Etymologie, Etimología, Étymologie, Etimologia, Etymology
UK Vereinigtes Königreich Großbritannien und Nordirland, Reino Unido de Gran Bretaña e Irlanda del Norte, Royaume-Uni de Grande-Bretagne et d'Irlande du Nord, Regno Unito di Gran Bretagna e Irlanda del Nord, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Zeichen, Signo, Signe, Segno, Sign

A

A, a (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html




apostrophe, Apostroph (W3)

Engl. "apostrophe", dt. "Apostroph" (auch: = "feierliche Anrede") geht über frz. "apostrophe" zurück auf lat. "apostrophus", und griech. "apóstrophos" = "of turning away", "elision", griech. "apostréphein" = "abwenden", griech. "stréphein" = "drehen", "wenden".

Im rhetorischen Sinn ist damit die "Abwendung" vom bisherigen Thema und die Hinwendung des Redners zu einem anderen Thema, zum Publikum oder zu einer bestimmten, auch abwesenden, Person.

In der Linguistik steht "Apostroph" für ein "abgewendetes", "weggelassenes" Zeichen.

(E?)(L?) http://www.apostrophitis.de/
APOSTROPHENKATASTROPHEN

(E?)(L?) http://www.apostrophe.fsnet.co.uk/


(E?)(L?) http://www.dreaded-apostrophe.com/


(E?)(L?) http://www.eng-lang.co.uk/apostrophes.htm
Problems with apostrophes

(E?)(L?) http://www.languagehat.com/archives/2003_08.php



...
But wait: what does the OED say in small type, there at the end of definition 2 ("The sign (') used to indicate the omission of a letter or letters... and as a sign of the modern English genitive or possessive case")? It says... it says...

In the latter case, it originally marked merely the omission of "e" in writing, as in "fox's, James's", and was equally common in the nominative plural", esp. of proper names and foreign words (as "folio's = folioes"); it was gradually disused in the latter, and extended to all possessives, even where "e" had not been previously written, as in "man's, children's, conscience' sake". [Emphasis added.]

Why, that means that the apostrophe was originally, and thus properly, used in the plural; those greengrocers are right, and the "Apostrophe Protection Society" is wrong! Surely the Williams (Buckley and Safire) and the other preservers will lay off the ancient plural apostrophe and begin working on excising that excrescent final syllable.
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.queens-english-society.com/goodeng2.html
Apostrophe "S"

B

B, b (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html

B : is the second letter of the English alphabet. (See Guide to Pronunciation, // 196, 220.) It is etymologically related to "p", "v", "f", "w" and "m", letters representing sounds having a close organic affinity to its own sound; as in Eng. "bursar" and "purser"; Eng. "bear" and Lat. "ferre"; Eng. "silver" and Ger. "silber"; Lat. "cubitum" and It. "gomito"; Eng. "seven", Anglo-Saxon "seofon", Ger. "sieben", Lat. "septem", Gr. "epta", Sanskrit "saptan".
The form of letter "B" is Roman, from Greek "B" ("Beta"), of Semitic origin. The small "b" was formed by gradual change from the capital "B".


bbc
Discovering sign language dialects

(E2)(L1) http://www.bbc.co.uk/bristol/content/articles/2005/02/03/_feature.shtml

Did you know British Sign Language has regional dialects? The University of Bristol's Centre for Deaf Studies is collecting data from all over the UK for the BBC's Voices project.


C

C, c (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html




Cemetry Iconography - Friedhofszeichen

(E?)(L?) http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~txcemeteries/symbol.htm
meanings of letters and symbols commonly found on gravestones in cemetries;

What do the symbols and letters mean?

- Ein paar Beispiele:



D

D, d (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html




dictionary.com
Why are zero and the letter "O" both circles?

(E?)(L?) http://blog.dictionary.com/o-zero/

Long, long ago, typewriters made no distinction between the number "0" and the letter "O". While the two share the same shape, the origin of both number and letter are quite different. Let’s look at the distinct astrological and optical inspirations that created these seemingly identical symbols.

Derived from the Semitic letter "Ayin" and inspired by the circular eye-shaped Egyptian hieroglyph for "eye", the letter "O" is the fourth most popular letter in the English alphabet. The sound is probably a derivation of the Arabic letter called "Ayn".
...
In mathematics, the number "0", or simply "zero", most likely derived its shape from the sun and the moon. Many have ascribed divine qualities to circles. The study of the circle eventually led to the development of astronomy, geometry and calculus.
...
It wasn’t until the 12th century via the Arabic numeric system and the work of the Persian scientist al-Khwarizmi that the number "zero" was introduced to the Western world through Latin translations of the al-Khwarizmi’s book titled, appropriately, Arithmetic.


