Etymologie, Etimología, Étymologie, Etimologia, Etymology
UK Vereinigtes Königreich Großbritannien und Nordirland, Reino Unido de Gran Bretańa e Irlanda del Norte, Royaume-Uni de Grande-Bretagne et d'Irlande du Nord, Regno Unito di Gran Bretagna e Irlanda del Nord, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Mathematik, Matemáticas, Mathématiques, Matematica, Mathematics
Angewandte Mathematik, Matemáticas aplicadas, Mathématiques appliquées, Matematica applicata, Applied mathematics
Geschichte der Mathematik, Historia de la matemática, Histoire des mathématiques, Storia della matematica, History of mathematics
Philosophie der Mathematik, Filosofía de la matemática, Philosophie des mathématiques, Filosofia della matematica, Philosophy of mathematics

A

B

Boolean logic (W3)

Named after the nineteenth-century mathematician "George Boole" (1815-1864), Boolean logic is a form of algebra in which all values are reduced to either TRUE or FALSE. Boolean logic is especially important for computer science because it fits nicely with the binary numbering system, in which each bit has a value of either 1 or 0. Another way of looking at it is that each bit has a value of either TRUE or FALSE.

(E3)(L1) http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/B/Boolean_logic.html


(E3)(L1) http://webopedia.com/quick_ref/bios/b.asp


brown.edu
Schwartz, Richard Evan
Outer Billiards on Kites

(E?)(L?) http://www.math.brown.edu/~res/Papers/kite2.pdf

Preface

"Outer billiards" is a basic dynamical system defined relative to a convex shape in the plane. B.H. Neumann introduced "outer billiards" in the 1950s, and J. Moser popularized "outer billiards" in the 1970s as a toy model for celestial mechanics. "Outer billiards" is an appealing dynamical system because of its simplicity and also because of its connection to such topics as interval exchange maps, piecewise isometric actions, and area-preserving actions. There is a lot left to learn about these kinds of dynamical systems, and a good understanding of outer billiards might shed light on the more general situation. The Moser-Neumann question, one of the central problems in this subject, asks:

Does there exist an outer billiards system with an unbounded orbit?

Until recently, all the work on this subject has been devoted to proving that all the orbits are bounded for various classes of shapes. We will detail these results in the introduction.
...
Table of Contents ...


Erstellt: 2013-07

C

calculator
Die Steinschleuder
calcul
Jemandem Steine in den Weg legen
Kalkül
calculer
calx
Kalkulator
calculus
calculus of probabilities
wahr (W1)

Wenn es die Menschheit nicht zu mathematischen Höchstleistungen gebracht hätte, wäre aus dem engl. "calculator" vielleicht eine "Steinschleuder" geworden. So aber ist es eine "Rechenmaschine" geworden. Als die Herden der ersten Schafhirten grösser wurden und die Schafe nicht mehr an zwei Händen abzuzählen waren, nahmen sie (die Schafhirten) Steine zu Hilfe. Morgens nahmen sie für jedes Schaf einen "(Kalk-)Stein" (lat. "calx" = "Kalk") und bei der abendlichen Parade warfen Sie pro Schaf wieder einen Stein weg. War ein Stein zu viel, hatten Sie ein Schaf zu wenig. War ein Stein zu wenig, hatten sie sich auch "verkalkuliert" und bekamen womöglich auch Probleme.

Im Laufe der Entwicklung kam man auch auf die Idee, die Steine besonders zu kennzeichnen und Ihnen damit höhere Wertigkeiten zu verleihen. Und so kam es, dass auch die Steine nicht alle gleich, sondern einige gleicher waren. Einige repräsentierten 10 Schafe andere vielleicht sogar 100 Schafe. Dadurch hatte man natürlich auch weniger Steine zu schleppen.

Vor diesem Hintergrund erhält auch die Redewendung "Jemandem Steine in den Weg legen" nochmal eine ganz besondere Bedeutung.

Jedenfalls entwickelte sich die Menschheit weiter und aus den Kalksteinen wurden Rechensteine (lat. "calculus"). Und um Sie nicht immer wieder vom Boden auflesen zu müssen reihte man sie zuerst auf Steinplatten und später dann auf Drahtgestelle und hatte so den ersten Rechenschieber. - Der Abakus war geboren.

Mit dem Aufkommen des Papiers zog man weitere Möglichkeiten der Notation ins "Kalkül" (frz. "calcul", "calculer" von lat. "calculare" = "mit Rechensteinen rechnen", "berechnen", "calculus" = "Rechenstein"; "calx" = "Kalk").

Der Stein wurde also zu Papier, auf das man nun die Steinzeichen malte. Und so ging das auch eine ganze Weile gut. Das "Kalkulieren" wurde einfacher, aber auch komplizierter. Was man an der Handhabbarkeit gewann, wurde durch zunehmend komplexer werdende Aufgaben wieder zunichte gemacht. Und da ein Blatt Papier zwar recht leicht ist, ein ganzer Ordner davon aber genauso schwer wie ein Beutel Steine sein kann, sann man schon wieder nach Alternativen.

Und da kamen die Erkenntnisse der Elektrizität und des Magnetismus gerade recht. Wozu sollte man sich weiter mit Steinen und Papier plagen, wenn es doch die vielen winzig kleinen Elektronen gab.

Gesagt getan - man entwickelte einen "Kalkulator" (engl. "calculator") mit Drähten und Magnetspeichern. Und nun schaufelte man alles in diese Blechkisten - und siehe da auch diese hatten ein gutes Gewicht, um all die Elektronen auf den richtigen Platz zu setzen. Aber da die Menschheit ja selbst das Wetter "kalkulierbar" machen möchte reduzierte man die Dicke und die Länge der Drähte, verkleinerte die Chips und die Transistoren und packte schliesslich ein ganzes Rechenzentrum in einen tragbaren Laptop. - Und da stehen wir ungefähr heute.

Aber auch das wird nicht der letzte Stand der Dinge bleiben. Es gibt ja heute bereits Laborversuche, um biologische Computer (auch Gehirne genannt) ganz eng mit den Eisengehirnen (Computer genannt) zu verbinden.

Und irgendwann hat vielleicht auch der engl. "calculator" den Weg von der anorganischen zur organischen Lebensweise geschafft.

Nach diesem Schnelldurchgang durch die Geschichte der Rechenmaschinen kommen wir nochmal auf den etymologischen Aspekt der Geschichte zurück. Dass der "Kalkulator" seine Existenz den "Kalksteinen" zu verdanken hat wissen zumindest noch die Mediziner. Bei diesen heissen die Blasen-Steine, Gallen-Steine und Nieren-Steine heute noch "calculus" (Plural: "calculi").

Und dass das zu Grunde liegende lateinische Wort "calx" bzw. lat. "calcare" ursprünglich eigentlich mehr "Ferse" und "zertreten" bedeutete kann man noch an lat. "calceolus" = dt. "kleiner Schuh" erkennen.

Der Psychopath und römische Kaiser "Caligula" (Gaius (37-41 n. Chr.)) verbrachte seine Jugend im Heerlager seines Vaters Germanicus und erhielt dort seinen Zweitnamen, wörtlich dt. "Soldatenstiefelchen".

Schön finde ich übrigens auch engl. "calculus of probabilities" = "Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung" - eine Verbindung der handfesten Materie mit einer diffusen Vermutung. Dass man dieser Verbindung nicht wirklich vertrauen kann (ahd. "war" = "vertrauenswert") zeigt schon das geflügelte Wort "Trau keiner Statistik, die du nicht selbst gefälscht hast".

In der "calc-"-Familie findet man auch frz. "chaussée", "chaussure", "Kalk", "kalkulieren", "Kelter" und viele andere, die letztlich zurückgehen auf lat. "calx" = dt. "Ferse" und lat. "calcare" = "stampfen".

(E1)(L1) http://agora.qc.ca/mot.nsf/Dossiers/Calcul


(E?)(L?) http://www.calculator.com/

calculate anything anywhere...
online, pocket, pc, pda, wap and cellphone calculators


(E?)(L?) http://eurekaweb.fr/wp/calculatrice-de-poche-1966/


(E2)(L2) http://trucsmaths.free.fr/etymologie.htm


(E1)(L1) http://www.westegg.com/etymology/


Erstellt: 2003-12

conjunction, conjunctive (W3)

(E?)(L?) http://jeff560.tripod.com/c.html


(E?)(L?) http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/stoicism/
Die "Konjunktion", die logische "UND-Verknüpfung" wurde bereits von den Stoikern diskutiert. Die englischen Begriffe "conjunction" und "conjunctive" werden vom "OED" mit 1848 angegeben.

D

De Morgan's Laws, Morgansche Gesetze (W3)

(E?)(L?) http://jeff560.tripod.com/d.html


(E?)(L?) http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ockham/


(E?)(L?) http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Mathematicians/De_Morgan.html


(E?)(L?) http://www.univie.ac.at/future.media/mo/mathint/mengen/i.html#Menge
Die "Morganschen Gesetze" drücken Regeln der Mengenlehre bzgl. Schnit- und Vereinigungsmengen aus.
Diese Regeln tragen den Namen des "Wieder-Entdeckers "Augustus de Morgan" (1806-1871).

E

F

G

gutenberg
Smith, David Eugene
History of Modern Mathematics
Mathematical Monographs No. 1

(E?)(L1) http://www.gutenberg.org/browse/authors/s
Smith, David Eugene, 1860-1944: History of Modern Mathematics

(E?)(L?) http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext05/hsmmt10p.pdf

MATHEMATICAL MONOGRAPHS
EDITED BY MANSFIELD MERRIMAN AND ROBERT S. WOODWARD
No. 1
HISTORY OF MODERN MATHEMATICS.
BY
DAVID EUGENE SMITH,
PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS IN TEACHERS COLLEGE, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY.
FOURTH EDITION, ENLARGED.
1906
...
Contents ...


Erstellt: 2011-10

H

I

J

jeff570
Earliest Uses of Symbols of Operation
ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION SYMBOLS

(E?)(L?) http://jeff560.tripod.com/operation.html


juggler sequence (W3)

Weshalb diese Zahlenfolgen "juggler sequence" heißen, wird auf den Seiten nicht erklärt. Nach einer interessanten Vorlesung von Herrn Klaus Schindler, die ich am 15.12.2008 im Audimax der Uni Saarbrücken, hören konnte, handelt es sich dabei um die mathematische Beschreibung von Jonglierfolgen mit n Bällen.
(Allerdings kann ich den konkreten Zusammenhang noch nicht erkennen. Die Beispiele der Vorlesung waren verständlicher. Wie in der Mathematik üblich, würde dann die allgemeine mathematische Definition vom realen Anlass abstrahiert.)

(E?)(L1) http://oeis.org/wiki/Index_to_OEIS:_Section_J




(E?)(L1) http://mathworld.wolfram.com/JugglerSequence.html


K

Klein bottle (W3)

Die dt. "Kleinsche Flasche", engl. "Klein bottle", wurde benannt nach dem deutschen Mathematiker "Felix Klein", der sie im Jahr 1882 als erster beschrieb (dt. "Kleinsche Fläche", engl. "Klein surface").

(E?)(L?) http://www.bathsheba.com/math/klein/klein_x1.html

Klein Bottle Opener, for higher-dimensional drinking needs


(E?)(L?) http://www.cut-the-knot.org/do_you_know/paper_strip.shtml#klein


(E?)(L?) http://www.etsy.com/listing/66353455/worlds-smallest-klein-bottle

World's Smallest Klein Bottle


(E?)(L?) http://www.flickr.com/photos/37101095@N00/4214858761

Spiral Klein bottle


(E?)(L?) http://www.josleys.com/show_gallery.php?galid=274

Mathematical surfaces - A collection of classic mathematical surfaces: from the trefoil knot to the Klein bottle. - Added on 2004-09-04


(E?)(L?) http://www.kleinbottle.com/

Need a zero-volume bottle?
Searching for a one-sided surface?
Want the ultimate in non-orientability?
Get an ACME KLEIN BOTTLE!


(E?)(L?) http://www2.math.ou.edu/~gwalschap/ou%20images/klein%20bottle%20copy%201.jpg

Man, beer, cigarette, Klein bottle


(E2)(L1) http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Klein bottle


(E?)(L?) http://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/images/I046/10314758.aspx

Bizarre nested Klein bottles


(E?)(L?) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Klein_bottle

In mathematics, the "Klein bottle" is an example of a non-orientable surface; informally, it is a surface (a two-dimensional manifold) in which notions of left and right cannot be consistently defined. Other related non-orientable objects include the "Möbius strip" and the real projective plane. Whereas a Möbius strip is a surface with boundary, a "Klein bottle" has no boundary (for comparison, a sphere is an orientable surface with no boundary).

The "Klein bottle" was first described in 1882 by the German mathematician "Felix Klein". It may have been originally named the "Kleinsche Fläche" ("Klein surface") and that this was incorrectly interpreted as "Kleinsche Flasche" ("Klein bottle"), which ultimately led to the adoption of this term in the German language as well.
...


(E?)(L?) http://sprott.physics.wisc.edu/pickover/graphcp.html




(E6)(L1) http://mathworld.wolfram.com/letters/K.html

Klein Bottle | Klein Bottle Dissection


(E?)(L?) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=REanBpPSViI&feature=related

Bizarre Nested Klein Bottles Will Blow Your Mind


(E?)(L?) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=acvuLCPmF7k

Dancing in a Klein Bottle. What more could you want?


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=Klein bottle
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "Klein bottle" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1900 auf.

Erstellt: 2013-08

L

longplayer
Longplayer by Jem Finer

Die Grundlage des Longplayers ist ein Stück der Länge 20 Minuten und 20 Sekunden. Sechs Kopien davon werden gleichzeitig mit unterschiedlicher Geschwindigkeit abgespielt. Die Gesamtkomposition der verschiedenen Stücke wiederholt sich erst am Jahreswechsel 2999/3000.

Es handelt sich also um eine mathematisch-musikalische Installation.

Achtung: Nach dem Aufruf von "Listen" kann es einige Sekunden dauern bis etwas zu hören ist.

(E?)(L?) http://www.longplayer.org/

What is Longplayer?

Longplayer is a one thousand year long musical composition. It began playing at midnight on the 31st of December 1999, and will continue to play without repetition until the last moment of 2999, at which point it will complete its cycle and begin again. Conceived and composed by Jem Finer, it was originally produced as an Artangel commission, and is now in the care of the Longplayer Trust.

Longplayer can be heard in the lighthouse at Trinity Buoy Wharf, London, where it has been playing since it began. It can also be heard at several other listening posts around the world, and globally via a live stream on the Internet.

Longplayer is composed for singing bowls – an ancient type of standing bell – which can be played by both humans and machines, and whose resonances can be very accurately reproduced in recorded form. It is designed to be adaptable to unforeseeable changes in its technological and social environments, and to endure in the long-term as a self-sustaining institution.


(E?)(L?) http://longplayer.org/listen/download.php

The Longplayer Trust is a non-profit organization dedicated to making sure Longplayer is freely available to the public. If you enjoy Longplayer and would like to see it survive, please consider telling us so by making a donation. It’s easy to do, and it only takes a minute.


Erstellt: 2011-11

M

mathematic
mathematics
munter (W3)

Das singuläre engl. "mathematic" gibt es seit etwa 1380. Im 17 Jh. machte man es zum Plural "mathematics". Es geht zurück auf lat. "mathematica", griech. "mathematike tekhne" = "mathematical science", griech. "mathematikos" = "relating to mathematics", "scientific", griech. "mathema" = "science", "knowledge", "mathematical knowledge", griech. "manthanein" = "to learn".

Das postulierte ide. "*mn-", "*men-", "*mon-" = "to think" = "denken", "have one's mind aroused" brachte auch griech. "menthere" = "to care" = "sorgen", lith. "mandras" = "wide-awake", O.C.S. "madru" = "wise", "sage" = "klug", "weise", Goth. "mundonsis" = "to look at" dt. "munter" = "awake", "lively" hervor.

Mathematics (pl.) originally denoted the mathematical sciences collectively, including geometry, astronomy, optics. Math is the Amer.Eng. shortening, attested from 1890; the British preference, maths is attested from 1911.

(E?)(L?) https://aeon.co/essays/aristotle-was-right-about-mathematics-after-all

The mathematical world

Some philosophers think maths exists in a mysterious other realm. They’re wrong. Look around: you can see it.
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=mathematic


(E?)(L?) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=mathematic


(E?)(L?) http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=mathematic


(E?)(L?) http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/mathematics


mathontheweb
Mathematics Subject Classification

(E?)(L?) http://www.mathontheweb.org/mathweb/mi-classifications.html


Erstellt: 2011-11

N

O

P

part (W3)

Engl. "part" geht zurück auf lat. "pars" = "Teil".

Pivot-Tabelle
pivot
pivotal (W3)

Ich denke hier liegt das engl. "pivot" = "Drehpunkt", "Angelpunkt" zu Grunde.

Die Frage ist nur, wieso heißt diese Art von Tabelle "Pivot-Tabelle", also "Drehtabelle"?

Zur eindeutigen Beantwortung kenne ich diese Funktion zu wenig, aber es handelt sich auf jeden Fall um eine Tabellenfunktion, die es erlaubt, die Daten unter verschiedenen Ordnungskriterien, bzw. Gesichtspunkten zu betrachten. Und dieser interaktive Wechsel der Darstellung dürfte der Grund für die Benennung der Tabelle als "Pivot-Tabelle" gewesen sein.

Und nun noch zur Frage woher "pivot" kommt.



Ein Abkömmling ist auch "pivotal":



NOUN: A joint in which a bone rotates around another; a joint permitting only rotating movement.

"center pivot irrigation": A method of agricultural irrigation using a long, wheeled arm with many nozzles that pivots about the center of a circle; used primarily in arid regions.

(E1)(L1) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=pivot
Auch im empfehlenswerten englischen "Etymology online Dictionary" findet man außer ein paar Jahresangaben nur den Hinweis, dass die Herkunft ungesichert ist.


1611, from Fr., from O.Fr. "pivot" = "hinge", "pivot" (12c.), of uncertain origin. The verb is 1841, from the noun. Fig. sense of "central point" is recorded from 1813; "pivotal" in this sense is from 1844.


(E1)(L1) http://www.nytimes.com/learning/students/wordofday/20020913.html

The word "pivotal" has appeared in 475 "Times articles" over the past year, most recently in "Bush Finds a Friend in Carpenters' Union President" on September 11, 2002.
...


(E3)(L1) http://owad.de/owad-archive-quiz.php4?id=713

"pivotal"
Definition: "very important", "very consequential" = "entscheidend", "lebenswichtig", "Schlüssel-", "Zentral-"

The noun "pivot" is a person, thing, or factor having a major or central role, function, or effect (der "Drehpunkt", der "Drehzapfen", der "Schwenkungspunkt").

So the adjective is used to describe something which is vitally important.


(E?)(L?) http://www.dicofr.com/cgi-bin/n.pl/dicofr/definition/20010101004159
Diese französische Quelle führt die Bedeutung als Umschaltstation in Netzwerken an.

Pivot:
Définition (Anglais: "hub", "hub station")
Station qui assure la coordination d'un groupe de stations ou de sous-réseaux, ainsi que leurs accčs éventuels ŕ d'autres réseaux.


(E?)(L?) http://dictionary.reference.com/


(E?)(L?) http://www.reta-vortaro.de/revo/
Ins Esperanto wurde "pivot" in der Form "pivoto" übernommen.


Ekstrema parto de akso, eniganta en truo, kie gi turnigas: "pivoto" de rado en horlogo.

