Etymologie, Etimología, Étymologie, Etimologia, Etymology
UK Vereinigtes Königreich Großbritannien und Nordirland, Reino Unido de Gran Bretaña e Irlanda del Norte, Royaume-Uni de Grande-Bretagne et d'Irlande du Nord, Regno Unito di Gran Bretagna e Irlanda del Nord, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Zahlen, Número, Nombre, Numero, Number
Zahlentheorie, Teoría de números, Théorie des nombres, Teoria dei numeri, Number Theory
Algebraische Zahlentheorie, Teoría de números algebraicos, Théorie algébrique des nombres, Teoria algebrica dei numeri, Algebraic number theory

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Benford's law (W3)

Das "Benfordsche Gesetz", engl. "Benford's law", ist benannt nach dem amerikanischen Physiker "Frank Benford".

Der amerikanische Physiker "Frank Benford" veröffentlichte 1938 eine erstaunliche Tabelle: Er hatte Daten gesammelt (z.B. die Längen von rund 300 Flüssen) und dann gezählt, wieviele dieser Längen mit der Ziffer 1 beginnen, respektive mit der Ziffer 2, 3 usw. Er stellte fest, dass die Ziffer 1 weit häufiger als führende Ziffer auftritt als etwa die Ziffer 7. Dabei kommt es nicht darauf an, ob die Längen in Meilen oder Kilometern gemessen werden. Benfords Tabelle zeigte dasselbe Phänomen nicht nur bei Flusslängen, sondern auch bei Auflagen von Zeitungen, Einwohnerzahlen von Städten, Halbwertszeiten radioaktiver Isotope, Fibonacci-Zahlen usw.

(E?)(L?) http://www.english-dictionary.us/meaning/benfords_law.asp


(E?)(L?) http://xlinux.nist.gov/dads//


(E?)(L?) http://www.oedilf.com/db/Lim.php?Word=Benford's law
Limericks on Benford's law

(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=Benford's law
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "Benford's law" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1980 auf.

Erstellt: 2011-10

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grammarbook
Writing Numbers

(E?)(L?) http://grammarbook.com/numbers/numbers.asp

Rule 1:

Spell out single-digit whole numbers. Use numerals for numbers greater than nine.

Examples: ...


Erstellt: 2011-12

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inria
Mathematical Constants

(E?)(L?) http://algo.inria.fr/bsolve/constant/constant.html

Mathematical Constants
by Steven R. Finch
Dedicated to the memory of Philippe Flajolet

My book Mathematical Constants is now available for online purchase from Cambridge University Press (in the United Kingdom, North America and Australia). It is far more encompassing and detailed than my website ever was. It is also lovingly edited and beautifully produced - many thanks to Cambridge! - please support us in our publishing venture. Thank you. (If you wish, see several very kind reviews. You can also search the book via Amazon and Google by keyword.)

Here are errata and addenda to the book (last updated 8/4/2011), as well sample essays from the book about integer compositions, optimal stopping and Reuleaux triangles. Here also are recent supplementary materials, organized by topic:

Number Theory and Combinatorics Inequalities and Approximation Real and Complex Analysis Probability and Stochastic Processes Geometry and Topology


Erstellt: 2012-01

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Number (W3)

(E?)(L?) http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Number


numberwatch
Number Watch

(E?)(L?) http://www.numberwatch.co.uk/

All about the scares, scams, junk, panics, and flummery cooked up by the media, politicians, bureaucrats, so-called scientists and others who try to confuse you with wrong numbers.

Working to combat Math Hysteria.

It is a pleasure to stand upon the shore, and to see ships tost upon the sea: a pleasure to stand in the window of the castle and to see the battle and the adventures thereof below: but no pleasure is comparable to the standing upon the vantage ground of truth ( a hill not to be commanded and where the air is always clear and serene), and to see the errors, and wanderings, and mists, and tempests, in the vale below.
From Of Truth, Francis Bacon


(E?)(L?) http://www.numberwatch.co.uk/number%20watch.htm

Contents


Erstellt: 2011-12

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Uni St Andrews
Prime numbers

(E?)(L?) http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/HistTopics/Prime_numbers.html

Prime numbers and their properties were first studied extensively by the ancient Greek mathematicians.