Erstellt: 2014-03

digital

Das Wort "digital" kommt aus dem englischen "digit"- Ziffer und leitet sich von dem lat. "digitus" = "Finger", "Zehe" ab. Gemeint war damit alles, was man "an den Fingern abzählen kann".

Seit 1398 ist "digit" im Englischen nachweisbar. Verwandt ist es mit lat. "dicere" = "tell", "say", "point out".
Seine numerische Bedeutung erhielt es durch das Abzählen an den Fingern.
Das von "digit" abgeleitete "digital" tritt seit 1656 auf. Seit 1945 tritt es im Umfeld der Computertechnologie auf. Im Zusammenhang mit Fernsehen kam es 1960 auf.

Digital-Words: Applicative Language for Digital Signal Processing | Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line | Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Loop | Cellular Digital Packet Data | Dataphone Digital Service | digital | Digital | digital audio | Digital Audio Tape | digital camera | digital carrier | digital dashboard | Digital Data Service | Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications | digital envelope | Digital Equipment Computer Users Society | Digital Equipment Corporation | Digital Equipment Corporation Network | Digital European Cordless Telecommunications | Digital Express Group, Inc. | Digital Lempel Ziv 1 | Digital Library Initiative | Digital Linear Tape | Digital Multimeter | Digital Research | digital service unit | Digital Signal Processing | Digital Signal Processing Language | digital signature | Digital Signature Standard | digital signatures | Digital Simulation Language | Digital Simultaneous Voice and Data | DIGITAL Standard MUMPS | Digital Subscriber Line | Digital Subscriber Line Access Module | Digital Subscriber Loop | Digital Switched Network | Digital to Analog Converter | Digital Versatile Disc | Digital Video Disc | High bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line | Integrated Services Digital Network | Musical Instrument Digital Interface | Personal Digital Assistant | Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy | Random Access Memory Digital-to-Analog Converter | Simulating Digital Systems | Single-line Digital Subscriber Line | Single-pair High Speed Digital Subscriber Line | Synchronous Digital Hierarchy | University of Michigan Digital Library Project | Very high bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line | Western Digital Corporation

(E?)(L?) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=diction


(E?)(L?) http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/dod_dictionary/index.html
tactical digital information link

(E?)(L?) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=digit


(E?)(L?) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=digit


(E?)(L?) http://www-306.ibm.com/software/globalization/terminology/index.jsp
6309 Digital Trunk Quad Adapter | 6310 Digital Trunk Extended Adapter | Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) | cellular digital packet data (CDPD) | Dataphone digital service (DDS) | digital | digital audio | digital certificate | Digital Certificate Manager ( DCM DCM) | Digital Cordless Telephone (DCT) | digital data service adapter (DDSA) | digital envelope | Digital European Cordless Telecommunications (DECT) | digital signal processing (DSP) | digital signature | digital speech synthesizer | Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) | Digital Subscriber signaling System Number 1 (DDS1) | Digital Trunk Extended Adapter ( DTXA 6310 Digital Trunk Extended Adapter, IBM ARTIC960RxD Quad Digital Trunk PCI Adapter) | Digital Trunk Quad Adapter ( DTQA 6309 Digital Trunk Quad Adapter) | digital versatile disc (DVD) | digital video | digital video disc (DVD) | IBM ARTIC960RxD Quad Digital Trunk PCI Adapter | integrated digital enhanced network (iDEN) | Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) | Integrated Services Digital Network call transfer | Integrated Services Digital Network two B-channel transfer (ISDN two B-channel transfer) | Integrated Services Digital Network user part (ISUP, ISDN-UP) | Multiple Digital Trunk Processor | Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) | personal digital assistant (PDA) | personal digital cellular (PDC) | Single Digital Trunk Processor | symmetric digital subscriber line (SDSL)

(E?)(L?) http://dictionary.reference.com/
digital | digital computer | digitalize | digital photography | digital recording | digital satellite system | personal digital assistant