"pivoti": Turnigi cirkau pivoto.

tradukoj (Übersetzungen)


(E6)(L1) http://mathworld.wolfram.com/ChioPivotalCondensation.html

"Chió pivotal condensation" is a method for evaluating an n*n-determinant in terms of (n-1)*(n-1) determinants. It also leads to some remarkable determinant identities (Eves 1996, p. 130). Chió's condensation is carried out on an n*n-matrix A=[a(ij)] with a(ii)=0 by forming the (n-1)*(n-1)-matrix B=[b(ij)] such that ...


(E6)(L1) http://mathworld.wolfram.com/MiquelsPivotTheorem.html


(E?)(L?) http://mathworld.wolfram.com/MiquelsTheorem.html
"Miquel's Pivot Theorem" = "Miquel's Theorem"

Für dieses Theorem mußte wohl ein Mathematiker "A. Miquel" seinen Namen hergeben. Dieser schrieb 1838 ein Werk "Mémoire de Géométrie" Journal de mathématiques pures et appliquées de Liouville 1, 485-487, 1838.

(E6)(L1) http://mathworld.wolfram.com/letters/P.html
Und dann gibt es noch einige spezielle mathematische "Pivot-Begriffe": Pivot Point | Pivot Theorem | Pivotal Condensation | Pivotal Isocubic | Pivotal Isogonal Cubic | Pivotal Isotomic Cubic | Pivoting

(E?)(L?) http://mathworld.wolfram.com/PivotPoint.html


(E?)(L?) http://mathworld.wolfram.com/PivotTheorem.html


(E?)(L?) http://mathworld.wolfram.com/PivotalCondensation.html


(E?)(L?) http://mathworld.wolfram.com/PivotalIsocubic.html


(E?)(L?) http://mathworld.wolfram.com/PivotalIsogonalCubic.html


(E?)(L?) http://mathworld.wolfram.com/PivotalIsotomicCubic.html


(E?)(L?) http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Pivoting.html

Pivoting
The element in the diagonal of a matrix by which other elements are divided in an algorithm such as Gauss-Jordan elimination is called the pivot element. Partial pivoting is the interchanging of rows and full pivoting is the interchanging of both rows and columns in order to place a particularly "good" element in the diagonal position prior to a particular operation.


(E?)(L1) http://www.oed.com/readers/appeal.html
Die Autoren des OED = "Oxford English Dictionary" bitten noch um Mithilfe um das erste Auftreten der folgenden Begriffe zu ermitteln:

Da soll einer sagen "pivot" sei kein zentraler Begriff der keine Rolle spielt.

(E?)(L?) http://dictionary.reference.com/
pivot joint (Pivot-Gelenk)

polymath

Dass "Mathematik" für "lernen" schlechthin steht sieht man an dem engl. "polymath" = "Person mit grosser und fundierter Allgemeinbildung", also der "umfassend Gelehrte".

prime (W3)

(E?)(L?) http://primes.utm.edu/

Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary defines prime as follows.

"prime" \'prim\ n [ME, fr. MF, fem. of "prin" = "first", L "primus"; akin to L "prior"]
Each of Webster's definitions may be applied to this page, but the most operative is 2a: An integer greater than one is prime if its only positive divisors are itself and one (otherwise it is composite). For example: 15 is composite because it has the two prime divisors 3 and 5.


Q

R

random
Random access (W3)

Engl. "random" = "ziellos", "wahllos", "zufällig", "Zufalls-" geht zurück auf altfrz. "randum" = "Drängen", "Unordnung". Ein noch älteres altfrz. "randir" bedeutete "schnell rennen". Von da kam es als mengl. "randun" = "Heftigkeit", "Geschwindigkeit" nach England. Noch weiter zurück wird ein fränkisches "*rant" = "Rennen" und ide. "*randa" postuliert. Die Verbindung zu dt. "rennen" ist unverkennbar.

Um 1980 kam es in der amerikanischen Studentensprache auf in der Bedeutung "untergeordnet", "unerwünscht".

Die Bezeichnung "Random access" im Zusammenhang mit Speicherzugriffen in der Datenverarbeitung, ist seit 1953 nachweisbar.

(E?)(L?) http://www.allwords.com/ramrod-ransomer.php

random | random access memory | random function | random number | random-access | randomicity | randomise | randomization | randomize | randomly | randomness | randomosity | randoms


(E?)(L?) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=random


(E?)(L?) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=random


(E?)(L?) http://www.random.org/
What's this fuss about true randomness?
Perhaps you have wondered how predictable machines like computers can generate randomness. In reality, most random numbers used in computer programs are pseudo-random, which means they are a generated in a predictable fashion using a mathematical formula. This is fine for many purposes, but it may not be random in the way you expect if you're used to dice rolls and lottery draws.

RANDOM.ORG offers true random numbers to anyone on the Internet. The randomness comes from atmospheric noise, which for many purposes is better than the pseudo-random number algorithms typically used in computer programs. People use RANDOM.ORG for holding draws, lotteries and sweepstakes, to drive games and gambling sites, for scientific applications and for art and music. The service has existed since 1998 and was built and is being operated by Mads Haahr of the School of Computer Science and Statistics at Trinity College, Dublin in Ireland.

Fun & Free | Coin Flipper | Die Roller | Playing Card Shuffler | Lottery Quick Pick | Keno Quick Pick | Jazz Scale Generator | Bitmap Generator | Sound Generator | Integer Generator | Sequence Generator | String Generator | List Randomizer | iGoogle Password Generator | Samuel Beckett | Background & Stats | About Randomness | History of RANDOM.ORG | General FAQ | Real-Time Statistics | Statistical Analysis | Your Quota | Testimonials | Media and Citations | Acknowledgements | Newsletter ? sign up! | Disclaimer | Premium & Advanced | Login/Register | Premium Generator | Randomness Trails | Integer Set Generator | Third-Party Draw | Gaussian Generator ? new! | Fraction Generator ? now free! | Clock Time Generator | Calendar Date Generator | Pregenerated Files | Automated Clients | HTTP Interface | Banned Hosts

(E2)(L1) http://www.wordspy.com/words/random.asp
In der Sprache der Computer-Freaks wurde "random" nochmals neu belegt mit der Bedeutung "A person who isn't a hacker", "a person who is undirected, unproductive, and frivolous".

Rosenbrock Function

(E?)(L?) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosenbrock_function

In mathematical optimization, the Rosenbrock function is a non-convex function used as a performance test problem for optimization algorithms introduced by Howard H. Rosenbrock in 1960.
...


(E6)(L1) http://mathworld.wolfram.com/letters/R.html


(E6)(L?) http://mathworld.wolfram.com/RosenbrockFunction.html


(E?)(L?) http://mathworld.wolfram.com/topics/InteractiveDemonstrations.html


Rosenbrock Methods

(E?)(L?) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosenbrock_methods

Rosenbrock methods may refer to either of two distinct ideas in numerical computation, both named for Howard H. Rosenbrock.
...


(E?)(L?) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Howard_Harry_Rosenbrock

Howard Harry Rosenbrock (16 December 1920 – 21 October 2010) was a leading figure in control theory and control engineering. He was born in Ilford, England in 1920, graduated in 1941 from University College London with a 1st class honors degree in Electrical Engineering.
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(E6)(L1) http://mathworld.wolfram.com/letters/R.html


(E6)(L?) http://mathworld.wolfram.com/RosenbrockMethods.html
A generalization of the Runge-Kutta method for solution of ordinary differential equations, also called Kaps-Rentrop methods.

Russell's Paradox, Russellsche Antimonie (W3)

(E?)(L?) http://jeff560.tripod.com/r.html


(E?)(L?) http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/russell/


(E?)(L?) http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Zermelo.html
Benannt nach Bertrand Russell (1872-1970).

S

similar (W3)

Engl. "similar" (1605–15) (ngrams: 1520) = "ähnlich" geht über frz. "similaire", mlat. "similaris", zurück auf lat. "similis" = dt. "ähnlich", "gleich".

(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20080417024829/www.bartleby.com/68/88/5488.html


(E?)(L?) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=similar


(E?)(L?) http://www.math.com/school/glossary/glossindex.html

Two polygons are similar if their corresponding sides are proportional.


(E2)(L1) http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/similar


(E?)(L?) http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Similar.html

Two figures are said to be similar when all corresponding angles are equal and all distances are increased (or decreased) in the same ratio, called the ratio of magnification (Coxeter and Greitzer 1967, p. 94). A transformation that takes figures to similar figures is called a similarity.
...


(E1)(L1) http://ngrams.googlelabs.com/graph?corpus=0&content=similar
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Erstellt: 2011-01

soton
Mathematical Words: Origins and Sources
Notes for Earliest Known Uses of Some of the Words of Mathematics

(E?)(L?) http://www.economics.soton.ac.uk/staff/aldrich/Mathematical%20Words.htm

Contents


Erstellt: 2012-01

stanford
Mathematic signs

(E?)(L?) http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Schroder.html


(E?)(L?) http://www-gap.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Peano.html


(E?)(L?) http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/whitehead/


(E?)(L?) http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/russell/


(E?)(L?) http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/principia-mathematica/


(E?)(L?) http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/frege/

...
Most of the basic symbols of logic and set theory in use today were introduced between 1880 and 1920. The main contributors were "Ernst Schröder" (1841-1902) and "Giuseppe Peano", (1858-1932)

Alfred North Whitehead, (1861-1947) and Bertrand Russell, (1872-1970).

Peano had a strong influence on Whitehead and Russell and their joint work, "Principia Mathematica", (1910-1913), was itself very influential. Today "Gottlob Frege", (1848-1925) is the most admired logician of that age but his notation was not taken up. Most of the symbols described here are treated in the chapter on mathematical logic in Cajori's "A History of Mathematical Notations, vol. 2" (1929). The ideas of the period are covered in I. Grattan-Guinness (2000) "The Search for Mathematical Roots, 1870-1940: Logics, Set Theories and the Foundations of Mathematics from Cantor through Russell to Gödel". Many of the classic works are available in English in Jan van Heijenoort (1967) "From Frege to Gödel: A Source Book in Mathematical Logic, 1879--1931".
...


T

techtarget - Mathematical Symbols

(E?)(L?) http://searchdatacenter.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid80_gci803019,00.html

This table contains mathematical symbols and links to definitions of what they represent.
...


the lowest common denominator (W3)

Engl. "the lowest common denominator" = dt. "der kleinste gemeinsame Nenner", entstammt der Sprache der Mathematiker, wo er bei der Bruchrechnung eine Rolle spielt. Er wird mittlerweile auch in anderen Lbensbereichen benutzt.

(E?)(L?) http://www.business-english.de/daily_mail_result.html?day=2010-03-02


Erstellt: 2010-03

Traveling Salesman Problem, TSP, Handelsreisender-Problem (W3)

(E?)(L?) http://www.f4.fhtw-berlin.de/people/weberwu/diplom/tsp/HTMLS/EINF1.HTM


(E?)(L?) http://www.tsp.gatech.edu/


(E?)(L?) http://www.math.tu-clausthal.de/Arbeitsgruppen/Stochastische-Optimierung/tspapplet/

The "Traveling salesman problem", or "TSP" for short, is this: given a finite number of "cities" along with the cost of travel between each pair of them, find the cheapest way of visiting all the cities and returning to your starting point. In these pages we report on our ongoing project to solve large-scale instances of the TSP.


(E?)(L?) http://www.tsp.gatech.edu/d15sol/d15map.html
Von der Tour durch 15.112 deutsche Städte gibt es sogar ein kleines Poster.

U

uncc
What Makes a Sign a Mathematical Sign?
An Epistemological Perspective on Mathematical Interaction

(E?)(L?) http://math.uncc.edu/


(E?)(L?) http://math.uncc.edu/~sae/


(E?)(L?) http://math.uncc.edu//~sae/dg3/dg3.html


(E?)(L?) http://math.uncc.edu//~sae/dg3/steinbring.pdf

Heinz Steinbring, University of Dortmund, GERMANY
1. The particular role of mathematical signs in the frame of epistemological conditions of mathematical knowledge

In general, the importance of signs for human thinking is uncontested and fundamental. Without signs, no human thinking and no mental generalizations would exist. „We have no ability to think without signs“ (Peirce 1991, p. 42) reads the famous dictum by Charles Peirce (cf. also Radford 2001a). A general, essential identification of the role of the sign is the one that the sign stands for something else; Thomas of Aquin has described this feature with the famous definition „aliquid stat pro aliquo“.

In the following it is tried under an explicitly epistemological perspective to work out the particular role of mathematical signs in certain essential points of view. This is in no case about the modeling of a general sign concept, but about a better understanding of the particularity of mathematical signs, partly referring to semiotic concepts and models of signs. This makes it necessary to concentrate on the epistemological nature of mathematical knowledge and of mathematical concepts, as mathematical signs serve mainly for „recording“ mathematical knowledge and mathematical concepts. Seen in this way, the particularity of mathematical signs is indicated mainly referring to the epistemological meaning of mathematical knowledge. Mathematical signs are chiefly seen as „instruments“ for coding and describing mathematical knowledge, for communicating mathematical knowledge as well as for operating with mathematical knowledge and for developing it in a generalizing way. In this sense, mathematical signs are also cultural tools (cf. Radford 1998; 2001a; Vygotsky 1987) which are used in the communication with other persons in order to develop mathematical knowledge.
...


Uni St Andrews
University of St Andrews, Schottland
Mathematics Archive
Indexes of Biographies of Mathematicians
Mathematiker-Biographien
Mathematik-Glossar
History of Mathematics

(E?)(L?) http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/

TURNBULL is the home of the award-winning MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive - an integrated collection of over 1000 biographies and historical articles of a mathematical nature, alongside interactive birthplace maps and the famous curve applet.


(E?)(L?) http://turnbull.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/history/


(E?)(L?) http://turnbull.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/history/BiogIndex.html

Biographies Index


(E?)(L?) http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Indexes/Full_Alph.html


(E?)(L1) http://turnbull.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/history/Indexes/A.html

| A | Aaboe, Asger (1400*) | Abbe, Ernst (602*) | Abbott, Edwin (1456) | Abel, Niels Henrik (2899*) | Abraham bar Hiyya (641) | Abraham, Max (798*) | Abu Kamil Shuja (1012) | Abu Jafar, al_Khazin (1148) | Abu'l-Wafa al-Buzjani (1115) | Ackermann, Wilhelm (1204*) | Adams, Edwin (500) | Adams, John Couch (2159*) | Adams, J Frank (1462*) | Adamson, Iain (1895*) | Adelard of Bath (1008) | Adleman, Leonard (3314*) | Adler, August (478) | Adrain, Robert (1317*) | Adrianus, Romanus (419) | Aepinus, Franz (822*) | Afanassjewa, Ehrenfest-T (1198*) | Agnesi, Maria (2018*) | Ahlfors, Lars (725*) | Ahmed ibn Yusuf (660) | Ahmes (165) | Aida Yasuaki (696*) | Aiken, Howard (665*) | Airey, John (460) | Airy, George (2362*) | Aitken, Alec (1220*) | Aiyar, V (69) | Ajima, Naonobu (1268) | Akhiezer, Naum Il'ich (1682*) | al-Amili, Baha' (1612) | al-Baghdadi, Abu (947) | al-Banna, al-Marrakushi (861) | al-Battani, Abu Allah (1333*) | al-Biruni, Abu Arrayhan (3002*) | al-Farisi, Kamal (1102) | al-Haitam, Abu Ali (2490*) | al-Hasib Abu Kamil (1012) | al-Haytham, Abu Ali (2490*) | al-Jawhari, al-Abbas (627) | al-Jayyani, Abu (892) | al-Karaji, Abu (1789) | al-Karkhi (1789) | al-Kashi, Ghiyath (1725*) | al-Khazin, Abu (1148) | al-Khalili, Shams (677) | al-Khayyami, Omar (2140*) | al-Khwarizmi, Abu (2847*) | al-Khujandi, Abu (713) | al-Kindi, Abu (1151*) | al-Kuhi, Abu (1146) | al-Maghribi, Muhyi (602) | al-Mahani, Abu (507) | al-Marrakushi, ibn al-Banna (861) | al-Nasawi, Abu (681) | al-Nayrizi, Abu'l (621) | al-Qalasadi, Abu'l (1247) | al-Quhi, Abu (1146) | al-Samarqandi, Shams (202) | al-Samawal, Ibn (1569) | al-Sijzi, Abu (708) | al-Tusi, Nasir (1912*) | al-Tusi, Sharaf (1138) | al-Umawi, Abu (1014) | al-Uqlidisi, Abu'l (1028) | Albanese, Giacomo (1188) | Albategnius (al-Battani) (1333*) | Albert, A Adrian (1550*) | Albert of Saxony (121*) | Alberti, Leone (1776*) | Albertus Magnus, Saint (1412*) | Alcuin of York (591*) | Aldrich, Henry (537*) | Aleksandrov, Aleksandr (1174*) | Aleksandrov, Pavel (2175*) | Alembert, Jean d' (2501*) | Alexander, Archie (1089) | Alexander, C Hugh (1260*) | Alexander, James (836*) | Alfvén, Hannes (1433*) | Alison, John (1422) | Allan, Graham (1213) | Allardice, Robert (427) | Alling, Norman (1020*) | Alexander, James (809) | Alexandroff, Alexander (1174*) | Alexandroff, Pavel (2175*) | Alhazen (al-Haitam) (2490*) | Allman, George (302) | Almgren, Frederick (1618*) | Amili, Baha' al (1612) | Amitsur, Shimshon (1200*) | Ampčre, André-Marie (2361*) | Amringe, Howard van (354*) | Amsler, Jacob (660*) | Anaxagoras of Clazomenae (1237*) | Anaximander of Miletus (1047*) | Anderson, Oskar (1096*) | Andreev, Konstantin (117*) | Andrews, George (1597*) | Angeli, Stephano degli (960) | Anosov, Dmitrii (1240) | Anstice, Robert (675) | Anthemius of Tralles (370*) | Antiphon the Sophist (1025) | Antonelli, Kathleen (746*) | Apaczai, János (955*) | Apastamba (383) | Apianus, Petrus (1011*) | Apollonius of Perga (1697*) | Appell, Paul (1377*) | Arago, François (2446*) | Arbogast, Louis (1029) | Arbuthnot, John (1270*) | Archibald, Raymond (177) | Archibald, James (407) | Archimedes of Syracuse (3190*) | Archytas of Tarentum (1366*) | Arf, Cahit (1452*) | Argand, Jean (951) | Arino, Ovide (1148) | Arins, Eizens (784*) | Aristaeus the Elder (588) | Aristarchus of Samos (1548*) | Aristotle (3445*) | Arnauld, Antoine (1492*) | Arnold, Vladimir (1997*) | Aronhold, Siegfried (234*) | Arthur, William (706*) | Artin, Emil (2621*) | Aryabhata I (1907*) | Aryabhata II (427) | Ashworth, Margaret (932*) | Askey, Richard (884*) | Atiyah, Michael (885*) | Atkinson, Frederick (1203*) | Auslander, Maurice (1180*) | Autolycus of Pitane (810) | Auzout, Adrien (2039) | Avicenna, Abu Ali (1965*) | Ayyangar, A (672)


