Erstellt: 2010-09

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Wanner, Dieter
The Power of Analogy
An Essay on Historical Linguistics

(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110188732/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110188732/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110188732/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110188732/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110188732/etymologpor09-20
Gebundene Ausgabe: 330 Seiten
Verlag: Gruyter; Auflage: 1 (1. Mai 2006)
Sprache: Englisch


This study demonstrates how historical linguistics regains a central role for the understanding of language as soon as the artificial distinction between synchrony and diachrony is abandoned. The author systematically explores the potential of the concept of analogy within the new framework of "Soft Syntax," illustrating his analysis with numerous examples from the history of the Romance languages. He shows that the openness of analogy allows historical linguistics to improve on old problems and to ask new questions about language change.


Winkler, Susanne / Featherston, Sam (Autoren)
The Fruits of Empirical Linguistics I
Process
The Fruits of Empirical Linguistics II
Product
(Studies in Generative Grammar)

(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110213389/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110213389/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110213389/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110213389/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110213389/etymologpor09-20
Gebundene Ausgabe: 265 Seiten
Verlag: Gruyter; Auflage: 1 (16. Juni 2009)
Sprache: Englisch


Kurzbeschreibung
The contributions to The Fruits of Empirical Linguistics. Volume 1: Process reveal why the data-driven approach makes for a research environment which is fast-moving and democratic: technological change has made the sources of linguistic data readily accessible. These contributions show the methods both professional and student linguists are using to gather more evidence more easily than before.


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110213478/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110213478/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110213478/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110213478/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110213478/etymologpor09-20
Gebundene Ausgabe: 265 Seiten
Verlag: Gruyter; Auflage: 1 (16. Juni 2009)
Sprache: Englisch


Kurzbeschreibung
The second volume of the two-volume set The Fruits of Empirical Linguistics focuses on the linguistic outcomes of empirical linguistics. The contributions present some of the insights that linguists can gain by applying the new methods: progress within language study is accelerated by the new evidence since language systems are more precisely captured. Readers will enjoy the fresh perspective on linguistic questions made possible by the evidence-based approach.

Über den Autor
Susanne Winkler and Sam Featherston, University ofTübingen, Germany.


(E?)(L?) http://www.degruyter.de/cont/fb/sk/detail.cfm?id=IS-9783110213386-1

Produktinfo
The contributions to The Fruits of Empirical Linguistics. Volume 1: Process reveal why the data-driven approach makes for a research environment which is fast-moving and democratic: technological change has made the sources of linguistic data readily accessible. These contributions show the methods both professional and student linguists are using to gather more evidence more easily than before.


(E?)(L?) http://www.degruyter.de/cont/fb/sk/detail.cfm?id=IS-9783110213478-1

Produktinfo
The second volume of the two-volume set The Fruits of Empirical Linguistics focuses on the linguistic outcomes of empirical linguistics. The contributions present some of the insights that linguists can gain by applying the new methods: progress within language study is accelerated by the new evidence, since language systems are more precisely captured. Readers will enjoy the fresh perspective on linguistic questions made possible by the evidence-based approach.


Erstellt: 2010-03

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Zirker, Angelika (Hrsg.)
Winter-Froemel, Esme (Hrsg.)
Wordplay and Metalinguistic / Metadiscursive Reflection
Authors, Contexts, Techniques, and Meta-Reflection

(E?)(L?) http://www.degruyter.com/view/product/448835

Reihe: The Dynamics of Wordplay 1
DE GRUYTER MOUTON

Wordplay can be seen as a genuine interface phenomenon. It can be found both in everyday communication and in literary texts, and it can fulfil a range of functions – it may be entertaining and comical, it may be used to conceal taboo, and it may influence the way in which the speaker’s character is perceived. Moreover, wordplay also reflects on language and communication: it reveals surprising alternative readings, and emphasizes the phonetic similarity of linguistic signs that also points towards relations on the level of content. Wordplay unravels characteristics of literary language in everyday communication and opens up the possibility to analyze literary texts from a linguistic perspective. The first two volumes of the series The Dynamics of Wordplay therefore aim at bringing together contributions from linguistics and literary studies, focusing on theoretical issues such as basic techniques of wordplay, and its relationship to genres and discourse traditions. These issues are complemented by a series of case studies on the use of wordplay in individual authors and specific historical contexts. The contributions offer a fresh look on the multifaceted dynamics of wordplay in different communicative settings.


(E?)(L?) http://www.degruyter.com/viewbooktoc/product/448835




Erstellt: 2015-10