(E?)(L?) http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=digit


(E?)(L?) http://www.reference.com/Dir/Arts/Digital


(E?)(L?) http://whatis.techtarget.com/definitionsAlpha/0,289930,sid9_alpA,00.html
analog-to-digital conversion | Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line | Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network | Cellular Digital Packet Data | digital | Digital advanced mobile phone service | digital audio broadcasting | Digital Audio Tape | digital audio workstation | digital camera | digital cash | digital certificate | Digital Dashboard | Digital Data Storage | Digital Discovery | digital divide | Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications | Digital Equipment Corporation | Digital Evidence | Digital Evidence Discovery | digital film | digital hearing aid | Digital Home Video System | Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine | digital library | digital loop carrier | Digital Millennium Copyright Act | digital multimedia broadcasting | Digital Negative | digital object identifier | digital pen | digital photo album | Digital Powerline | digital print management | digital printer | digital printing | digital projection display system | digital projector | digital pulse wireless | digital radio | digital rights management | digital satellite news gathering | digital signage | digital signal processing | digital signal X | digital signature | digital signature legislation | Digital Signature Standard | Digital Silhouettes | Digital Subscriber Line | Digital Suscriber Line Access Multiplexer | digital switch | digital television | digital terrestrial television | digital versatile disk | digital video | Digital Video Broadcasting | digital video disk | Digital Video Express | Digital Video Interface | digital watermark | Digital-Advanced Mobile Phone Service | digital-to-analog conversion | Digital-VHS | Dolby Digital | DS (digital signal) levels | Electronic Worldwide Switch Digital | High Definition Compatible Digital | High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection | Integrated Digital Enhanced Network | Integrated Services Digital Network | personal digital assistant | random access memory digital-to-analog converter | Satellite Digital Audio Radio Service | Secure Digital card | Serial Digital Interface | Synchronous Digital Hierarchy | Wideband Integrated Digital Enhanced Network

(E3)(L1) http://www.webopedia.com/
analog-to-digital converter | digital | digital access and cross-connect system (DACS) | digital artifact | Digital Audio Formats | digital audio | digital camera | Digital Cameras | digital cash | digital certificate | Digital City | digital divide | digital envelope | digital home | digital ink | Digital Living Network Alliance | digital loop carrier | digital mapping | Digital Media Boost | digital monitor | Digital Photography | Digital Rights Management | digital satellite system | digital signature | Digital Television | digital video surveillance system | digital video | digital wallet | digital watermark | digital zoom | digital-to-analog converter | Digital8 |

(E2)(L1) http://www.wordspy.com/archives/B.asp
born-digital | digital dieting | digital pathogen | tradigital

(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/digit


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/digital


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/digital-audio-tape


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/digital-camera


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/digital-computer


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/digital-control-systems


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/digital-millennium-copyright-act-of-1998


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/digital-money


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/digital-pearl-harbor


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/digital-piracy


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/digital-signature


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/digital-signature-algorithm


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/digital-subscriber-lines


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/digitalize


E

E, e (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html




F

F, f (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html




fingers crossed

= to hope for good luck
This expression may have originally come from the superstition that keeping your fingers crossed kept away evil and bad luck. Some children believe that if you cross your fingers when you lie it does not 'count'.

Font (W3)

von frz. "fonte", von "fondre" = "schmelzen", "tauen", engl. "foundry" = "Gießerei", frz. "fondre" = "schmelzen", "fondu" = "geschmolzen".
Der "Font", engl. "font", frz. "fonte" bestand ursprünglich aus einem Satz gleichartig "gegossener" Drucktypen und geht zurück auf lat. "fundere" = "gießen".

G

g - w - Wechsel (W3)

Beispiele für den "g - w - Wechsel" sind:
frz. engl. dt.
---------- --------- -------------------
guerre war Krieg
garant warrant Garant
gard ward dt.
gardien warden Wächter
garderobe wardrobe Garderobe, Kleiderschrank
guise wise Art, Weise


Erstellt: 2014-08

G, g (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html




grammarbook
Quotation Marks and Punctuation

Obwohl die englischsprechenden Mitmenschen irgendwann einmal die ursprünglich logische Setzung der Hochkommas geändert haben, halte ich es auf den Seiten des Etymologie-Portals mit der alten Regel. Ich setze - auch im Englischen - nur die betreffenden Wörter in "Hochkommas", andere Satzzeichen bleiben außerhalb der "Hochkommas". - "Es sei denn ein ganzer Satz mit abschließendem Punkt steht in Hochkommas."

(E?)(L?) http://www.grammarbook.com/punctuation/quotes.asp

...
In Grandma’s day, a period used with quotation marks followed logic: Example: Myrtle said the word “darn”. The period went outside the quote because only the last word was in quotation marks, not the entire sentence. Example: Myrtle said, “I would never say that.” The period went inside the quotation mark because the entire sentence is a quote.

Today, in American English usage, the period always goes inside the quotation mark.

Example: Myrtle said the word “darn.”

This does not follow logic, but it makes life easier for those of us who have enough to think about besides punctuation.
...