(E?)(L1) http://turnbull.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/history/Indexes/B.html

| B | Babbage, Charles (2378*) | Bachelier, Louis (1384*) | Bachet, Claude (1203*) | Bachmann, Friedrich (1214*) | Bäcklund, Victor (1665*) | Bachmann, Paul (386*) | Backus, John (542*) | Bacon, Roger (2356*) | Baer, Reinhold (596*) | Baghdadi, Abu al (947) | Baire, René-Louis (1823*) | Baker, Alan (871*) | Baker, Henry (794*) | Baldwin, Frank (1447*) | Ball, Robert (1467*) | Ball, Walter W Rouse (706) | Balmer, Johann (601*) Banach, Stefan (2533*) | Banneker, Benjamin (892*) | Banna, al-Marrakushi al (861) | Banu Musa brothers (1208*) | Banu Musa, al-Hasan (133) | Banu Musa, Ahmad (61) | Banu Musa, Jafar (161) | bar Hiyya, Abraham (641) | Barbier, Joseph Emile (637) | Barclay, Andrew (794) | Bari, Nina (403*) | Barkla, Charles (1373*) | Barlow, Peter (623*) | Barnes, Ernest (609*) | Barocius, Franciscus (1011) | Barrow, Isaac (2332*) | Bartel, Kazimierz (1030*) Bartels, Martin (1384*) | Barozzi, Francesco (1011) | Bartholin, Erasmus (842*) | Bass, Hyman (2063*) | Bassi, Laura (1076*) | Batchelor, George (1035*) | Bateman, Harry (1651*) | Bath, Frederick (626) | Battaglini, Guiseppe (102*) | Baudhayana (478) | Bauer, Heinz (1597*) | Bauer, Mihäly, Mihály (1086) | Battani, Abu al- (1333*) | Baxter, Agnes (624*) | Bayes, Thomas (1539*) | Beattie, John (538) | Beatty, Samuel (1094*) | Beaugrand, Jean (831) | Beaune, Florimond de (316) | Beckenbach, Edwin (1243*) | Begle, Edward (1715*) | Beg, Ulugh (1219*) | Behnke, Heinrich (1886*) | Behrend, Felix (1052) | Bell, Eric Temple (833*) | Bell, John (3132*) | Bell, Robert (376*) | Bellavitis, Giusto (762*) | Bellman, Richard (1942*) | Beltrami, Eugenio (1057*) | ben Ezra, Abraham (552) | ben Gerson, Levi (268) ben Tibbon, Jacob (976) | Bendixson, Ivar Otto (1208*) | Benedetti, Giovanni (2849) | Benjamin, Thomas (1484*) | Bennett, Geoffrey (1728) | Bergman, Stefan (311*) | Berkeley, George (2008*) | Bernays, Paul Isaac (772*) | Bernoulli, Daniel (2341*) | Bernoulli, Jacob (1913*) | Bernoulli, Jacob(II) (289*) | Bernoulli, Johann (2524*) | Bernoulli, Johann(II) (236*) | Bernoulli, Johann(III) (273*) | Bernoulli, Nicolaus(I) (532) | Bernoulli, Nicolaus(II) (193*) | Bernstein, Felix (1679*) Bernstein, Sergi (2429*) | Bers, Lipa (2157*) | Bertillon, Jacques (1670*) | Bertini, Eugenio (852*) | Bertins, Alexis des (555) | Bertrand, Joseph (1391*) | Berwald, Lugwig (847) | Berwick, William (1133) | Besicovitch, Abram (1888*) | Bessel, Wilhelm (1664*) | Bessel-Hagen, Erich (1308) | Bethe, Hans (1594*) | Bessy, Bernard de (411) | Betti, Enrico (1150*) | Beurling, Arne (1335*) | Bevan-Baker, Bevan (794) | Bézout, Etienne (1146*) | Bhaskara I (786) | Bhaskara II (2545) | Bhaskaracharya (2545) | Bianchi, Luigi (1367*) | Bieberbach, Ludwig (2477*) | Bienaymé, Iréneé-Jules (1656*) | Billy, Jacques de (453) | Binet, Jacques (438*) | Bing, R (1625*) | Biot, Jean-Baptiste (2438*) Birkhoff, Garrett (1164*) | Birkhoff, George (1620*) | Biruni, Abu al (3002*) | Bisacre, Frederick (1118) | Bishop, Errett (1085*) | Bjerknes, Carl (932*) | Bjerknes, Vilhelm (1895*) | Black, Max (1139*) | Black, Fischer (2835*) | Blackburn, Hugh (1211*) Blackwell, David (1242*) | Blades, Edward (1134*) | Blanch, Gertrude (1995*) | Blaschke, Wilhelm (2019*) | Blichfeldt, Hans (665*) | Bliss, Gilbert (1445*) | Bliss, Nathaniel (900*) | Bloch, André (143*) | Blum, Lenore (1836*) | Blumenthal, Otto (1474*) | Bobillier, Etienne (398) | Bôcher, Maxime (1343*) | Bochner, Salomon (1814*) | Boersma, Johannes (1450) | Boethius, Anicus (1033*) | Boggio, Tommaso (436*) | Bogolyubov, Nikolai (2374*) | Bohl, Piers (442) | Bohr, Harald (742*) | Bohr, Niels (2910*) | Bolam, James (194) | Bois-Reymond, Paul du (1709*) | Boislaurent, Budan de (1200) | Boltzmann, Ludwig (1135*) | Bolyai, Farkas (1685*) | Bolyai, János (2442*) | Bolza, Oskar (1579*) | Bolzano, Bernhard (2478*) | Bombelli, Rafael (2012*) | Bombieri, Enrico (1036*) | Bondi, Hermann (2511*) | Bonferroni, Carlo (262*) Bonnet, Pierre (368*) | Bonnycastle, John (1952*) | Book, Ronald (1315) | Boole, Alicia (Stott) (340*) | Boole, George (1866*) | Boone, Bill (311*) | Borchardt, Carl (751*) | Borcherds, Richard (1658*) | Borda, Jean (2134*) | Bordoni, Antonio (1000*) | Borel, Emile (2123*) | Borel, Armand (1962*) | Borgi, Piero (1175) | Born, Max (1477*) | Borok, Valentina (1101*) | Borsuk, Karol (1109*) | Bortkiewicz, Ladislaus (845*) | Bortolotti, Ettore (1095) | Boruvka, Otakar (1853*) | Bosanquet, Stephen (515*) | Boscovich, Ruggero (2643*) | Bose, Satyendranath (914*) Bossut, Charles (950*) | Bott, Raoul (2106*) | Bottasso, Matteo (257) | Bougainville, Louis de (1054*) | Bouguer, Pierre (688*) | Boulliau, Ismael (1370*) | Bouquet, Jean Claude (798*) | Bour, Edmond (490*) | Bourbaki, Nicolas (38) | Bourgain, Jean (1016*) | Boussinesq, Joseph (2112*) | Boutroux, Pierre Léon (617*) | Bouvard, Alexis (979*) | Bouvelles, Charles (705) | Bowditch, Nathaniel (1616*) | Bowen, Rufus (770*) | Box, George (1718*) | Bowman, Julia (Robinson) (1924*) | Boyle, Robert (2607*) | Boyle, Margaret (362*) | Boys, Charles (951*) | Bradwardine, Thomas (1193) | Brahe, Tycho (3050*) | Brahmadeva (219) | Brahmagupta (1512) | Braikenridge, William (1247) | Bramer, Benjamin (1172) | Branges, Louis de(3200*) | Brash, William (371) | Brashman, Nikolai (276*) | Brauer, Alfred (1412*) | Brauer, Richard (2242*) | Bremermann, Hans-Joachim (1177*) | Brianchon, Charles (689) | Briggs, Henry (2200) | Brill, Alexander von (473*) Brillouin, Marcel (367*) | Bring, Erland (213*) | Brink, Raymond (403) | Brioschi, Francesco (927*) | Briot, Charlese (1056) | Brisson, Barnabé (1800*) | Britton, John (688*) | Brocard, Henri (1213) | Brodetsky, Selig (1348*) | Broglie, Louis duc de (1571*) | Bromwich, Thomas (737*) | Bronowski, Jacob (1870*) | Brouncker, William (2130*) | Brouwer, L E J (2464*) | Brown, Alexander (398) Brown, Ernest (691*) | Brown, Gavin (933*) | Brown, Thomas (480) | Brown, Walter (376) | Browne, Marjorie (1102*) | Bruhat, François (648*) | Bruijn, Nicolaas de (1352*) | Brunelleschi, Filippo (1667*) | Bruno, Francesco Faŕ di (521*) | Bruno, Giuseppe (297) | Bruno, Giordano (1891*) | Bruns, Heinrich (556*) | Bryant, Sophie (1529*) | Bryson of Heraclea (527) | Buchan, Alexander (588) | Buckminster Fuller, R (766*) | Budan de Boislaurent (1200) | Buffon, Georges Comte de (1715*) | Bugaev, Nicolay (622*) | Bukreev, Boris (165*) Bunyakovsky, Viktor (729*) | Burali-Forti, Cesare (530) | Burchnall, Joseph (373*) | Burgess, Alexander (616*) | Bürgi, Joost (1508*) | Burkhardt, Heinrich (1241) Burkill, John (1421*) | Burnside, William (1588*) | Butchart, Raymond (426*) | Burton Jones, F (999*) | Butters, John (443)


(E?)(L1) http://turnbull.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/history/Indexes/C.html

| C | Caccioppoli, Renato (1455*) | Cajori, Florian (960*) | Calderón, Alberto (879*) | Calderwood, Nora (444) | Callippus (651) | Calugareanu, Gheorghe (1302*) | Campanus of Novara (171) | Campbell, John (852*) | Camus, Charles (776) | Cannell, Doris (442*) | Cantelli, Francesco (956*) | Cantor, Georg (3100*) | Cantor, Moritz (498*) | Capelli, Alfredo (1470) | Caramuel, Juan (1583*) | Carathéodory, Constantin (1851*) | Carcavi, Pierre de (2257) | Cardan, Jerome (2818*) Cardano, Girolamo (2818*) | Carleman, Tage (2006*) | Carleson, Lennart (1909*) | Carlitz, Leonard (720*) | Carlson, Fritz (1021*) | Carlyle, Thomas (2257*) | Carmeli, Moshe (1489*) | Carmichael, Robert (2280*) | Carnot, Lazare (597*) | Carnot, Sadi (1607*) | Carse, George (718*) | Carslaw, Horatio (581*) | Cartan, Elie (1478*) | Cartan, Henri (2091*) | Cartier, Pierre (891*) | Cartwright, Mary (1548*) | Casey, John (837) Casorati, Felice (900*) | Cassels, John (643*) | Cassels, James (164*) | Cassini (I), Giovanni Domenico (2116*) | Cassini (II), Jacques (1415*) | Cassini (III) de Thury, César-F (1624*) | Cassini (IV), Jean-Dominique (1799*) | Castel, Louis (761) | Castelnuovo, Guido (1702*) | Castigliano, Alberto (456*) | Castillon, Johann (162) | Catalan, Eugčne (1353*) | Cataldi, Pietro (1956) | Cauchy, Augustin-Louis (2467*) | Cavalieri, Bonaventura (565*) | Cayley, Arthur (1158*) | Cech, Eduard (1364*) | Cesŕro, Ernesto (1069*) | Ceva, Giovanni (296) | Ceva, Tommaso (172*) | Ch'in Chiu-Shao (2006) | Ch'ung Chi Tsu (1392*) | Chandrasekhar, Subrah. (1445*) | Chang Ch'iu-Chin (1000) | Chang, Sun-Yung Alice (983*) | Chaplygin, Sergi (366*) | Chapman, Sydney (1695*) | Chasles, Michel (1204*) | Châtelet, Gabrielle du (3021*) | Chauvenet, William (1295*) | Chebotaryov, Nikolai (409*) Chebyshev, Pafnuty (3067*) | Chen, Kuo (833*) | Cheng Dawei (1257*) | Chern, Shiing-shen (627*) | Chernikov, Sergei (1070*) | Chernoff, Herman (1422*) | Cherry, Colin (1453) | Cherry, Thomas (1607*) | Chevalley, Claude (1401*) | Childs, Charles (292) | Chi Tsu Ch'ung (1392*) | Chia Hsien (843) | Chiu-Shao, Ch'in (2006) | Chisholm Young, Grace (1142*) | Chisini, Oscar (729*) | Cholesky, Andre-Louis (1305*) Chow, Wei-Liang (1252*) | Chongzhi, Zu (1392*) | Chowla, Sarvadaman (819*) | Chree, Charles (848) | Christiansen, Bent (1185*) | Christoffel, Elwin (1580*) | Chrystal, George (2786*) | Chu Shijie (1912) | Chudakov, Nikolai (658) | Chunfeng, Li (917) | Chung, Graham Fan (2345*) | Chuquet, Nicolas (299) | Church, Alonzo (1494*) | Cipolla, Michele (1349*) | Civita, Tullio Levi- (2160*) | Clairaut, Alexis (2087*) | Clapeyron, Emile (525*) | Clark, John (358) | Clarke, Joan (2764) | Clarke, Samuel (1277*) | Clausen, Thomas (1815*) | Clausius, Rudolf (2619*) | Clavius, Christopher (1789*) | Clebsch, Alfred (576*) | Cleomedes (1183) | Clerke, Agnes (1670*) | Clifford, Alfred (1604*) | Clifford, William (852*) | Coates, John (1486*) | Coble, Arthur (1142*) | Cochran, William (452*) | Cocker, Edward (702*) | Cockle, James (642*) Codazzi, Delfino (671) | Cohen, Paul (2569*) | Cohen, Wim (1583*) | Cohn, Paul (1035*) | Cole, Frank (1066*) | Colenso, John (1578*) | Collatz, Lothar (944*) | Collingwood, Edward (1078*) | Collins, John (921) | Commandino, Frederico (1742*) | Comrie, Peter (564*) | Condamine, Charles de La (480*) | Connes, Alain (1053*) | Conon of Samos (583) | Contractus, Hermann (231) | Conway, Arthur (1203*) | Conway, John H (2006*) Coolidge, Julian (895*) | Cooper, Lionel (311*) | Copernicus, Nicolaus (3455*) | Copson, Edward (1325*) | Coriolis, Gustave de (805*) | Cosserat, Eugčne (278*) | Cotes, Roger (1632*) | Coulomb, Charles de (2025*) | Coulson, Charles (1406*) | Courant, Richard (2064*) | Cournot, Antoine (515*) | Coutts, William (733) | Couturat, Louis (1090*) | Cowling, Thomas (1394*) | Cox, Gertrude (2339*) | Cox, Elbert (1077*) | Coxeter, Donald (722*) | Craig, James (262) | Craig, John (776) | Cramer, Gabriel (1797*) | Cramér, Harald (1077*) | Crank, John (272*) | Crawford, Lawrence (415) | Crelle, August (1061*) Cremona, Luigi (1698*) | Crighton, David (1116*) | Crofton, Morgan (1203) | Csere, Apaczai (955*) | Cunha, Anastácio da (902) | Cunitz, Maria (1090) | Cunningham, Ebenezer (575*) Cunningham, Leslie (569) | Curbastro, G Ricci- (1335*) | Curry, Haskell (2073*) | Cusa, Nicholas (2479*) | Czuber, Emanuel (508*)


(E?)(L1) http://turnbull.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/history/Indexes/D.html

| D | d'Alembert, Jean (1256*) | d'Arcy Thompson W (1533*) | d'Ocagne, Maurice (951) | d'Ovidio, Enrico (414*) | Dahlquist, Germund (1894) | da Vinci, Leonardo (704*) | Dandelin, Germinal (392*) | Danti, Egnatio (1869*) Dantzig, David van (518*) | Dantzig, George (2280*) | Darboux, Gaston (814*) | Darwin, Charles (784*) | Darwin, George (688*) | Dase, Zacharias (1293*) | Daubechies, Ingrid (1728*) | Davenport, Harold (1572*) David, Florence (1852*) | Davidov, August (435*) | Davies, Paul (1574*) | Davies, Evan Tom (1370*) | Day, R (1115*) | Dawei, Cheng (1257*) | de Beaune, Florimond (1465) | de Bessy, Bernard (411) | de Billy, Jacques (453) | de Boislaurent, Budan (1200) | de Bougainville, Louis (1054*) | de Branges, Louis (3200*) | de Broglie, Louis duc (1571*) | de Bruijn, Nicolaas (1352*) | de Carcavi, Pierre (439) | de Coriolis, Gustave (805*) | de Coulomb, Charles (2025*) | de Fermat, Pierre (2491*) | de Finetti, Bruno (1346*) | de Fontenelle, Bernard (255*) | De, Gan (438) de Giorgi, Ennio (1447*) | de Groot, Johannes (444*) | de Jonquičres, Ernest (1084*) | de L'Hôpital, Guillaume (204*) | de La Condamine, Charles (480*) | della Faille, Jan-Karel (233*) | de La Hire, Philippe (297*) | de La Roche, Estienne (275) | de la Vallée Poussin, (1702*) | de Lagny, Thomas (715*) | de Moivre, Abraham (1837*) | de Moličres, Joseph (701) | de Montmort, Pierre (478) | De Morgan, Augustus (856*) | de Prony, Gaspard (1015*) de Ortega, Juan (471) | de Rham, Georges (741*) | de Roberval, Gilles (349) | de Valera, Éamon (2167*) | de St-Venant, Adhémar (554*) | de Sitter, Willem (2458*) | de Sluze, René (323) | de Tilly, Joseph (667) | de Tinseau, D'Amondans (893) | de Vries, Gustav (509*) | de Vries, Hendrik (605*) | de Witt, Johan (868*) | de Wronski, Josef (1169*) | Deans, Winifred (543*) | Dechales, Claude (676) | Dedekind, Richard (2081*) | Dee, John (2364*) | Dehn, Max (691*) | del Ferro, Scipione (1407) | Delamain, Richard (393) | Delambre, Jean Baptiste (2729*) | Delaunay, Charles (1253*) | Deligne, Pierre (1120*) | della Francesca, Piero (540*) | della Porta, Giambattista (409*) | Delone, Boris (485*) | Delsarte, Jean (2187*) Democritus of Abdera (1555*) | Denjoy, Arnaud (1015*) | Deparcieux, Antoine (618) | des Bertins, Alexis (555) | Desargues, Girard (720*) | Descartes, René (1720*) | Deuring, Max (1390) | Dezin, Aleksei (1590*) | di Bruno, Francesco Faŕ (521*) | Dickson, Leonard (1895*) | Dickstein, Samuel (1009*) | Digges, Thomas (1025) | Dijkstra, Edsger (1844*) Dilworth, Robert (1553*) | Dinghas, Alexander (919*) | Dini, Ulisse (1000*) | Dinostratus (491) | Diocles (1023) | Dionis du Séjour, A (630) | Dionysodorus (779) | Diophantus of Alexandria (2271) | Dirac, Paul (2446*) | Dirichlet, Lejeune (2094*) | Dirksen, Enno (1022) | Dixon, Alfred (664*) | Dixon, Arthur (706*) | Dodgson, Charles (2839*) | Doeblin, Wolfgang (964*) | Doetsch, Gustav (1212*) | Domninus of Larissa (614) | Donaldson, Simon (678*) | Doob, Joseph (1779*) | Doppelmayr, Johann (1206*) | Doppler, Christian (2467*) | Dougall, Charles (1228*) | Dougall, John (572*) | Douglas, Jesse (1199*) | Dowker, Clifford (1203*) Drach, Jules (1442) | Drinfeld, Vladimir (401*) | Droz-Farny, Arnold (460) | Drysdale, David (335) | du Bois-Reymond, Paul (1709*) | du Val, Patrick (2005*) | Duarte, Francisco (897*) | Dubreil, Paul (531*) | Dubreil-Jacotin, Marie-Louise (2760*) | Duhamel, Jean-Marie (1002*) | Duhem, Pierre (2002*) Dunbar, Robert (858) | Dupin, Pierre (668*) | Dupré, Athanase (275) | Durell, Clement (1218) | Dvoretzky, Aryeh (1546*) | Dyck, Walther von (737*) | Dye, Henry (919*) | Dynkin, Evgenii (939*) | Dyson, Freeman (2711*)