The mathematicians of Pythagoras's school (500 BC to 300 BC) were interested in numbers for their mystical and numerological properties. They understood the idea of primality and were interested in perfect and amicable numbers.

A perfect number is one whose proper divisors sum to the number itself. e.g. The number 6 has proper divisors 1, 2 and 3 and 1 + 2 + 3 = 6, 28 has divisors 1, 2, 4, 7 and 14 and 1 + 2 + 4 + 7 + 14 = 28.

A pair of amicable numbers is a pair like 220 and 284 such that the proper divisors of one number sum to the other and vice versa.

You can see more about these numbers in the History topics article Perfect numbers.

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Erstellt: 2011-11

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Bücher zur Kategorie:

Etymologie, Etimología, Étymologie, Etimologia, Etymology
UK Vereinigtes Königreich Großbritannien und Nordirland, Reino Unido de Gran Bretaña e Irlanda del Norte, Royaume-Uni de Grande-Bretagne et d'Irlande du Nord, Regno Unito di Gran Bretagna e Irlanda del Nord, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Zahlen, Número, Nombre, Numero, Number, Zahlentheorie, Teoría de números, Théorie des nombres, Teoria dei numeri, Number Theory

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Bentley, Peter J.
The Book of Numbers
The Secret of Numbers and How They Changed the World

(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/1554073618/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/1554073618/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/1554073618/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/1554073618/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1554073618/etymologpor09-20
Paperback: 272 pages
Publisher: Firefly Books (15 Feb 2008)
Language English

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Ifrah, Georges
The Universal History of Computing
From the Abacus to the Quantum Computer

(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/0471441473/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/0471441473/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/0471441473/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0471441473/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0471441473/etymologpor09-20
Taschenbuch: 416 Seiten
Verlag: John Wiley & Sons (Januar 2002)
Sprache: Englisch


Amazon.co.uk
From the I Ching to AI, there has been tremendous human brainpower devoted to devising easier means of counting and thinking. Former math teacher Georges Ifrah has devoted his life to tracking down traces of our past calculating tools and reporting on them with charm and verve. The Universal History of Computing: From the Abacus to Quantum Computing gives a grand title to a grand subject, and Ifrah makes good on his promise of universality by leaping far back in time and spanning all the inhabited continents.

If his scope is vast, his stories and details are still engrossing. Readers will hang on the stories of 19th-century inventors converging on multiplication machines and other, more general "engines", and better understand the roots of biological and quantum computation. Ifrah has great respect for our ancestors and their work, and he transmits this feeling to his readers with humour and humility. His timelines, diagrams and concordance help readers unfamiliar with foreign concepts of numbers and computation to keep up with his narrative.

By the end, his slight bias against strong artificial intelligence shows, but he is careful to acknowledge the future's unforeseeable nature and suggest that we keep our minds open. How can we resist?

Rob Lightner


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Nahin, Paul J. (Autor)
An Imaginary Tale (PSL Edition): The Story of 'I' [the Square Root of Minus One]

(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/0691146004/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/0691146004/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/0691146004/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0691146004/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0691146004/etymologpor09-20
Taschenbuch: 296 Seiten
Verlag: Princeton University Press; Auflage: 1 (14. März 2010) Sprache: Englisch


Amazon.com
At the very beginning of his book on "i", the square root of minus one, Paul Nahin warns his readers: "An Imaginary Tale has a very strong historical component to it, but that does not mean it is a mathematical lightweight. But don't read too much into that either. It is *not* a scholarly tome meant to be read only by some mythical, elite group.... Large chunks of this book can, in fact, be read and understood by a high school senior who has paid attention to his or her teachers in the standard fare of pre-college courses. Still, it will be most accessible to the million or so who each year complete a college course in freshman calculus.... But when I need to do an integral, let me assure you I have not fallen to my knees in dumbstruck horror. And neither should you."

Nahin is a professor of electrical engineering at the University of New Hampshire; he has also written a number of science fiction short stories. His style is far more lively and humane than a mathematics textbook while covering much of the same ground. Readers will end up with a good sense for the mathematics of "i" and for its applications in physics and engineering.
Mary Ellen Curtin


Erstellt: 2010-04

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