(E?)(L1) http://turnbull.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/history/Indexes/E.html

| E | Eastwood, George (100*) | Eckert, J Presper (1000*) | Eckert, Wallace J (623*) | Eckmann, Beno (920*) | Eddington, Arthur (2153*) | Edge, William (1193*) | Edgeworth, Francis (1092*) | Edmonds, Sheila (889) | Eells, James (1230*) | Egorov, Dimitri (408*) | Ehrenfest, Paul (2596*) | Ehrenfest-Afanassjewa, T (1198*) | Ehresmann, Charles (669*) | Eichler, Martin (770*) Eilenberg, Samuel (1748*) | Einstein, Albert (2115*) | Eisenhart, Luther (1596*) | Eisenstein, Gotthold (2427*) | Elliott, Edwin (655*) | Emerson, William (2366*) | Empedocles (1074*) | Engel, Friedrich (433*) | Enriques, Federigo (470*) | Enskog, David (386*) | Eötvös, Lórand von (1622*) | Epstein, Paul (660*) | Eratosthenes of Cyrene (1743*) | Erdélyi, Arthur (769*) Erdos, Paul (2168*) | Erlang, Agner (1626*) | Escher, Maurits (3142*) | Esclangon, Ernest (528*) | Euclid of Alexandria (2950*) | Eudemus of Rhodes (1085) | Eudoxus of Cnidus (2317) | Euler, Leonhard (4583*) | Eutocius of Ascalon (763) | Euwe, Machgielis (1498*) | Evans, Griffith (1131*) | Ezra, Rabbi Ben (552)


(E?)(L1) http://turnbull.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/history/Indexes/F.html

| F | Faŕ di Bruno, Francesco (521*) | Faber,Georg (591) | Fabri, Honoré (360*) | Faddeev, Dmitrii (2192*) | Faddeeva, Vera (1624*) | Fagnano, Giovanni (293) | Fagnano, Giulio (660) | Falconer, Etta (1284*) | Faille, Charles de La (233*) | Faltings, Gerd (275*) | Fano, Gino (697*) | Fantappič, Luigi (1673*) | Faraday, Michael (2159*) | Farey, John (1137*) | Farkas, Gyula (810*) | Fasenmyer, Mary (1272*) | Farisi, Kamal al (1102) | Fatou, Pierre (672*) | Faulhaber, Johann (519*) | Fawcett, Philippa (1985*) Fefferman, Charles (665*) | Feigenbaum, Mitchell (2145*) | Feigl, Georg (873*) | Feit, Walter (1807*) | Fejér, Lipót (1982*) | Feldman, Naum (1110*) | Feller, William (1665*) | Fenyö, István (1268*) | Ferguson, Robert (371) | Fermat, Pierre de (2491*) | Fermi, Enrico (2254*) | Ferrar, Bill (547*) | Ferrari, Lodovico (1041) | Ferrel, William (1916*) | Ferrers, Norman (1346) | Ferro, Scipione del (1407) | Feuerbach, Karl (1745*) | Fčvre, Jean Le (542) | Feynman, Richard (2533*) | Fiedler, Miroslav (1323*) | Fields, John (1522*) | Finck, Pierre-Joseph (367) | Fincke, Thomas (213) | Fine, Henry (2346*) | Fine, Nathan (1100*) | Fine, Oronce (1686*) | Finetti, Bruno de (1346*) | Finsler, Paul (529*) | Fiorentini, Mario (677*) | Fischer, Ernst (530*) | Fisher, Ronald (1966*) | Fiske, Thomas (500*) | FitzGerald, George (3163*) | Fizeau, Hippolyte (1306*) | Flamsteed, John (772*) | Flato, Moshé (1221*) | Floer, Andreas (896*) | Floquet, Achille (747) | Flügge-Lotz, Irmgard (1702*) | Fock, Vladimir (1166*) | Fogels, Ernests (926*) | Fomin, Sergei (1118*) | Fontaine des Bertins, A (555) | Fontenelle, Bernard de (255*) | Ford, Lester (1966) | Forder, Henry (2144*) | Forest, Erastus (706) | Forsyth, Andrew (691*) | Forsythe, George (2283*) | Forti, Cesare Burali- (530) | Foster, Alfred (1271*) | Foucault, Jean (1776*) | Fourier, Joseph (2156*) | Fowler, David (1480*) | Fowler, Ralph (2443*) | Fox, Charles (235*) | Fox, Leslie (1665*) | Fox, Ralph (1710*) Fraenkel, Adolf (439*) | Français, François (659) | Français, Jacques (692) | Francesca, Piero della (2887*) | Francoeur, Louis (1802) | Frank, Philipp (653) | Franklin, Benjamin (325*) | Franklin, Philip (1846*) | Fraser, Alexander (583) | Frattini, Giovanni (909) | Fréchet, Maurice (2572*) | Fredholm, Ivar (1694*) | Freedman, Michael (1532*) | Frege, Gottlob (2795*) | Freitag, Herta (382*) | Frenet, Jean (546) | Frenicle de Bessy, B (411) | Frenkel, Jacov (900*) | Fresnel, Augustin (2040*) Freudenthal, Hans (1031*) | Freundlich, Finlay (1787*) | Frewin, Gilbert (344) | Fricke, Robert (1832) | Friedmann, Alexander (2499*) | Friedrichs, Kurt (2291*) | Frisi, Paolo (627*) | Frisius, Regnier Gemma (1774*) | Frobenius, Georg (2147*) | Fröhlich, Albrecht (1918*) | Fubini, Guido (1008*) | Fuchs, Klaus (2623*) | Fuchs, Lazarus (698*) | Fueter, Rudolph (578*) | Fuller, R Buckminster (766*) | Fuller, Thomas (603) | Furstenberg, Hillel (1778*) | Fuss, Nicolai (846*)


(E?)(L1) http://turnbull.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/history/Indexes/G.html

| G | Galerkin Boris (1309*) | Galileo Galilei (4326*) | Gallarati, Dionisio (486*) | Galois, Evariste (2110*) | Gan De (438) | Gardner, Martin (2367*) | Garnir, Henri (1687*) | Gassendi, Pierre (2416*) | Gateaux, René (3062) | Gauss, Carl Friedrich (2364*) Geber, (Jabir ibn Aflah) (529*) | Gegenbauer, Leopold (1303*) | Geiringer, Hilda von Mises (1469*) | Geiser, Karl (1382*) | Gelfand, Israil (1299*) | Gelfond, Aleksandr (1167*) | Gellibrand, Henry (480) | Geminus (1381) | Gemma Frisius, Regnier (1774*) | Geng Zhi Zu (630) | Genocchi, Angelo (858*) Gentle, William (1255*) | Gentry, Ruth (701) | Gentzen, Gerhard (1519*) | Geöcze, Zoárd (1362*) | Gerbaldi, Francesco (1170) | Gerard of Cremona (668) | Gergonne, Joseph (1116) | Gerhard of Cremona (668) | Germain, Sophie (1063*) | Gershgorin, Semyon (*) | Giorgi, Ennio de (1447*) | Gerson, Levi ben (268) | Gherard of Cremona (668) | Ghetaldi, Marino (2048*) | Gibb, David (477*) | Gibbs, J Willard (1028*) | Gibson, George (552*) | Gillespie, Robert (478*) | Giorgi, Ennio de (1447*) | Girard, Albert (1888*) | Girard, Pierre (1475*) | Glaisher, James (2024*) | Gleason, Andrew (1387*) Glenie, James (928) | Gluskin, Lazar (1308*) | Gnedenko, Boris (2103*) | Gohberg, Israel (640*) | Golab, Stanislaw (1486*) | Goldbach, Christian (1694) | Goldie, Alfred (1728*) | Goldie, Archibald (364) | Goldstein, Sydney (350*) | Goldstine, Herman (2211*) | Golub, Gene (2139*) | Gompertz, Benjamin (963*) Good, Irving (2281*) | Gongora, Siguenza y (566) | Goodstein, Reuben (425*) | Göpel, Adolph (633) | Gorbunov, Viktor (662*) | Gordan, Paul (958*) | Gorenstein, Daniel (1300*) | Gosset, William (644*) | Goursat, Edouard (846*) | Govindasvami (237) | Gräffe, Karl (305) | Graham, Ronald (2454*) | Graham, Fan Chung (2026*) | Gram, Jorgen (1066*) | Grandi, Guido (444*) | Granville, Evelyn (1875*) | Grassmann, Hermann (2709*) | Grauert, Hans (1222*) | Grave, Dmitry (469*) | Gray, Andrew (1004) | Gray, James (865) | Gray, Marion (1085*) | Gray, Mary (1357*) | Greaves, John (1123) | Greaves, William (267) | Gravesande, Willem 's (1076*) | Green, George (2688) | Green, Sandy (2067*) Greenhill, Alfred (888*) | Greenstreet, William (28) | Gregory, David (1826*) | Gregory, Duncan (612*) | Gregory, Olinthus (2263*) | Gregory, James (3060*) | Grieve, Alexander (608) | Griffiths, Brian (1589*) | Griffiths, Lois (990) | Griffiths, Phillip (1578*) | Grinbergs, Emanuels (936) | Gromoll, Detlef (1242*) | Gromov, Mikhael (2029*) | Grönwall, Thomas (1131*) | Groot, Johannes de (444*) | Grosseteste, Robert (317*) | Grossmann, Marcel (1302*) | Grosswald, Emil (935*) Grothendieck, Alexander (607*) | Gruenberg, Karl (1354*) | Grunsky, Helmut (772*) | Guangqi, Xu (1507*) | Guarini, Guarino (962*) | Guccia, Giovanni (582*) | Gudermann, Christoph (568) | Guenther, Adam (533) | Guinand, Andrew (529*) | Guldin, Paul (2338*) | Gunter, Edmund (489) | Guo Shoujing (1688*) | Gupta, Shanti (769*) | Guthrie, William (405) | Gutzmer, Karl (735*) | Gwilt, Richard (305)


(E?)(L1) http://turnbull.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/history/Indexes/H.html

| H | Haar, Alfréd (1181*) | Haack, Wolfgang (1622*) | Hachette, Jean (944*) | Hadamard, Jacques (2759*) | Hadley, John (824*) | Hahn, Hans (1143*) | Hájek, Jaroslav (907*) | Haldane, Robert (693*) | Haitam, Abu Ali al- (2490*) | Hall, Marshall Jr. (438*) | Hall, Philip (2643*) | Halley, Edmond (2532*) | Halmos, Paul (1328*) | Halphen, George (872*) | Halsted, George (1158*) | Hamel, Georg (961*) Hamill, Christine (445) | Hamilton, William (811*) | Hamilton, William R (2886*) | Hammersley, John (1864*) | Hamming, Richard W (582*) | Hankel, Hermann (546*) | Hardie, Patrick (306) | Hardie, Robert (199) | Hardy, Claude (1140) | Hardy, G H (2563*) | Haret, Spiru (956*) | Harish-Chandra (1686*) | Harley, Amélie (331) | Harriot, Thomas (3306*) | Hartley, Brian (466*) | Hartogs, Friedrich (1617*) Hartree, Douglas (696*) | Haselgrove, Brian (1727) | Hasib Abu Kamil al (1012) | Hasse, Helmut (1189*) | Hatvani, István (699*) | Hau, Lene (1284*) | Hausdorff, Felix (1813*) | Hawking, Stephen (1972*) | Hay, Louise (2037*) | Hayes, Ellen (1060*) | Hayes, Charles (1724) | Hayman, Walter (2146*) | Haytham, Abu Ali al (2490*) | Hazlett, Olive (1345*) | Heath, Thomas (822*) | Heaviside, Oliver (1270*) | Heawood, Percy (730*) | Hecht, Daniel (509) | Hecke, Erich (730*) | Hedrick, Earle (501*) | Heegaard, Poul (2289*) | Heilbronn, Hans (2122*) | Heine, Eduard (667*) | Heinonen, Juha (1723*) | Heisenberg, Werner (2631*) | Hellinger, Ernst (1233*) | Helly, Eduard (909*) | Helmholtz, Hermann von (2214*) | Hemchandra, Acharya (666) | Heng, Zhang (1481*) | Henrici, Olaus (703*) | Henrici, Peter (1437*) Hensel, Kurt (1321*) | Heraclides of Pontus (773) | Herbrand, Jacques (820*) | Herglotz, Gustav (758*) | Hérigone, Pierre (820) | Hermann, Jakob (267*) | Hermann of Reichenau (231) | Hermite, Charles (1849*) | Heron of Alexandria (2275*) | Herschel, Caroline (1760*) | Herschel, John (2821*) | Herstein, Yitz (1724*) | Hertz, Gustav (1062*) | Hertz, Heinrich (2811*) | Hesse, Otto (1235*) | Heun, Karl (531*) | Heuraet, Hendrik van (1468) | Hevelius, Elisabetha (1230*) Hevelius, Johannes (1830*) | Heyting, Arend (1138*) | Higman, Graham (1363*) | Hilbert, David (1657*) | Hildebrant, John (662*) | Hill, George (1223*) | Hille, Einar (1295*) | Hilton, Peter (3120*) | Hindenburg, Carl (512) | Hipparchus of Rhodes (2557*) | Hippias of Elis (904) | Hippocrates of Chios (1282*) | Hire, Philippe de La (297*) | Hironaka, Heisuke (1532*) | Hirsch, Kurt (1781*) | Hirst, Thomas (1788*) | Hirzebruch, Friedrich (1815*) | Hiyya, Abraham bar (641) | Hniedenko, Boris (2103*) | Hobbes, Thomas (2973*) | Hobson, Ernest (822*) | Hodge, William (736*) | Hoehnke, Hans-Jürgen (902*) | Hölder, Otto (541*) | Hollerith, Herman (1626*) | Holmboe, Bernt (1961*) | Holywood John of (328*) | Honda, Taira (515*) | Hong, Liu (304) | Hong, Luoxia (440) | Hooke, Robert (3297*) | Hopf, Eberhard (1071*) | Hopf, Heinz (1808*) | Hôpital, Guillaume de L' (204*) | Hopkins, William (858*) | Hopkinson, John (754*) Hopper, Grace (1729*) | Hörmander, Lars (799*) | Horner, William (490) | Horrocks, Jeremiah (1603*) | Horsburgh, Ellice (158) | Hotelling, Harold (2130*) | Hoüel, Jules (421*) | Householder, Alston (1122*) | Hoyle, Fred (3068*) | Hsiung, Chuan-Chih (1634*) | Hsiahou Yang (443) | H'siao-t'ung, Wang (1484) | Hsien, Jia (843) | Hsu Guangqi (1507*) | Hsu Pao-Lu (1171*) | Hua, Loo-Keng (3440*) | Hubble, Edwin (591*) | Hudde, Johann (1466*) Hudson, Hilda (1072*) | Huhn, András (589*) | Hui, Liu (1922*) | Hui, Yang (2060*) | Humbert, Georges (645*) | Humbert, Pierre (534*) | Hunayn ibn Ishaq (780) | Hunt, Gilbert (1459*) | Huntington, Edward (773*) | Hunyadi, Jeno (964*) | Hurewicz, Witold (529*) | Hurwitz, Adolf (1538*) | Hutton, Charles (1955*) | Hutton, James (2085*) | Huygens, Christiaan (2463*) | Hypatia of Alexandria (821*) | Hypsicles of Alexandria (645)


(E?)(L1) http://turnbull.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/history/Indexes/IJ.html

| IJ | Iacob, Caius (1275*) | Juecheng, Mei (1295) | ibn al-Banna (861) | ibn Iraq, Mansur (1190) | ibn Ishaq Hunayn (780) | ibn Labban, Kushyar (448) | ibn Qurra, Thabit (1507*) | ibn Sina (Avicenna) (1965*) | ibn Sinan, Ibrahim (688) ibn Tahir (947) | ibn Tibbon, Jacob (976) | ibn Yunus, Abu'l-Hasan (1312) | ibn Yusuf Ahmed (660) | Ibrahim, ibn Sinan (688) | Ikeda, Masatoshi (1496*) | Ince, Edward (1020*) | Infeld, Leopold (2465*) | Ingham, Albert (715*) Insolera, Filadelfo (1271*) | Ito, Kiyosi (1545*) | Iraq, Mansur ibn (1190) | Ivory, James (978) | Iwanik, Anzelm (1216*) | Iwasawa, Kenkichi (1331*) | Iyanaga, Shokichi (1132*) | Jabir ibn Aflah (529*) | Jack, David (319*) | Jack, William (582*) | Jackson, John (764) | Jackson, Dunham (2072*) | Jacobi, Carl (2614*) | Jacobson, Nathan (2083*) | Jacobsthal, Ernst (1770) | Jafar, Abu al-Khazin (1148) | Jagannatha, Samrat (406) | James, Ioan (1141*) | James, Ralph (931*) | Jamshid, al-Kashi (1725*) | Janiszewski, Zygmunt (1645*) | Janovskaja, Sof'ja (1707*) | Jarnik, Vojtech (468*) | Jawhari, al-Abbas al (627) Jayyani, Abu al (892) | Jeans, James (2301*) | Jeffery, George (373*) | Jeffery, Ralph (947*) | Jeffreys, Bertha (1729*) | Jeffreys, Harold (734*) | Jensen, Johan (539*) | Jerabek, Vaclav (355) | Jerrard, George (473) | Jevons, William (1771*) | Jia Xian (843) | Jitomirskaya, Svetlana (2091*) | Jiushao, Qin (2006) | Joachimsthal, Ferdinand (368*) | John, Fritz (1077*) | John of Holywood (328*) | Johnson, Anna (Wheeler) (516*) Johnson, Barry (1327*) | Johnson, William (708*) | Johnstone, David (610*) | Jones, F Burton (999*) | Jones, Vaughan (1014*) | Jones, William (1152*) | Jonquičres, Ernest de (1084*) | Jordan, Camille (2048*) | Jordanus Nemorarius (1014) | Joukowski, Nikolay (806*) | Jourdain, Philip (742*) | Juel, Christian (445*) | Julia, Gaston (2181*) | Jung, Heinrich (846*) | Jungius, Joachim (2327*) | Jyesthadeva (641)


(E?)(L1) http://turnbull.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/history/Indexes/K.html

| K | Kac, Mark (1264*) | Kaestner, Abraham (525*) | Kagan, Benjamin (343) | Kähler, Erich (1619*) | Kakutani, Shizuo (937*) | Kalicki, Jan (1244) | Kalman, Rudolf (2037*) | Kalmár, László (753*) | Kaluza, Theodor (699*) | Kaluznin, Lev (2243*) | Kamalakara (366) | Kamal, al-Farisi (1102) | Kamil Abu Shuja (1012) | Kampen, Egbert van (1075*) | Kantorovich, Leonid (632*) | Kaplansky, Irving (1027*) Kaprekar, Dattatreya (1752*) | Karaji, Abu al (1789) | Karkhi al (1789) | Karlin, Samuel (1153*) | Kármán, Theodore von (1625*) | Karp, Carol (605*) | Karsten, Wenceslaus (747*) | Katahiro, Takebe (1900) | Kato, Tosio (1346*) | Kashi, Ghiyath al (1725*) | Kästner, Abraham (525*) | Katyayana (281) | Keen, Linda (1181*) | Keill, John (1010) | Kelland, Philip (650*) | Keller, Ott-Heinrich (785*) Keller, Eduard (785*) | Keller, Joseph (2008*) | Kellogg, Oliver (989*) | Kelly, Paul (1158) | Kelly, Max (1485*) | Kelvin, Lord (Thomson) (2702*) | Kemeny, John (1070*) | Kempe, Alfred (2378*) | Kendall, David (550*) | Kendall, Maurice (1275*) | Kennedy-Fraser, David (583) | Kepler, Johannes (3690*) | Kerékjártó, Béla (2026*) | Kerr, John (529) | Kerr, Roy (2034*) | Keynes, John Maynard (2312*) | Khalili, Shams al (677) | Khayyam, Omar (2140*) | Khazin, Abu Jafar al (1148) | Khinchin, Aleksandr (1018*) | Khujandi, Abu al (713) | Khwaja-yi, Tus1 (1912*) | Khwaja, Nasir (1912*) | Khwarizmi, Abu al- (2847*) | Kiefer, Jack (1571*) | Killing, Wilhelm (2282*) | Kindi, Abu al (1151*) | Kingman, John (1727*) | Kirch, Maria (1617) | Kirchhoff, Gustav (1523*) | Kirkman, Thomas (1045*) | Kleene, Stephen (1869*) | Klein, Felix (2307*) | Klein, Oskar (2294*) Kline, Morris (2243*) | Klingenberg, Wilhelm (773*) | Kloosterman, Hendrik (776*) | Klug, Leopold (1694) | Klügel, Georg (415*) | Knapowski, Stanislaw (1047*) | Kneser, Adolf (825*) | Kneser, Hellmuth (845*) | Knopp, Konrad (749*) | Knott, Cargill (367*) | Knuth, Donald (2758*) | Kober, Hermann (1359*) | Koch, Helge von (736*) | Kochin, Nikolai (296*) | Kochina, Pelageia (2041*) | Kodaira, Kunihiko (382*) | Koebe, Paul (417*) | Koenigs, Gabriel (1924*) Koksma, Jurjen (1108*) | Kolchin, Ellis (1103*) | Kolmogorov, Andrey (2076*) | Kolosov, Gury (903*) | Konig, Denes (217*) | König, Julius (1168*) | König, Samuel (908*) | Königsberger, Leo (1710*) | Kontsevich, Maxim (1658*) | Koopman, E Hevelius (1230) | Korkin, Aleksandr (1496*) | Korteweg, Diederik (1232*) | Kostrikin, Aleksei (1242) | Koszul, Jean-Louis (927*) | Kotelnikov, Aleksandr (412) | Köthe, Gottfried (2455*) | Kovalevskaya, Sofia (1283*) | Kramer, Edna (1892) | Kramers, Hendrik (1780*) | Kramp, Christian (219) | Krasnosel'skii, Mark (1463*) | Krawtchouk, Mikhail (703*) | Krein, Mark (1271*) | Kreisel, Georg (550*) | Krieger, Cecilia (815*) | Kronecker, Leopold (2144*) | Krull, Wolfgang (886*) | Kruskal, Martin (1123*) Kruskal, William (1417*) | Krylov, Aleksei (1606*) | Krylov, Nikolai M (570*) | Krylov, Nikolai S (639*) | Kublanovskaya, Vera (1567*) | Kuczma, Marek (1227*) | Kua, Shen (2448*) | Kuang-ch'i, Hsu (1507*) | Kuhi, Abu al- (1146) | Kuiper, Nicolaas (1426*) | Kulik, Yakov (288) Kumano-Go, Hitoshi (547*) | Kummer, Eduard (1412*) | Kuo Shoujing (1688*) | Kuperberg, Krystyna (1176*) | Kuratowski, Kazimierz (2191*) | Kurepa, Dura (849*) | Kurosh, Aleksandr (1284*) | Kürschák, József (814*) | Kushyar, ibn Labban (448) | Kutta, Martin (764*) | Kuttner, Brian (412*)


(E?)(L1) http://turnbull.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/history/Indexes/L.html

| L | La Condamine, Charles de (480*) | Lyttle, Joan (2378) | La Faille, Charles de (1054*) | La Hire, Philippe de (2239*) | La Roche, Estienne de (1317) | la Vallée Poussin, C de (1702*) | Labban, Kushyar ibn (448) | Lacroix, Sylvestre (1397) | Ladd-Franklin, Christine (1731*) | Ladyzhenskaya, Olga (2332*) | Lafforgue, Laurent (1967*) | Lagny, Thomas de (715*) | Lagrange, Joseph-Louis (3183*) | Laguerre, Edmond (1016*) | Lah, Ivo (724*) Lakatos, Imre (1345*) | Lalande, Joseph-Jérôme (2841*) | Lalla (502) | Lamb, Horace (964*) | Lambert, Johann (2235*) | Lamé, Gabriel (1192*) | Lame, Hermann the (231) | Lamy, Bernard (1758*) | Lanczos, Cornelius (834*) | Landau, Edmund (1513*) | Landau, Lev (1185*) | Landen, John (590) | Landsberg, Georg (264) | Lang, Peter Scott (177*) | Lang, Serge (1820*) Langlands, Robert (816*) | Lansberge, Philippe van (243*) | Laplace, Pierre-Simon (3821*) | Larmor, Joseph (1588*) | Lasker, Emanuel (2378*) | Lassar, Edna Kramer (1892) | László, Filep (1149*) | Laurent, Hermann (806) | Laurent, Pierre (765) | Lavanha, Joao Baptista (180) | Lavrentev, Mikhail (341*) | Lawson, George (875*) | Lax, Anneli (3767*) | Lax, Gaspar (609) | Lax, Peter (2659*) | Le Fčvre, Jean (542) | Le Paige, Constantin (314*) | Le Tenneur, Jacques (1517) | Le Verrier, Urbain (450*) | Lebesgue, Henri (1202*) | Ledermann, Walter (1901*) | Leech, John (582*) | Leffler, Magnus Mittag- (2302*) | Lefschetz, Solomon (2083*) | Legendre, Adrien-Marie (1953*) | Léger, Emile (186) | Lehmer, Derrick H (1715*) Lehmer, Derrick N (1782*) | Lehmer, Emma (1658*) | Leibniz, Gottfried von (3723*) | Leimanis, Eizens (835) | Lemaître, Georges (2055*) | Lemoine, Emile (605*) | Lepaute, Nicole-Reine (1022*) | Leray, Jean (990*) | Lerch, Mathias (470*) | Leslie, John (1703*) Lesniewski, Stanislaw (1180*) | Lesokhin, Mikhail (1202*) | Leucippus (768) | Levi ben Gerson (268) | Levi-Civita, Tullio (2160*) | Levinson, Norman (2320*) | Levy, Hyman (902) | Lévy, Paul (714*) | Levytsky, Volodymyr (296*) | Lewy, Hans (1074*) | Lexell, Anders (861*) | Lexis, Wilhelm (562*) | L'Hôpital, Guillaume de (204*) | Lhuilier, Simon (1091) | Li Chih (2015) | Libermann, Paulette (1460) | Li Chunfeng (917) | Li Rui (607) | Li Shanlan (1807*) | Li Ye (2015) | Li Zhi (2015) | Libri Guglielmo (2016*) Lidstone, George (1106) | Lie, Sophus (2699*) | Lifshitz, Evgenii (441*) | Lighthill, James (2081*) | Lindelöf, Ernst (592*) | Lindemann, Ferdinand von (895*) | Linfoot, Hubert (1856*) | Linnik, Yuri (2104*) | Lint, Jack van (2063*) | Lions, Jacques-Louis (2154*) Lions, Pierre-Louis (1423*) | Liouville, Joseph (1968*) | Lipschitz, Rudolf (562*) | Lissajous, Jules (1092*) | Listing, Johann (1666*) | Littlewood, Dudley (908*) | Littlewood, John E (2326*) | Liu Hong (304) | Liu, Hui (1922*) | Livsic, Moshe (626*) | Ljunggren, Wilhelm (986*) | Llull, Ramon (348*) | Löb, Martin (645*) | Lobachevsky, Nikolai (2143*) | Lockhart, James (365*) | Loewner, Karl (1807*) | Loewy, Alfred (857*) | Lonie, William (2467*) | Lopatynsky, Yaroslav (1236*) | Lorentz, Hendrik (863*) | Lorenz, Edward (1776*) Loria, Gino (2411*) | Lovász, Laszlo (2775*) | Love, Augustus (738*) | Lovelace, Augusta Ada (2243*) | Löwenheim, Leopold (1329*) | Löwner, Karl (1807*) | Loyd, Samuel (1814*) | Lucas, F Edouard (394*) | Luchins, Edith (2151*) | Lueroth, Jacob (395*) | Lukacs, Eugene (1185*) Lukasiewicz, Jan (600*) | Luke, Yudell (1143*) | Lumsden, Thomas (288) | Luoxia Hong (440) | Lupas, Alexandru (1194*) | Luzin, Nikolai (2072*) | Lyapin, Evgeny (1726*) | Lyapunov, Aleksandr (1167*) | Lyndon, Roger (1407*)


(E?)(L1) http://turnbull.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/history/Indexes/M.html

| M | Macaulay, Francis (1295) | MacColl, Hugh (1514*) | MacCullagh, James (922*) | Macdonald, Hector (1029*) | Macdonald, James (657) | Macdonald, William (639) | Machin, John (1162*) | Macintyre, Sheila Scott (449*) | Mackay, James (1044*) | Mackay, John S (256*) | Mackenzie, Gladys (891) | Mackey, George (1586*) | Mackie, John (459) | Mac Lane, Saunders (618*) | Maclaurin, Colin (2732*) MacMahon, Percy (1052*) | Macmillan, Donald (520) | MacMillan, Jessie (1517*) | MacRobert, Thomas (1505*) | Maddison, Ada (820) | Madhava, Sangamagramma (947) | Madwar, Mohammed (722) | Magini, Giovanni (1821) | Magiros, Demetrios (850*) | Magnitsky, Leonty (1289) | Magnus, Wilhelm (537*) | Maghribi, Muhyi al (602) | Mahani, Abu al (507) | Mahavira, Mahavira (994) | Mahendra, Suri (259) Mahler, Kurt (2249*) | Maior, John (1282) | Malcev, Anatoly (1299*) | Malebranche, Nicolas (1326*) | Malfatti, Francesco (419*) | Malone-Mayes, Vivienne (1482*) | Maltsev, Anatoly (1299*) | Malus, Etienne Louis (486*) | Manava (301) | Mandelbrojt, Szolem (836*) | Mandelbrot, Benoit (1838*) | Manin, Yuri (1203*) | Mannheim, Amédée (404*) | Mansion, Paul (373*) | Mansur ibn Ali, Abu (1190) | Marchenko, Vladimir (2077*) | Marcinkiewicz, Jozef (1134*) | Marczewski, Edward (1012*) | Margulis, Gregori (812*) | Marinus of Neapolis (405) | Markov, Andrei (1459*) | Martin, Artemas (924*) | Martin, Lajos (1246*) | Marrakushi, al (861) | Mascheroni, Lorenzo (790*) | Maschke, Heinrich (1357*) | Maseres, Francis (897*) | Maskelyne, Nevil (477*) | Mason, Max (1389) | Mästlin, Michael (1627*) | Mathews, George (492) Mathieu, Claude-Louis (1453*) | Mathieu, Emile (575) | Mathisson, Myron (974*) | Matsushima, Yozo (1147*) | Mauchly, John (1343*) | Maupertuis, Pierre de (2527*) | Maurolico, Francisco (3067*) | Maxwell, James Clerk (2554*) | Mayer, Adolph (375*) | Mayer, Tobias (1666*) | Mayr, Simon (1501*) | Mazur, Barry (1576*) | Mazur, Stanislaw (1146*) | Mazurkiewicz, Stefan (1322*) | Maz'ya, Vladimir (1611*) | McAfee, Walter (1273*) McArthur, Neil (146) | McBride, James (221*) | McClintock, John (1047*) | McCowan, John (2348) | McCrea, William (1987*) | McDuff, Dusa (1297*) | McIntosh, Donald (315*) | McKendrick, Anderson (653) | McMullen, Curtis (2113*) | McQuistan, Dougald (280) | McNulty, Kathleen (746*) | McShane, Edward (808*) | McVittie, George (263*) | McWhan, John (302) | Méchain, Pierre (2419*) | Meders, Alfreds (612) | Mei Juecheng (1295) | Mei Wending (1793) | Meiklejohn, John (364*) | Meissel, Ernst (754*) | Mellin, Hjalmar (568*) | Menabrea, Luigi (1486*) | Menaechmus (1104) | Mendelsohn, Nathan (1192*) | Menelaus of Alexandria (1037) | Menger, Karl (485*) | Mengoli, Pietro (960) | Menshov, Dmitrii (1221*) | Méray, Charles (606*) Mercator, Gerardus (2477*) | Mercator, Nicolaus (1035) | Mercer, James (526) | Merrifield, Charles (701*) | Merriles, Alexander (987) | Merrill, Winifred (686*) | Mersenne, Marin (2973*) | Mertens, Franz (629*) | Meshchersky, Ivan (611*) | Metzler, William (409) | Meyer, Wilhelm (591*) | Miller, George (1167*) | Miller, John (216*) | Millington, Margaret (932*) | Milne, Archibald (1232) Milne, Edward (1301*) | Milne, William (638*) | Milne-Thomson, Louis (1264*) | Milnor, John (683*) | Minding, Ferdinand (392*) | Mineur, Henri (2004*) | Minkowski, Hermann (1507*) | Mirsky, Leon (544*) | Mises, Hilda Geiringer von (1469*) | Mises, Richard von (2108*) | Mitchell, Ron (2518*) | Mitchell, James (233*) | Mitropolskii, Yurii (2137*) | Mittag-Leffler, Gösta (2302*) | Möbius, August (1406*) | Mochizuki, Horace (960) | Moffat, George (475) | Mohr, Ernst (1183*) | Mohr, Georg (687) | Moisil, Grigore (1731*) | Moivre, Abraham de (1837*) | Molien, Theodor (710*) | Moličres, Joseph Privat de (701) | Molin, Fedor (710*) | Mollweide, Karl (1568) | Molyneux, Samuel (1287) | Molyneux, William (2071*) | Monge, Gaspard (2951*) | Monte, Guidobaldo del (1655*) | Montel, Paul (643*) | Montgomery, Deane (1485*) | Montmort, Pierre Rémond de (478) | Montroll, Elliott (1208*) Montucla, Jean (1666*) | Moore, Eliakim (1229*) | Moore, Jonas (789*) | Moore, Robert (1781*) | Morawetz, Cathleen (1418*) | Mordell, Louis (2407*) | More, Henry (1559*) | Morera, Giacinto (383) | Morgan, Alexander (1109) | Morgan, William (2142*) | Morgan, Augustus De (856*) | Mori, Shigefumi (831*) | Morin, Arthur (1506) | Morin, Jean-Baptiste (418*) | Morishima, Taro (724*) | Morley, Frank (1234*) | Morrison, John (382) | Morse, Harald Marston (1015*) | Moser, Jürgen (2063*) Moser, Leo (930*) | Moser, William (2274*) | Mostowski, Andrzej (2037*) | Motzkin, Theodore (1147*) | Moufang, Ruth (445*) | Moulton, Forest (921*) | Mouton, Gabriel (570) | Muhaqqiq-i, Nasir (1912*) | Muir, Thomas (1163*) | Muirhead, Robert (34*) | Mullikin, Anna (1307) | Müller (Regiomontanus) (2278*) | Mumford, David (1025*) | Munn, Douglas (1039*) | Murnaghan, Francis (1483*) | Murray, Joan Clarke (2764) | Mydorge, Claude (731) | Mylon, Claude (490) | Mytropolsky, Yurii (2137*)


(E?)(L1) http://turnbull.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/history/Indexes/N.html

| N | Naimark, Mark (2090*) | Napier, John (2443*) | Narayana, Pandit (515) | Nasawi, Abu al (681) | Nash, John (3880*) | Nash-Williams, Crispin (1957*) | Nassau, Jason (424) | Navier, Claude (1072*) | Nayrizi, Abu'l al (621) | Neile, William (1296) | Nekrasov, Aleksandr (564*) | Nelson, Evelyn (1476*) | Netto, Eugen (575*) | Neuberg, Joseph (354) | Neugebauer, Otto (1512*) | Neumann, Bernhard (1683*) Neumann, Carl (449*) | Neumann, Franz (1053*) | Neumann, Hanna (267*) | Neumann, John von (2572*) | Nevanlinna, Rolf (418*) | Newcomb, Simon (2095*) | Newman, Maxwell (1050*) | Newton, Isaac (3681*) | Neyman, Jerzy (2222*) | Nicollet, Jean-Nicolas (1655*) | Nicolson, Phyllis (241*) | Nicomachus of Gerasa (1183*) | Nicomedes (545*) | Nielsen, Jacob (1429*) | Nielsen, Niels (661*) | Nightingale, Florence (1852*) Nikodym, Otton (1252*) | Nilakantha, Somayaji (877) | Nirenberg, Louis (2186*) | Niven, Charles (742*) | Niven, William (1281*) | Noether, Emmy (1003*) | Noether, Max (1364*) | Norlund, Niels (1862*) | Northcott, Douglas (2107*) | Novikov, Petr (750*) | Novikov, Sergi (1361*) | Nugel, Frieda (1397*) | Numbers, Annie (187) | Nunes Salaciense, Pedro (1635*) | Nygaard, Kristen (1574*)


(E?)(L1) http://turnbull.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/history/Indexes/O.html

| O | Ocagne, Maurice d' (951) | Oenopides of Chios (818) | Ohm, Georg Simon (1910*) | Ohm, Martin (2124) | Oka, Kiyoshi (485*) | Oleinik, Olga (880*) | Olive, Gloria (743*) Olivier, Théodore (665) | Ollerenshaw, Kathleen (3014*) | Omar Khayyam (2140*) | Ore, Oystein (1604*) | Oresme, Nicole (861*) | Orlicz, Wladyslaw (1933*) | Orshansky, Mollie (1042*) | Ortega, Juan de (471) Osgood, William (1426*) | Osipovsky, Timofei (1234) | Ostrogradski, Mikhail (528*) | Ostrowski, Alexander (1419*) | Oughtred, William (654*) | Ovidio, Enrico d' (414*) | Ozanam, Jacques (1604)


(E?)(L1) http://turnbull.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/history/Indexes/PQ.html

| PQ | Pacioli, Luca (1980*) | Padé, Henri (1369*) | Padoa, Alessandro (1951*) | Paige, Constantin Le (314*) | Painlevé, Paul (1105*) | Pairman, Eleanor (1430) | Paley, Raymond (580*) | Paman, Roger (1934) | Panini (1257*) | Paoli, Pietro (456) | Pappus of Alexandria (2265) | Paramesvara, Paramesvara (776) | Parry, William (1212*) | Pars, Leopold (1035*) | Parseval des Chęnes, M-A (896) | Pascal, Blaise (1824*) | Pascal, Etienne (1312) Pasch, Moritz (1044*) | Pask, Gordan (1228*) | Pastor, Julio Rey (1716*) | Patodi, Vijay (445*) | Paton, James (404) | Pauli, Wolfgang (2384*) | Peacock, George (594*) | Peano, Giuseppe (2385*) | Pearson, Egon (1750*) | Peddie, William (236*) | Peierls, Rudolf (1891*) | Pearson, Karl (2581*) | Peirce, Benjamin (2116*) | Peirce, Benjamin O (505*) | Peirce, Charles (2055*) | Pell, Anna (Wheeler) (516*) | Pell, John (1111) | Pell, Alexander (1580) Penney, Bill (480*) | Pérčs, Joseph (437) | Perrin-Riou, Bernadette (1510*) | Perron, Oskar (534*) | Perseus (439) | Personne, G de Roberval (349) | Peschl, Ernst (1138) | Péter, Rózsa (477*) | Petersen, Julius (1485*) | Peterson, Karl (901*) | Petersson, Hans (1073*) | Petit, Aléxis (688) | Petit, Pierre (814) | Petrovsky, Ivan (2376*) | Petryshyn, Volodymyr (1138*) | Petzval, Józeph (619*) | Peurbach, Georg (1401) | Pfaff, Johann (929*) | Pfeiffer, Georgii (226*) | Philip, Flora (1011) | Philip, Robert (289) | Philon of Byzantium (737) | Piaggio, Henry (300) | Piatetski-Shapiro, Ilya (1737*) | Pic, Gheorghe (1030*) | Picard, Emile (1267*) | Picard, Jean (1777*) | Pick, Georg (975*) Picken, David (646) | Pieri, Mario (536) | Pierpont, James (1766) | Piero della Francesca (540*) | Pillai, K C Sreedharan (362*) | Piero della Francesca (540*) | Pincherle, Salvatore (446*) | Pinkerton, Peter (23*) | Pisier, Gilles (1805*) | Pitiscus, Bartholomeo (894) Pitt, Harry (1766) | Plana, Giovanni (900*) | Plancherel, Michel (1126*) | Planck, Max (2708*) | Plateau, Joseph (1296*) | Plato (2043*) | Playfair, John (2916*) | Plemelj, Josip (1899*) | Pless, Vera (1478*) | Plessner, Abraham (442*) | Plücker, Julius (1066*) | Poincaré, J Henri (3201*) | Poinsot, Louis (867*) | Poisson, Siméon (2550*) | Pol, Balthasar van der (2115*) | Poleni, Giovanni (1056*) | Polkinghorne, John (2305*) | Pollio, Vitruvius (1063) | Polozii, Georgii (213) | Pólya, George (3395*) | Pompeiu, Dimitrie (1091*) | Poncelet, Jean-Victor (2712*) | Pontryagin, Lev (1470*) | Pople, John (2315*) | Poretsky, Platon (1158*) | Porphyry, Malchus (763*) Porta, Giambattista Della (2640*) | Posidonius of Rhodes (908*) | Possel, Lucien (997) | Post, Emil (1939*) | Potapov, Vladimir (577*) | Potts, Renfrey (764*) | Povzner, Aleksandr (1082*) | Praeger, Cheryl (1570*) | Prager, William (1244*) | Poussin, C de la Vallée (1702*) | Pratt, John (585) | Preston, Gordon (1785*) | Price, Richard (1417*) | Pringsheim, Alfred (1066*) | Privalov, Ivan (2176*) Privat de Moličres, Joseph (701) | Proclus Diadochus (1316) | Prokhorov, Yurii (1499*) | Prony, Gaspard de (1015*) | Prthudakasvami (263) | Prophatius (ben Tibbon) (976) | Prüfer, Heinz (747) | Ptolemy (3383*) | Puiseux, Victor (452*) | Puissant, Louis (475) | Pullar, John (375) | Puri, Madan (1151*) | Pythagoras of Samos (3053*) | Qadi Zada, al-Rumi (1016) | Qalasadi, Abu'l al (1247) | Qin Jiushao (2006) Quetelet, Adolphe (1856*) | Quhi, Abu al (1146) | Quillen, Daniel (900*) Quine, Willard Van (2030*) | Qurra, Thabit ibn (1507*)


(E?)(L1) http://turnbull.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/history/Indexes/R.html

| R | Rademacher, Hans (1941*) | Radó, Ferenc (1195*) | Rado, Richard (752*) | Radó, Tibor (1929*) | Radon, Johann (1373*) | Rahn, Johann (1986) | Rajagopal, Cadambathur (258*) | Ramanathan, Kollagunta (1422*) | Ramanujam, Chidambaram (1636*) | Ramanujan, Srinivasa (2798*) | Ramsay, Peter (508) | Ramsden, Jesse (811*) | Ramsey, Frank (1365*) | Ramus, Peter (1262*) Rankin, Robert (1595*) | Rankine, William (988*) | Raphson, Joseph (765) | Rasiowa, Helena (876*) | Rayleigh, Lord (3026*) | Razmadze, Andrei (373) | Recorde, Robert (2383*) | Rédei, László (1359*) | Rees, Mina (1102*) | Regiomontanus Johann (2278*) | Reichenbach, Hans (1884*) | Reidemeister, Kurt (472*) | Reiner, Irving (436*) | Reizins, Linards (891) Rejewski, Marian (1517*) | Remak, Robert (1039*) | Remez, Evgeny (1305*) | Rennie, Basil (1535) | Rényi, Alfréd (2253*) | Réthy, Mór (1447*) | Rey Pastor, Julio (1716*) | Reye, Theodor (309*) | Reymond, Paul du Bois- (1709*) | Reynaud, Antoine-André (507) | Reyneau, Charles (351) | Reynolds, Osborne (974*) | Rham, Georges de (741*) | Rheticus, Georg Joachim (1559) | Ribenboim, Paulo (2108*) | Riccati, Jacopo (202*) | Riccati, Vincenzo (247*) | Ricci, Giovanni (1005*) | Ricci, Matteo (635*) | Ricci, Michelangelo (234*) | Ricci-Curbastro, Gregorio (1335*) | Richard, Jules (559*) | Richard, Louis (561) | Richardson, Archibald (177) | Richardson, Lewis (1622*) | Richer, Jean (357) | Richmond, Herbert (928*) | Riemann, G F Bernhard (2707*) | Ries, Adam (380*) | Riesz, Frigyes (861*) | Riesz, Marcel (1290*) Ringrose, John (544*) | Ritt, Joseph (1040*) | Rittenhouse, David (1071*) | Robb, Richard (371) | Robbins, Herbert (2028*) | Roberts, Samuel (389*) | Robertson, Howard (1673*) | Roberval, Gilles de (3014) | Robins, Benjamin (2041) | Robinson, Abraham (1650*) | Robinson, Julia Bowman (1924*) | Robinson, Raphael (1839*) | Rocard, Yves-André (341*) | Roch, Gustav (915*) | Roche, Estienne de La (275) | Rodrigues, Benjamin (1687*) | Rogers, Ambrose (456*) Rogers, James (823*) | Rohn, Karl (1058*) | Rolle, Michel (1872) | Romanus, Adrianus (419) | Roomen, Adriaan van (419) | Rosanes, Jakob (1002*) | Rosellini, Ferdinando (770) | Rosenhain, Johann (828) | Ross, Edward (518) | Rota, Gian-Carlo (1420*) | Roth, Klaus (706*) | Roth, Leonard (1372*) | Rouché, Eugčne (560) | Routh, Edward (1065*) | Roy, Samarendra (1555) | Ruan Yuan (1567) | Rudin, Mary (1857*) | Rudio, Ferdinand (268*) | Rudolff, Christoff (172) | Ruffini, Paolo (2196*) Rui, Li (607) | Runge, Carle (2029*) | Ruse, Harold (284*) | Russell, Alexander (347*) | Russell, Bertrand (1485*) Russell, John (851*) | Rutherford, Daniel E (1202*) | Rutishauser, Heinz (1634*) | Rychlik, Karel (1314) | Rydberg, Johannes (413*)


(E?)(L1) http://turnbull.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/history/Indexes/S.html

| S | Saccheri, Giovanni (2480) | Sacrobosco, Johannes de (328*) | Saint-Venant, Adhémar de (554*) | Saint-Vincent, Gregorius (2111*) | Saks, Stanislaw (1132*) | Salaciense, Pedro Nunes (332*) | Salem, Raphaël (1545*) | Salmon, George (1351*) | Samarqandi, Shams al (202) Samawal, Ibn al (1569) | Samoilenko, Anatoly (1640*) | Sampson, Ralph (1080) | Samuel, Pierre (1210*) | Sang, Edward (471*) | Sankara, Narayana (724) | Sargent, Winifred (1339) | Sasaki, Shigeo (1066*) | Sato, Mikio (2524*) Saunderson, Nicholas (1869*) | Saurin, Joseph (1041) | Savage, Leonard (2227*) | Savart, Felix (1501) | Savary, Félix (579) | Savasorda (A bar Hiyya) (641) | Savile, Henry (1130*) | Schafer, Alice (1344*) | Schatten, Robert (682) | Schauder, Juliusz (1012*) | Scheffé, Henry (844*) | Scheffers, Georg (1513*) | Scherk, Heinrich (1492*) | Schickard, Wilhelm (1683*) | Schläfli, Ludwig (1674*) | Schlapp, Robert (537*) | Schlesinger, Ludwig (809*) | Schlömilch, Oscar (1366*) | Schmetterer, Leopold (1406*) | Schmid, Hermann (1018*) | Schmidt, Erhard (1382*) | Schmidt, Harry (1452*) Schoenberg, Isaac (816*) | Scholtz, Ágoston (1487) | Scholz, Heinrich (1883) | Schönflies, Arthur (370*) | Schooten, Frans van (2212*) | Schottky, Friedrich (1278*) | Schoute, Pieter (1182*) | Schouten, Jan (2399*) | Schramm, Oded (1716*) | Schreier, Otto (582*) | Schröder, Ernst (2286*) | Schrödinger, Erwin (2585*) | Schroeter, Heinrich (182*) | Schubert, Hans (1129*) | Schubert, Hermann (1067*) Schur, Issai (1667*) | Schützenberger, Marcel (1538*) | Schwartz, Laurent (1119*) | Schwartz, Jacob (1585*) | Schwarz, Herman (1192*) | Schwarz, Stefan (867*) | Schwarzschild, Karl (1639*) | Schwerdtfeger, Hans (1046*) | Schwinger, Julian (1455*) | Scott, Charlotte (579*) | Scott, Agnes (225) | Scott, Robert (519) | Scott, Elizabeth (2643*) | Scott, Sheila (Macintyre) (449*) | Scott Lang, Peter (177*) | See, Thomas (866) | Segner, Jan (693*) | Segre, Beniamino (1953*) | Segre, Corrado (574*) | Seidel, Philipp von (572) | Seidel, Jaap (1488*) | Seidenberg, Abraham (1047*) | Seifert, Karl (1709*) | Seki Kowa, Takakazu (411*) | Selberg, Atle (814*) | Selten, Reinhard (1850*) | Semple, Jack (1602*) | Serenus (566) | Serre, Jean-Pierre (731*) | Serret, Joseph (164*) | Servois, François (549) | Severi, Francesco (792*) | 'sGravesande, Willem (1076*) Shafarevich, Igor (507*) | Shanks, William (427) | Shanlan, Li (1807*) | Shannon, Claude (1208*) | Sharkovsky, Oleksandr (134*) | Sharp, Abraham (1570*) | Shatunovsky, Samuil (1358*) | Shelah, Saharon (2433*) | Shen Kua (2448*) | Sheppard, William (274) | Shewhart, Walter (1276*) | Shields, Allen (1549*) | Shijie, Zhu (1912) | Shnirelman, Lev (648*) | Shoda, Kenjiro (1235*) | Shoujing, Guo (1688*) | Shtokalo, Josif (325*) | Siacci, Francesco (504*) Siegel, Carl (2131*) | Sierpinski, Waclaw (2004*) | Siguenza, y Gongora (566) | Silva, José (952*) | Simon, Leon (905*) | Sijzi, Abu al (708) | Simplicius, Simplicius (933) | Simpson, Mary (352*) | Simpson, Thomas (1070*) | Simson, Robert (1914*) | Sinai, Yakov (2032*) | Sina, ibn (Avicenna) (1965*) | Sinan ibn Thabit (719) | Singer, Isadore (1399*) | Sintsov, Dmitrii (1174*) | Sitter, Willem de (2458*) | Skolem, Thoralf (1572*) | Skopin, Alexander (802*) | Skorokhod, Anatolii (1680*) | Slater, Noel (1626*) | Slaught, Herbert (543*) | Sleszynski, Ivan (1000) | Slow, Mary (404*) | Slutsky, Evgeny (1014*) | Sluze, René de (2390) | Smale, Stephen (1157*) | Smeal, Glenny (277) | Smirnov, Vladimir (588*) | Smith, Henry (1201*) | Smith, John (37) | Smith, Karen (2182*) Smithies, Frank (1425*) | Smoluchowski, Marian (1399*) | Smullyan, Raymond (2022*) | Sneddon, Ian (2014*) | Snedecor, George (2149*) | Snell, Willebrord (2236*) | Snyder, Virgil (1491*) | Sobolev, Sergei (1282*) | Sokhotsky, Yulian-Karl (629*) | Sokolov, Yurii (765*) | Solitar, Donald (1566*) | Somerville, Mary (2125*) | Sommerfeld, Arnold (2234*) | Sommerville, Duncan (523*) | Somov, Osip (546*) Sonin, Nikolay (578*) | Spanier, Edwin (591*) | Specker, Ernst (1153*) | Speiser, Ambros (1784*) | Spence, David (818*) | Spence, William (1611*) | Spencer, Anthony (1888*) | Spencer, Donald (1109*) | Sperry, Pauline (1230*) | Spitzer, Lyman (1682*) | Sporus of Nicaea (357) | Spottiswoode, William (1359*) | Sprague, Thomas (1097*) | Springer, Tonny (1245*) | Sridhara, Sridhara (766) | Sripati (541) | Stäckel, Paul (2385*) | Stallings, John (1316*) | Stampacchia, Guido (1784*) | Stampioen, Jan (1057) | Steele, Catherine (453) | Staudt, Carl Georg C von (146*) | Steenrod, Norman (1144*) | Stefan, Josef (1408*) | Stefan, Peter (364*) | Steggall, John (1254*) | Stein, Elias (2107*) | Steiner, Jakob (2182*) | Steinfeld, Ottó (1013*) | Steinhaus, Hugo (1702*) Steinitz, Ernst (2256*) | Steklov, Vladimir A (1229*) | Stepanov, Vyacheslaw V (604*) | Stephansen, Mary (1360*) | Stevin, Simon (2095*) | Stewart, Dugald (1030*) | Stewart, Matthew (958) | Stewartson, Keith (1812*) | Stiefel, Eduard (2420*) | Stieltjes, Thomas Jan (1530*) | Stifel, Michael (331) | Stirling, James (2856) | Stoilow, Simion (1351) | Stokes, George Gabriel (2491*) | Stolz, Otto (779*) | Stone, Edmund (233) Stone, Marshall (1479*) | Stormer, Fredrik (1051*) | Story, William (972*) | Stott, Alicia Boole (340*) | Strassen, Volker (1688*) | Straus, Ernst (1370*) | Strong, Theodore (927) | Struik, Dirk (1059*) | Stuart, James (218) | Strutt (Lord Rayleigh) (3026*) | Study, Eduard (454*) | Stueckelberg, Ernst (1887*) | Sturm, J Charles-François (1282*) | Sturm, Rudolf (668) | St-Venant, Adhémar de (554*) | St-Vincent, Gregorius (296*) | Subbotin, Mikhail (817*) | Suetuna, Zyoiti (897) | Sun Zi (1282) | Sundman, Karl (1112*) Süss, Wilhelm (1893*) | Suter, Heinrich (688) | Suvorov, Georgii (1125*) | Suzuki, Michio (1365*) | Suzuki, Satoshi (790*) | Swain, Lorna (598) Sylow, Ludwig (486*) | Sylvester, James Joseph (2398*) | Synge, John (1155*) | Szász, Otto (751*) | Szegö, Gábor (479*) | Szekeres, George (1991*)


(E?)(L1) http://turnbull.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/history/Indexes/T.html

| T | Tacquet, Andrea (1900) | Tahir, ibn (947) | Tait, Peter Guthrie (3608*) | Takagi, Teiji (1675*) | Takakazu (Seki) (411*) | Takebe Katahiro (1900) | Talbot, Henry Fox (2087*) | Tamarkin, Jacob (1434*) | Taniyama, Yutaka (1166*) Tannery, Jules (828*) | Tannery, Paul (1420*) | Tapia, Richard (1586*) | Tarry, Gaston (1346*) | Tarski, Alfred (3226*) | Tartaglia, Nicolo (2101*) | Tate, John (1627*) | Tauber, Alfred (650*) | Taurinus, Franz (567) Taussky-Todd, Olga (2064*) | Taylor, Brook (1879*) | Taylor, Geoffrey (1268*) | Taylor, James (729*) | Taylor, Mary (404*) | Teichmüller, Oswald (2221*) | Temple, George (506*) | Tenneur, Jacques (1517) | Tetens, Johannes (364*) | Thabit ibn Qurra, Abu'l (1507*) | Thales of Miletus (2091*) | Theaetetus of Athens (1320) | Theodorus of Cyrene (673) | Theodosius of Bithynia (1044) | Theon of Alexandria (1135) | Theon of Smyrna (655*) | Thiele, Thorvald (950*) | Third, John (692) | Thom, George (1409*) | Thom, René (1202*) | Thomae, Johannes (1791*) Thomason, Bob (1053*) | Thompson, Abigail (1662*) | Thompson, D'Arcy W (1533*) | Thompson, John (1532*) | Thompson, Robert (1008) | Thomson, James (925*) | Thomson, W (2702*) (2702*) | Thomson, William (317) | Thomson, William L (132) | Thue, Axel (415*) | Thurston, Bill (1166*) | Thymaridas (186) Tibbon, Jacob ben (976) | Tichy, Pavel (1085*) | Tietze, Heinrich (816*) | Tikhonov, Andrei (1069*) | Tilly, Joseph de (667) | Timms, Geoffrey (353*) | Tinbergen, Jan (708*) | Tinseau, Charles (893) | Tisserand, Félix (600*) | Titchmarsh, Edward (1623*) | Titeica, Gheorghe (1337*) | Tits, Jacques (1251*) | Todd, John (876*) | Todd, Jack (2137*) | Todhunter, Isaac (1055*) | Toeplitz, Otto (859*) | Tonelli, Leonida (1774*) | Torricelli, Evangelista (2867*) | Trakhtman, Abram (1805*) | Trail, William (646) | Tricomi, Francesco (556*) | Troughton, Edward (1222*) Trudinger, Neil (1036*) | Tschirnhaus, E von (2310*) | Tucker, Albert (2459*) | Tucker, Robert (1423*) | Tsu Ch'ung Chi (1392*) | Tsu Keng (630) | Tukey, John (1773*) | Tunstall, Cuthbert (905*) | Turán, Paul (2202*) | Turing, Alan (2922*) Turnbull, Herbert (1693*) | Turner, Peter (722) | Turner, John (1036*) | Tusi, Nasir al (1912*) | Tusi, Sharaf al (1138) | Tutte, William (1890*) | Tweedie, Charles (401) | Tweedie, David (429) | Tweedie, David J (199) | Tychonoff, Andrey (1069*)


(E?)(L1) http://turnbull.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/history/Indexes/UV.html

| UV | Uhlenbeck, George (1800*) | Uhlenbeck, Karen (1114*) | Ulam, Stanislaw (1422*) Ulugh Beg (1219*) | Umawi, Abu al (1014) | Uqlidisi, Abu'l (1028) Upton, Francis (1880*) | Urbanik, Kazimierz (1249*) | Urysohn, Pavel (1391*) | Vacca, Giovanni (707*) | Vailati, Giovanni (555*) | Val, Patrick du (380*) | Valera, Éamon de (2167*) | Valerio, Luca (1782) | Vallée Poussin, C de la (1702*) | Vályi, Gyula (868*) | van Amringe, Howard (354*) | van Dantzig, David (518*) | van der Pol, Balthasar (2115*) | van der Waerden, Bartel (2554*) van Heuraet, Hendrik (170) | van Lint, Jack (2063*) | van Kampen, Egbert (1075*) | van Lansberge, Philip (243*) | van Roomen, Adriaan (419) | van Schooten, Frans (259*) | van Vleck, Edward (1306*) | Vandermonde, Alexandre (1379) | Vandiver, Harry (1084*) | Varadhan, Srinivasa (2541*) | Varahamihira, Varahamihira (744) | Varga, Richard (1935*) Varignon, Pierre (1160*) | Vashchenko-Z, Mikhail (951*) | Veblen, Oswald (2019*) | Vega, Jurij von (295*) | Velez-Rodriguez, Argelia (768*) | Venant, Adhémar de St- (554*) | Venn, John (1208*) | Verhulst, Pierre (411*) | Vernier, Pierre (344) | Veronese, Giuseppe (617*) | Verrier, Urbain Le (450*) | Vessiot, Ernest (229*) | Vičte, François (2352*) | Vijayanandi (424) | Vilant, Nicolas (768*) | Vincent, Gregorius Saint- (296*) | Vinci, Leonardo da (704*) | Vinogradov, Ivan (1484*) | Vitali, Giuseppe (269*) | Vitruvius (1063) | Viviani, Vincenzo (2614*) | Vlacq, Adriaan (739) | Voevodsky, Vladimir (1990*) Vleck, Edward van (1306*) | Volterra, Vito (436*) | von Brill, Alexander (473*) | von Dyck, Walther (737*) | von Eötvös, Roland (1622*) | von Helmholtz, Hermann (2214*) | von Kármán, Theodore (1625*) | von Koch, Helge (736*) | von Leibniz, Gottfried (3723*) | von Lindemann, Carl (895*) | von Mises, Hilda Geiringer (1469*) von Mises, Richard (2108*) | von Neumann, John (2572*) | von Segner, Johann (693*) | von Seidel, Philipp (572) | von Staudt, Karl (2277*) | von Tschirnhaus, E (321*) | von Vega, Georg (295*) | Voronoy, Georgy (1087*) | Vranceanu, Gheorghe (999*) | Vries, Gustav de (509*) | Vries, Hendrik de (605*)


(E?)(L1) http://turnbull.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/history/Indexes/W.html

| W | Waerden, Bartel van der (552*) | Wending, Mei (1793) | Wafa al-Buzjani Abu'l (1115) | Wald, Abraham (1465*) | Walker, Geoffrey (739*) | Walker, John (553*) | Wall, C Terence (927*) | Wallace, Alexander (886*) | Wallace, William (1328*) | Wallis, John (2463*) | Walsh, John (2920) | Walsh, Joseph (1089*) | Wang H'siao-t'ung (1484) | Wang Xiaotong (1484) | Wang, Yuan (1042*) | Wangerin, Albert (1028*) | Wantzel, Pierre (1020) Ward, Seth (1853*) | Waring, Edward (1378*) | Warner, Mary (1843*) | Warschawski, Stefan (1054*) | Waterston, John (947) | Watson, G Neville (1022*) | Watson, Henry (535*) | Watson, William (445*) | Watt, James (254) | Wattie, James (345) | Wazewski, Tadeusz (759*) | Weatherburn, Charles (506*) | Weatherhead, Kenneth (375) | Weaver, Warren (1575*) | Weber, Heinrich (654*) | Weber, Wilhelm (2571*) | Wedderburn, Joseph (1714*) Weierstrass, Karl (2599*) | Weil, André (1411*) | Weingarten, Julius (734*) | Weinstein, Alexander (408*) | Weisbach, Julius (528*) | Weise, Karl (1193*) | Weldon, Raphael (1332*) | Wenninger, Magnus (2007*) | Werner, Johann (916*) | Wessel, Caspar (1685) | West, John (1201) | Wexler-Kreindler, Eléna (784) | Weyl, Hermann (2284*) | Weyr, Eduard (249*) | Weyr, Emil (285*) | Wheeler, Anna J Pell (516*) | Whewell, William (2067*) | Whiston, William (1343*) | White, Henry (1440*) | Whitehead, Alfred N (2339*) | Whitehead, J Henry C (1883*) | Whiteside, Tom (2699*) | Whitney, Hassler (1239*) | Whittaker, Edmund (1478*) | Whittaker, John (1547*) | Whyburn, Gordon (1087*) | Widman, Johannes (624) | Wiegold, James (2629*) | Wielandt, Helmut (675*) | Wien, Wilhelm (2979*) | Wiener, Christian (975) Wiener, Hermann (544*) | Wiener, Norbert (2449*) | Wigner, Eugene (2458*) | Wilczynski, Ernest (652) | Wilder, Raymond (1766*) | Wiles, Andrew (1515*) | Wilkins, Ernest (1215*) | Wilkins, John (2456*) | Wilkinson, Jim (1029*) | Wilks, Samuel (457*) | Williams, William (1299*) | Williamson, John (663) | Willock, Sophie (1529*) | Wilson, Alexander (809) | Wilson, Bertram (139) Wilson, Edwin (677) | Wilson, John (587) | Wilson, John (2) (451) | Wiltheiss, Ernst (814*) | Wilton, John (203) | Winckelmann, Maria (1617) | Winkler, Wilhelm (744*) | Wintner, Aurel (1461) | Wirtinger, Wilhelm (586*) | Wishart, John (1029*) | Witt, Ernst (2368*) | Witt, Johan de (868*) | Witten, Edward (1251*) | Wittgenstein, Ludwig (2806*) | Wittich, Paul (1525) | Wolf, Frantisek (1372*) | Wolf, Rudolph (1279*) | Wolfowitz, Jacob (1031*) | Wolstenholme, Joseph (677) | Woodhouse, Robert (654) Woods, Leslie (1617*) | Woodward, Robert (2303*) | Wren, Christopher (3006*) | Wright, Edward (2093*) | Wright, Sewall (1360*) Wrinch, Dorothy (972*) | Wronski, Hoëné (1169*) | Wu, Sijue (1207*) | Wu, Wen-Tsun (1512*) | Wylie, Shaun (1703)


(E?)(L1) http://turnbull.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/history/Indexes/XYZ.html

| XYZ | Xenocrates of Chalcedon (636) | Xiahou Yang (443) | Xian, Jia (843) Xiaotong, Wang (1484) | Xu Bao-Lu (1171*) | Xu Guangqi (1507*) Xu Yue (537) | Yamabe, Hidehiko (1302) | Yang Hui (2060*) | Yano, Kentaro (1811*) | Yates, Frank (1229*) | Yativrsabha (219) | Yau, Shing-Tung (1303*) | Yavanesvara (405) | Yoccoz, Jean-Christophe (606*) Youden, William (800) | Young, Alfred (1537) | Young, Andrew (511*) | Young, Grace Chisholm (1142*) | Young, Lai-Sang (1534*) | Young, Laurence (1296*) | Young, Thomas (1777*) | Young, William (1155*) Youqin, Zhao (830) | Yuan, Ruan (1567) | Yue, Xu (537) | Yule, George (2451*) | Yunus, Abu'l-Hasan ibn (1312) | Yushkevich, Adolph P (579) | Yusuf Ahmed (660) | Zaanen, Adriaan (1376*) | Zada, al-Rumi Qadi (1016) | Zakharchenko, M V- (241*) | Zalts, Karlis (701) | Zarankiewicz, Kazimierz (937*) | Zaremba, Stanislaw (1084*) | Zariski, Oscar (1654*) | Zassenhaus, Hans (512*) | Zeeman, Chris (2329*) | Zeckendorf, Edouard (176*) | Zelmanov, Efim (1351*) Zeno of Elea (2124*) | Zeno of Sidon (1046*) | Zenodorus (512) | Zermelo, Ernst (1367*) | Zeuthen, Hieronymous (821*) | Zhang Heng (1481*) | Zhang Qiujian (1000) | Zhao Youqin (830) | Zhi, Li (2015) | Zhu Shijie (1912) | Zhukovsky, Nikolay (806*) Zi, Sun (1282) | Zolotarev, Egor (639*) | Zorawski, Kazimierz (1705*) | Zorn, Max (1521*) | Zu Chongzhi (1392*) | Zu Geng (630) | Zu Xuan (630) | Zuse, Konrad (1110*) | Zygmund, Antoni (2347*)


(E?)(L?) http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Indexes/Others.html

Index of Other Topics


(E?)(L1) http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Glossary/index.html

Index of Glossary terms

| A | abacus | abelian or hyperelliptic function | abelian group | abundant number | Alexander the Great | algebra | algebraic geometry | algebraic number | algebraic number field | algebraic number theory | algebraic topology | alternating group | amicable numbers | Ammonius | analytic number theory | Anaximander | angle trisection | annular eclipse | apogee | Apollodorus | apotome | Apuleius | Arcesilaus | Archimedes' principle | Archimedes' screw | arithmetic progression | associative | astrolabe | asymptote | atomic theory | automorphism group | Axiom of choice | azimuth | | B | Bernoulli number | beta function | Bieberbach conjecture | binomial | binomial coefficient | binomial theorem | biquadratic residue | Boolean algebra | boundary value problem | brachistochrone | Burnside problem | | C | Calcidius | calculus of variations | catenary | catoptrics | Catullus | celestial equator | celestial sphere | character theory | Cicero | circumscribed | cohomology | combination | commensurable | commutator | compact | compass variation | composite number | concentric spheres | conformal mapping | conic | conjunction | continued fraction | Continuum Hypothesis | control theory | coprime | cosa | cosmogony | cosmology | cubic equation | cuboctahedron | | D | Damascius | declination | deficient number | Delian League | Delphic oracle | determinant | Dialectic | difference equation | differential equation | differential geometry | differential topology | Diogenes Laertius | Dionysius I | Dionysius II | diophantine approximation | diophantine equation | discriminant | docent | dodecahedron | duplicating the cube | dynamical system | | E | eccentric theory | ecliptic | ecliptic coordinates | eigenvalue/vector/function | Eleatic School | ellipse | elliptic function | envelope | Epictetus | Epicureans | Epicurus | epicycle | equatorial coordinates | equinox | equivalent numbers | ergodic theory | Escher's Pictures | ethics | Euclid of Megara | euclidean algorithm | Euler's conjecture | evolute | | F | factor group or quotient group | factorial | Fermat's last theorem | field | Fields Medal | focus directrix | four colour theorem | Fourier analysis | free group | functional analysis | fundamental theorem of algebra | fundamental group | | G | Gaius Marius | Galois theory | gamma function | Gelfond's conjecture | general or point-set topology | geometric progression | Goldbach's conjecture | great circle | group | group presentation | gymnasium | | H | habilitation | heliocentric theory | Heracleitus | Herodotus | Hilbert space | hippopede | Homer | homocentric spheres | homology | homotopy | hyperbola | hypergeometric function | hypotenuse | | I | Iamblichus | icosahedron | idempotent | infinitesimal | inscribed | integral equation | integral transform | integrating factor | intuitionism | Invariant theory | involute | irrational | Isidorus | isoperimetry | | K | Kepler's problem | knot theory | Laplace transform | | L | Laplace transform | Laplace's equation | Lie algebra | Lie group | Lie ring | linear group | link | Livy | locus | loxodrome | Lucian | lune | | M | magic square | magnetic declination | manifold | Marcellus | matrix | measure theory | medial | Menedemus of Pyrrha | metaphysics | method of exhaustion | Milky Way | model theory | modulo | | N | Neoplatonist | nilpotent | nilpotent group | non-Euclidean | non-standard analysis | normal | normal subgroup | The Rhind Papyrus | number theory | | O | obliquity of the ecliptic | oblong number | occultation | octahedron | opposition | osculate | | P | p- group | Panaetius of Rhodes | parabola | parallax | parallel postulate | Parmenides | partial differential equation | pascal triangle | Peloponnesian War | perfect number | Pericles | permutation | permutation group | Philolaus | Plateau problem | Pliny | Plotinus | Plutarch | Poincaré conjecture | polygonal number | Pompey the Great | potential/harmonic theory | precession of the equinoxes | primitive root | probability theory | projective geometry | Propertius | Protagoras | pyramidal number | | Q | quadratic equation | quadratic form | quadratic number field | quadratic reciprocity | quadratic residue | quadrature | quadric | quantum mechanics | quartic equation | quaternion | quintic equation | | R | radical | rational | rationalise | reductio ad absurdum | refraction | regular polyhedron | representation theory | rhetoric | Riemann hypothesis | right ascension | ring | ruler and compass | | S | Samaritan | Sceptic | semigroup | sexagesimal | sidereal year | simple group | Socrates | Socrates Scholasticus | solar system | solstice | soluble by radicals | soluble or solvable group | Sophist | Sosigenes | special_function | spectral theory | Speusippus | square number | square the circle | stadium | statistical mechanics | stereographic projection | Stoa Poikile Academy | Stobaeus | Stoic | Strabo | subgroup | symmetric group | symmetry group | synodic month | Syrianus | | T | tangent | tautochrone | tensor | tetrahedron | Themistius | theodolite | Theophrastus | three body problem | topological or continuous group | topology | transcendental | transit | triangular number | tropical year | twin prime conjecture | twisted cubic | | V | vector space | Virgil | Vitruvius | | W | wrangler | Zeno of Citium | zeta function | | Z | Zeno of Citium | zeta function | zodiac


(E?)(L1) http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Day_files/Year.html
Mathematicians' anniversaries throughout the year

(E?)(L?) http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Education/index.html

Some topics in the history of mathematical education


(E?)(L?) http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Java/index.html

Famous Curves Applet Index | Cardioid | Catenary | Cayley's Sextic | Circle | Cissoid of Diocles | Cochleoid | Conchoid | Conchoid of de Sluze | Cycloid | Devil's Curve | Double Folium | Eight Curve | Ellipse | Epicycloid | Epitrochoid | Equiangular Spiral | Fermat's Spiral | Folium | Folium of Descartes | Freeth's Nephroid | Frequency Curve | Hyperbola | Hyperbolic Spiral | Hypocycloid | Hypotrochoid | Involute of a Circle | Kampyle of Eudoxus | Kappa Curve | Lamé Curves | Lemniscate of Bernoulli | Limacon of Pascal | Lissajous Curves | Lituus | Neile's Parabola | Nephroid | Parabola | Pear-shaped Quartic | Plateau Curves | Pursuit Curve | Quadratrix of Hippias | Rhodonea Curves | Right Strophoid | Serpentine | Sinusoidal Spirals | Spiral of Archimedes | Straight Line | Talbot's Curve | Tractrix | Tricuspoid | Trident of Newton | Trifolium | Trisectrix of Maclaurin | Tschirnhaus' Cubic | Watt's Curve | Witch of Agnesi


(E?)(L?) http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Search/Suggestions.html

Search Suggestions

Places:

| Aberdeen | Basel | Berlin | Bologna | Breslau | Budapest | Cambridge | Christiania | Cluj | Dublin | Edinburgh | Glasgow | Göttingen | Halle | Heidelberg | Königsberg | Leipzig | London | Milan | Moscow | Oxford | Padua | Paris | Pisa | Prague | Princeton | Rome | St Andrews | St Petersburg | Strasbourg | Venice |

Mathematical topics

| Acoustics | Algebraic number | Astronomy | Calculus | Complex | Conformal | Conics | Determinant | Differential equation | Dynamics | Electricity | Elliptic function | Euclidean geometry | Functional analysis | Game | Gravity | Groups | Harmonic | Integration | Logic | Magnetism | Matrix (matrices) | Mechanics | Number theory | Optics | Orthogonal | Pendulum | Permutation | Physics | Pi | Polyhedra | Probability | Projective geometry | Quantum | Ring | Sequence | Series | Statics | Topology | Transcendental | Variation

Other topics

| algebra | analysis | angle | army | Babylonian | calculation | chemist | church | College de France | conjecture | dispute | Ecole Normale | Ecole polytechnique | emigrate | equation | error | euclidean | false | fluxion | game | Greek | Harvard | health | history | hypothesis | infinite | Jesuit | Jew (Jewish) | Lapland | Latin | lawyer | length | Lucasian | measure | medicine | moon | music | Napoleon | navy | Nobel | numbers | observatory | ordained | papyrus | parallel | polynomial | poverty | prize | problem | puzzle | resign | root | Royal Society | Savilian | simple | solution | Sorbonne | statistical | sun | tensor | theorem | theory | transformation | trigonometry | USA

Mathematicians

(The 100 most cross-referenced, with the most cross-referenced first. The number of other biographies in which each mathematician is cross-referenced is given in brackets)

| Hilbert (113) | Newton (91) | Riemann (79) | Euclid (78) | Klein (74) | Fourier (65) | Euler (62) | Weierstrass (59) | Gauss (57) | Leibniz (54) | Laplace (52) | Descartes (50) | Einstein (50) | Dirichlet (46) | Lagrange (46) | Cauchy (44) | Hardy (44) | Poincaré (44) | Lie (43) | Fields (42) | Jacobi (40) | Cayley (39) | Kummer (39) | Sylvester (39) | Huygens (38) | Galois (36) | Galileo (34) | Maxwell (34) | De Morgan (33) | Fermat (32) | Kronecker (31) | Weyl (29) | Pascal (28) | Hadamard (27) | Landau (27) | Monge (27) | Russell (26) | Steiner (26) | Bernoulli, Jac. (24) | Lebesgue (24) | Littlewood (24) | Noether, Emmy (24) | von Neumann (24) | Abel (23) | Archimedes (23) | Kepler (23) | Legendre (23) | Liouville (23) | Mersenne (23) | Schwarz (23) | Veblen (23) | Whittaker (23) | Bessel (22) | Hermite (22) | Lobachevsky (22) | Wallis (22) | Clebsch (21) | Planck (21) | Poisson (21) | Ptolemy (21) | Cantor (20) | Crelle (20) | Schmidt (20) | Aristotle (19) | Chasles (19) | Chebyshev (19) | Hamilton (19) | Minkowski (19) | Thomson (19) | Bernoulli, Joh. (18) | Frobenius (18) | Jordan (18) | Schur (18) | Whitehead (18) | Apollonius (17) | Banach (17) | Courant (17) | Boole (16) | Cartan (16) | Gassendi (16) | Helmholtz (16) | Artin (15) | Borel (15) | Clavius (15) | Copernicus (15) | Cremona (15) | Godel (15) | Bocher (14) | D'Alembert (14) | Kirchhoff (14) | Levi-Civita (14) | Luzin (14) | Mittag-Leffler (14) | Neumann, F (14) | Peano (14) | Pearson (14) | Plato (14) | Segre, Corrado (14) | Volterra (14) | Weil (14)


(E?)(L?) http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/External/external_links.html

Links to external pages

There are some other pages which you may find useful concerning topics related to mathematics which can be found at:




Erstellt: 2011-11

Uni St Andrews
The MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive

(E?)(L?) http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/

Other indexes Other features


(E?)(L?) http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/BiogIndex.html

Indexes of Biographies


(E?)(L?) http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Indexes/Full_Alph.html




(E?)(L?) http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Indexes/HistoryTopics.html

History Topics Index Mathematical topics


(E?)(L?) http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Indexes/Hist_Topics_alph.html

History Topics: Alphabetical Index


(E?)(L?) http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Indexes/Extras_index.html

Index of Additional Material Other Additional Material


(E?)(L?) http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Curves/Curves.html

Famous Curves Index

| Astroid | Bicorn | Cardioid | Cartesian Oval | Cassinian Ovals | Catenary | Cayley's Sextic | Circle | Cissoid of Diocles | Cochleoid | Conchoid | Conchoid of de Sluze | Cycloid | Devil's Curve | Double Folium | Dürer's Shell Curves | Eight Curve | Ellipse | Epicycloid | Epitrochoid | Equiangular Spiral | Fermat's Spiral | Folium | Folium of Descartes | Freeth's Nephroid | Frequency Curve | Hyperbola | Hyperbolic Spiral | Hypocycloid | Hypotrochoid | Involute of a Circle | Kampyle of Eudoxus | Kappa Curve | Lamé Curves | Lemniscate of Bernoulli | Limacon of Pascal | Lissajous Curves | Lituus | Neile's Parabola | Nephroid | Newton's Parabolas | Parabola | Pearls of de Sluze | Pear-shaped Quartic | Plateau Curves | Pursuit Curve | Quadratrix of Hippias | Rhodonea Curves | Right Strophoid | Serpentine | Sinusoidal Spirals | Spiral of Archimedes | Spiric Sections | Straight Line | Talbot's Curve | Tractrix | Tricuspoid | Trident of Newton | Trifolium | Trisectrix of Maclaurin | Tschirnhaus' Cubic | Watt's Curve | Witch of Agnesi


(E?)(L?) http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Day_files/Now.html

Mathematicians of the day


(E?)(L?) http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Societies/index.html

Mathematical Societies, Medals, Prizes and other honours
American Mathematical Society Prizes London Mathematical Society Prizes Royal Society Prizes Royal Statistical Society Prizes Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics Prizes Japanese Mathematical Society Prizes Other Prizes Speakers at Conferences Professorships Presidencies, etc Lectureships Fellowships, etc Other honours Biography in Aubrey's Brief Lives


(E?)(L?) http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Societies/alph_list.html

Alphabetical List of Mathematical Societies




(E?)(L?) http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Timelines/index.html

A Time Line of Mathematicians


(E?)(L?) http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Chronology/index.html

Index for the Chronology


(E?)(L?) http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Quotations/index.html

Quotations

We have included quotations from many of the mathematicians in our archive. You can access them from the individual biographies. You can search the files of quotations using the form below.

Here is a list of those mathematicians who have quotations. The number in brackets is the number of quotations.




Erstellt: 2013-08

V

vokabeln - Mathematik-Vokabeln

(E6)(L?) http://www.vokabeln.de/


W

wolfram
Notation in Mathematics

(E?)(L?) http://mathworld.wolfram.com/topics/Notation.html

Almost All | Almost Everywhere | Approximately Equal | Approximately Equal To | Arabic Numeral | Arrow Notation | Asymptotic Notation | Babylonian Numerals | Backslash | Bar | Big-O Notation | Big Oh | Big Oh Notation | Big-Omega Notation | Big-Theta Notation | Bracket | Caret | Cauchy Principal Value | Chained Arrow Notation | Circle Notation | Circumflex | Coefficient | Coefficient Notation | Cok | Coker | Colon | Comma | Congruent | Conjugate Transpose | Dagger | Dash | Decimal | Decimal Comma | Decimal Period | Decimal Point | Del | Diesis | Discrete Delta | Division Bracket | Double Bar | Double Dagger | Double Dot | Double Prime | Doublestruck | Down Arrow Notation | Einstein Summation | Equal | Equivalent | Exists | Far Greater | Far Less | Finite Part |Gallows | Geometric Congruence | Greater | Greater than/Less than... | Greek Numerals | Hat |Hermann-Mauguin Symbol | Hyphen | Implies | Integral Sign | ker | Ker | L2-Norm | Lambda Function | Landau Notation | Landau Symbols | Less | Little-o | Little-o Notation | Long Division Symbol | Lyndon Word | Macron |Matrix | Maximum | Mega | Megistron | Minimum | Minus | Minus Sign | Moser | Much Greater | Much Less |Mulliken Symbols | Multi-Index Notation | Multiplication Sign | Nabla | Negation Sign | Notation | o | O | Obelus |Octothorpe | Overdot | Parallel | Parenthesis | Partie Finie | Percent Sign | Piecewise Function | Plus or Minus | Plus Sign | Postfix Notation | Power Tower | Precedence | Precedes | Prime | Prime Power Symbol | Psi Function | |Q.E.F. | Q-Function | Radical | Reverse Polish Notation | Roman Coefficient | Roman Factorial | Roman Numerals |Roman Symbol | RPN | Run-Length Encoding | Schläfli Symbol | Schönflies Symbol | Scientific Notation |Semicolon | Sigma | Sign | Single Bar | Solidus | Sparkline | Steinhaus-Moser Notation | Subscript | Succeeds | Such That | Superscript | Swung Dash | Tau | Tau Function | Tilde | Twiddle | Ultraradical | Underdot | Underscore |Unequal | Variance | Vinculum | Virgule | Wythoff Symbol


wolfram
Terminology in Mathematics

(E?)(L?) http://mathworld.wolfram.com/topics/Terminology.html

Abelian | Abstract Mathematics | Abstract Nonsense | Adjoint | Almost Surely | Ambiguous | Amplitude | Analytic | Analytic Solution | Ansatz | Anthyphairetic Ratio | Asymptosy | Asymptotic | At Least One | Augend | Babylonian Numerals | Basis | Bivariate | Brace | Brothers | Calcus | Canonical | Canonical Form | Characteristic | Choose | Class | Closed-Form Solution | Complement | Complex Variable | Condition | Conjecture | Corollary | Criterion | Cubed | Cumulative Count | Decad | Decade | Decomposition | Defined | Definition | Degeneracy | Degenerate | Degree of Freedom | Derivation | Diagram | Different | Dot | Dozen | Dummy Variable | Elementary Methods | End of Proof | Equality | Equation | Equinumerous | Euler's Theorem | Exact | Exact Solution | Exactly One | Exponentiation | Expression | Family | First Theorem of Pappus | Formula | Fundamental | Gallows | | Growth | Harmonic | Head | Heuristic | Hexad | Homology | Horizontal | Hypothesis | Identically Zero | Identity | Iff | Ill Defined | Indeterminate | Index | Inequation | Invertible | Isomorphic | Just If | Just One | Loop | Math | Mathematics | Maths | Method | Monad | Monster-Barring | Multiplicity | Multivariate | Noetherian | Nonvanishing | Numeral | Octave | Of the Form | One and Only One | One-to-One | One-to-One Correspondence | Order | Order of Magnitude | Over | Pairwise | Pappus's Theorem | Parameter | Parameterization | Pathological | Pentad | Polyhedron | Porism | Precisely Unless | Principal | Principle | Problem | Procedure | Proper | Proposition | Quadratic | Quadrature | Quadruple | Quantity | Quarter | Quartet | Quintet | Quintuple | Quintuplet | Radicand | Real Variable | Reparameterization | Represented As | Retraction | Rigorous | Rule | Scruple | Second Theorem of Pappus | Signature | Skew | Spaghetti Bundle | Spectrum | Square Bracket | Squared | Star | Such That | Sufficient | Sufficiently Large | Surd | Tail | Technique | Tetractys | Tetrad | Tetraktys | Theorem of Pappus | Triad | Triangle Condition | Triple | Trivial | Uncia | Undefined | Unique | Univariate | Unknown | Unless | Vanish Identically | Vanishing | Variable | Vertex | Vertical | Weight | Well Defined


X

Y

Z

Zeno's Paradoxes (W3)

(E?)(L?) http://jeff560.tripod.com/z.html


(E?)(L?) http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/paradox-zeno/


(E?)(L?) http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Zeno_of_Elea.html


(E?)(L?) http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Simplicius.html


(E?)(L?) http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/physics.6.vi.html


(E?)(L?) http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/physics.html
sind natürlich nach "Zeno von Elea (c. 490 BC - c. 425 BC) benannt.

Bücher zur Kategorie:

Etymologie, Etimología, Étymologie, Etimologia, Etymology
UK Vereinigtes Königreich Großbritannien und Nordirland, Reino Unido de Gran Bretańa e Irlanda del Norte, Royaume-Uni de Grande-Bretagne et d'Irlande du Nord, Regno Unito di Gran Bretagna e Irlanda del Nord, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Mathematik, Matemáticas, Mathématiques, Matematica, Mathematics

A

B

Bourbaki, Nicolas
Elements of mathematics
auf zahlreiche Bände berechnet

(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.de/s/ref=nb_sb_noss?__mk_de_DE=%C5M%C5Z%D5%D1&url=search-alias%3Dde-books-gurupa-us-subtier-tree&field-keywords=N.Bourbaki%3A+Elements+of+mathematics#/ref=nb_sb_noss?__mk_de_DE=%C3%85M%C3%85Z%C3%95%C3%91&url=search-alias%3Dde-books-gurupa-us-subtier-tree&field-keywords=Bourbaki%3A+Elements+of+mathematics&rh=n%3A52044011%2Ck%3ABourbaki%3A+Elements+of+mathematics/etymologpor09-20




Erstellt: 2011-05

C

D

Danesi, Marcel
Language and Mathematics
An Interdisciplinary Guide

(E?)(L?) http://www.degruyter.com/view/product/204778

Reihe: Language Intersections 1
DE GRUYTER MOUTON

This book explores the many disciplinary and theoretical links between language, linguistics, and mathematics. It examines trends in linguistics, such as structuralism, conceptual metaphor theory, and other relevant theories,to show that language and mathematics have a similar structure, but differential functions, even though one without the other would not exist.

XII, 332 Seiten
Sprache: Englisch
Werktyp: Monographie
Schlagwort(e):
Zielgruppe: Mathematicians, Linguists, Psychologists, Anthropologists


(E?)(L?) http://www.degruyter.com/viewbooktoc/product/204778

Contents


Erstellt: 2016-06

Derbyshire, John
Unknown Quantity
A Real and Imaginary History of Algebra

(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/0452288533/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/0452288533/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/0452288533/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0452288533/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0452288533/etymologpor09-20
Taschenbuch: 416 Seiten
Verlag: Plume; Auflage: Reprint (29. Mai 2007)
Sprache: Englisch


...
This book's title is deceiving, for Derbyshire offers a very real and very entertaining survey of the development of algebra. "Real" and "imaginary" refer to types of numbers, and Derbyshire (Prime Obsession) opens with a basic primer on the various flavors of numbers and polynomials before looking at algebra's development over 3,000 years. As he explains how algebraic notation wended its way from Sumerian scratches on clay to such contemporary mathematical structures as Calabi-Yau manifolds ...
...


Dunham, William (Autor)
Journey through Genius
The Great Theorems of Mathematics

(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/014014739X/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/014014739X/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/014014739X/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.it/exec/obidos/ASIN/014014739X/etymologporta-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/014014739X/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/014014739X/etymologpor09-20
Taschenbuch: 320 Seiten
Verlag: Penguin (Non-Classics); Auflage: Reprint (1. August 1991)
Sprache: Englisch


Book Description
Explores the "masterpieces" of mathematics, seventeen landmarks spanning 2,300 years and representing ten mathematicians. Each of these landmarks, to some degree, changed the way the world was perceived. Each theorem is presented with a description of the state of mathematics at the time, the development of the theorem, a biographical sketch of the mathematician and an outline of the proof with explanation.


Erstellt: 2012-01

Dunham, William (Autor)
The Mathematical Universe
An Alphabetical Journey Through the Great Proofs, Problems, and Personalities

(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/0471176613/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/0471176613/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/0471176613/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.it/exec/obidos/ASIN/0471176613/etymologporta-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0471176613/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0471176613/etymologpor09-20
Taschenbuch: 320 Seiten
Verlag: John Wiley & Sons; Auflage: New edition (21. Februar 1997)
Sprache: Englisch


Amazon.com
The Mathematical Universe is a solid collection of short essays, with each addressing a particular mathematical topic. Titles range from "Isoperimetric Problem" to "Where Are the Women?" Author Dunham manages to maintain a conversational tone while referencing diagrams, equations, and rigorous arguments throughout the book.


Erstellt: 2012-01

E

F

Ferreirós, José (Autor)
Labyrinth of Thought
A History of Set Theory and Its Role in Modern Mathematics

(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/3764383496/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/3764383496/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/3764383496/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.it/exec/obidos/ASIN/3764383496/etymologporta-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/3764383496/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/3764383496/etymologpor09-20
Taschenbuch: 491 Seiten
Verlag: Birkhäuser Basel; Auflage: 2nd ed. (2. Juni 2010)
Sprache: Englisch


Kurzbeschreibung
José Ferreirós has written a magisterial account of the history of set theory which is panoramic, balanced, and engaging. Not only does this book synthesize much previous work and provide fresh insights and points of view, but it also features a major innovation, a full-fledged treatment of the emergence of the set-theoretic approach in mathematics from the early nineteenth century.


Erstellt: 2011-03

G

Gowers, Timothy (Herausgeber)
Barrow-Green, June (Herausgeber)
Leader, Imre (Herausgeber)
Princeton Companion to Mathematics

(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/0691118809/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/0691118809/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/0691118809/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.it/exec/obidos/ASIN/0691118809/etymologporta-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0691118809/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0691118809/etymologpor09-20
Gebundene Ausgabe: 1008 Seiten
Verlag: Princeton University Press (8. September 2008)
Sprache: Englisch


Kurzbeschreibung
This is a one-of-a-kind reference for anyone with a serious interest in mathematics. Edited by Timothy Gowers, a recipient of the Fields Medal, it presents nearly two hundred entries, written especially for this book by some of the world's leading mathematicians, that - and much, much more. Unparalleled in its depth of coverage, The Princeton Companion to Mathematics surveys the most active and exciting branches of pure mathematics, providing the context and broad perspective that are vital at a time of increasing specialization in the field. Packed with information and presented in an accessible style, this is an indispensable resource for undergraduate and graduate students in mathematics as well as for researchers and scholars seeking to understand areas outside their specialties. Features nearly 200 entries, organized thematically and written by an international team of distinguished contributors Presents major ideas and branches of pure mathematics in a clear, accessible style Defines and explains important mathematical concepts, methods, theorems, and open problems Introduces the language of mathematics and the goals of mathematical research Covers Traces the history and development of modern mathematics Profiles more than ninety-five mathematicians who influenced those working today Explores the influence of mathematics on other disciplines Includes bibliographies, cross-references, and a comprehensive index. Contributors incude: Graham Allan, Noga Alon, George Andrews, Tom Archibald, Sir Michael Atiyah, David Aubin, Joan Bagaria, Keith Ball, June Barrow-Green, Alan Beardon, David D. Ben-Zvi, Vitaly Bergelson, Nicholas Bingham, Bla Bollobs, Henk Bos, Bodil Branner, Martin R. Bridson, John P. Burgess, Kevin Buzzard, Peter J. Cameron, Jean-Luc Chabert, Eugenia Cheng, Clifford C. Cocks, Alain Connes, Leo Corry, Wolfgang Coy, Tony Crilly, Serafina Cuomo, Mihalis Dafermos, Partha Dasgupta, Ingrid Daubechies, Joseph W. Dauben, John W. Dawson Jr., Francois de Gandt, Persi Diaconis, Jordan S. Ellenberg, Lawrence C. Evans, Florence Fasanelli, Anita Burdman Feferman, Solomon Feferman, Charles Fefferman, Della Fenster, Jos Ferreirs, David Fisher, Terry Gannon, A. Gardiner, Charles C. Gillispie, Oded Goldreich, Catherine Goldstein, Fernando Q. Gouva, Timothy Gowers, Andrew Granville, Ivor Grattan-Guinness, Jeremy Gray, Ben Green, Ian Grojnowski, Niccol Guicciardini, Michael Harris, Ulf Hashagen, Nigel Higson, Andrew Hodges, F. E. A. Johnson, Mark Joshi, Kiran S. Kedlaya, Frank Kelly, Sergiu Klainerman, Jon Kleinberg, Israel Kleiner, Jacek Klinowski, Eberhard Knobloch, Jnos Kollr, T. W. Krner, Michael Krivelevich, Peter D. Lax, Imre Leader, Jean-Franois Le Gall, W. B. R. Lickorish, Martin W. Liebeck, Jesper Ltzen, Des MacHale, Alan L. Mackay, Shahn Majid, Lech Maligranda, David Marker, Jean Mawhin, Barry Mazur, Dusa McDuff, Colin McLarty, Bojan Mohar, Peter M. Neumann, Catherine Nolan, James Norris, Brian Osserman, Richard S. Palais, Marco Panza, Karen Hunger Parshall, Gabriel P. Paternain, Jeanne Peiffer, Carl Pomerance, Helmut Pulte, Bruce Reed, Michael C. Reed, Adrian Rice, Eleanor Robson, Igor Rodnianski, John Roe, Mark Ronan, Edward Sandifer, Tilman Sauer, Norbert Schappacher, Andrzej Schinzel, Erhard Scholz, Reinhard Siegmund-Schultze, Gordon Slade, David J. Spiegelhalter, Jacqueline Stedall, Arild Stubhaug, Madhu Sudan, Terence Tao, Jamie Tappenden, C. H. Taubes, Rdiger Thiele, Burt Totaro, Lloyd N. Trefethen, Dirk van Dalen, Richard Weber, Dominic Welsh, Avi Wigderson, Herbert Wilf, David Wilkins, B. Yandell, Eric Zaslow, Doron Zeilberger


Erstellt: 2012-05

H

Hardy, Godfrey Harold (Autor)
Snow, C. P. (Vorwort)
A Mathematician's Apology

(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/110760463X/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/110760463X/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/110760463X/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.it/exec/obidos/ASIN/110760463X/etymologporta-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/110760463X/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/110760463X/etymologpor09-20
Taschenbuch: 154 Seiten
Verlag: Cambridge University Press; Auflage: 1 (26. März 2012)
Sprache: Englisch


Amazon.com
A Mathematician's Apology is a profoundly sad book, the memoir of a man who has reached the end of his ambition, who can no longer effectively practice the art that has consumed him since he was a boy. But at the same time, it is a joyful celebration of the subject--and a stern lecture to those who would sully it by dilettantism or attempts to make it merely useful. "The mathematician's patterns," G.H. Hardy declares, "like the painter's or the poet's, must be beautiful; the ideas, like the colours or the words, must fit together in a harmonious way. Beauty is the first test: there is no permanent place in the world for ugly mathematics."
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.science-shop.de/artikel/1147993

Wie sich der Zahlentheoretiker G. H. Hardy für seine nutzlose Wissenschaft entschuldigte - ein Klassiker der wissenschaftlichen Literatur

G. H. Hardy (1877-1947) was one of this century's finest mathematical thinkers, renowned among his contemporaries as a 'real mathematician … the purest of the pure'. He was also, as C. P. Snow recounts in his Foreword, 'unorthodox, eccentric, radical, ready to talk about anything'.

This 'apology', written in 1940, offers a brilliant and engaging account of mathematics as very much more than a science; when it was first published, Graham Greene hailed it alongside Henry James's notebooks as 'the best account of what it was like to be a creative artist'. C. P. Snow's Foreword gives sympathetic and witty insights into Hardy's life, with its rich store of anecdotes concerning his collaboration with the brilliant Indian mathematician Ramanujan, his idiosyncrasies, and his passion for cricket.

This is a unique account of the fascination of mathematics and of one of its most compelling exponents in modern times.


Erstellt: 2012-04

I

J

K

L

Lakatos, Imre (Autor)
Worrall, John (Herausgeber)
Zahar, Elie (Herausgeber)
Proofs and Refutations
The Logic of Mathematical Discovery

(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/0521290384/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/0521290384/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/0521290384/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.it/exec/obidos/ASIN/0521290384/etymologporta-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0521290384/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0521290384/etymologpor09-20
Taschenbuch: 188 Seiten
Verlag: Cambridge University Press (1976)
Sprache: Englisch


Über das Produkt Proofs and Refutations is essential reading for all those interested in the methodology, the philosophy and the history of mathematics. Imre Lakatos shows that mathematics grows through a process of the successive improvement of creative hypotheses by attempts to 'prove' them and by criticism of these attempts: the logic of proofs and refutations.


Erstellt: 2011-07

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O

P

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R

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Struik, D. J. (Herausgeber)
A Source Book in Mathematics, 1200-1800
(Source Books in the History of the Sciences)

(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/0674823559/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/0674823559/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/0674823559/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.it/exec/obidos/ASIN/0674823559/etymologporta-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0674823559/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0674823559/etymologpor09-20
Gebundene Ausgabe: 446 Seiten
Verlag: Harvard University Press (Januar 1969)
Sprache: Englisch

Erstellt: 2011-05

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