Grocers' Apostrophe
Greengrocers' Apostrophe (W3)

Der engl. "Grocers' Apostrophe" oder spezieller der engl. "Greengrocers' Apostrophe" erhielt seinen Namen, weil viele Geschäfte und wohl besonders Obst- u. Gemüsehändler ihre Waren anscheinend mit einem überflüssigen oder falschen Apostroph versehen wie etwa "pear's" oder "banana's".

(E?)(L?) http://www.apostrophe.fsnet.co.uk/
pictures of some egregious British examples of the greengrocer's apostrophe

(E?)(L?) http://guardian.co.uk/uk_news/story/0,3604,1256380,00.html
Where to Stick the Grocer's Apostrophe.

(E?)(L?) http://www.translationdirectory.com/article270.htm
The Greengrocer's Apostrophe
Language article reprinted with permission of www.english-to-french-translation.com
By J. McCorquodale

(E2)(L1) http://www.wordspy.com/words/greengrocersapostrophe.asp

greengrocers' apostrophe (green.groh.surz uh.PAWS.truh.fee) n. An apostrophe erroneously inserted before the final "s" in the plural form of a word. Also: greengrocer's apostrophe.


(E1)(L1) http://www.worldwidewords.org/articles/apostrophe.htm
Possessive Apostrophes: The greengrocer's speciality

H

H, h (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html




Hosenbandorden, Honi soit qui mal y pense (W3)

(E?)(L?) http://www.christian-kirsch.de/royalty/questions.html
Der "Hosenbandorden" ("The Order of the Garter") ist der höchste und älteste englische Orden und wurde 1348 von Edward III. (1312-1377) gegründet. Dem Orden gehören neben dem Monarchen 24 Ritter an.

Der Ursprung des Ordenabzeichens, ein "blaues Strumpfband", ist unklar. Das Abzeichen soll angeregt sein durch einen Vorfall, der sich ereignete, als der König mit der Countess of Salisbury tanzte. Das Strumpfband der Countess fiel dabei zu Boden. Der König hob es auf und band es sich ans eigene Bein. Die Verwunderung seiner Gäste kommentierte der Monarch mit den Worten "Honi soit qui mal y pense" (Schlecht, der schlecht darüber denkt). Diese Worte wurden zum Motto des Ordens.

(E1)(L1) http://www.etymonline.com/
honi soit qui mal y pense

(E?)(L?) http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/WarrenAllen/words.htm
honi soit qui mal y pense

(E?)(L?) http://www.geo.de/GEO/interaktiv/frage-des-tages/54999.html?NLC=FdT
Der britische "Hochedle Orden vom Hosenbande" trägt die französische Devise "Honi soit qui mal y pense".
Im Deutschen wird er gerne mit "Ein Schelm, wer Böses dabei denkt" wiedergegeben.
...
Der Hosenbandorden, ein schmales blaues Samtband mit der goldenen Ordensdevise, wird von Herren übrigens unter dem linken Knie, von Damen am linken Oberarm getragen.


Hosenbandorden

(E?)(L?) http://www.heraldicsculptor.com/Garters.html
Eine schöne, illustrierte Seite: The Most Noble Order of the Garter

I

I, i (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html




i-mutation (W3)

Die engl. "i-mutation", dt. "i-Umlaut" entstand aus Umformungen von i-Suffixen.

(E?)(L?) http://www.etymonline.com/imutate.php
Am deutlichsten kann man die "I-Mutation" meines Erachtens in folgenden Beispielen der Pluralbildung erkennen: (So wurde also aus "toothis" oder "toothiz" die heutigen "teeth".)


...
Noun plurals in "-iz": "man" - "men", "foot" - "feet", "tooth" - "teeth", "goose" - "geese", "louse" - "lice", "mouse" - "mice". Along with "woman" - "women" (derived from "wif-man") these are the only survivors of this class, which was numerous in Old English and included such words as the ancestors of modern book, goat, and friend, which now have gone over to the "-s"-plural.
...


J

J, j (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html

J : J is the tenth letter of the English alphabet. It is a later variant form of the Roman letter "I", used to express a consonantal sound, that is, originally, the sound of English "y" in "yet". The forms "J" and "I" have, until a recent time, been classed together, and they have been used interchangeably.


jcf - Joseph Campbell Foundation Associates

(E?)(L?) http://www.jcf.org/
are individuals inspired by the works of Joseph Campbell, and interested in exploring mythic themes in everyday life. (Anmeldung erforderlich)

K

K, k (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html

K : the eleventh letter of the English alphabet, is nonvocal consonant. The form and sound of the letter "K" are from the Latin, which used the letter but little except in the early period of the language. It came into the Latin from the Greek, which received it from a Phoenician source, the ultimate origin probably being Egyptian.
Etymologically "K" is most nearly related to "c", "g", "h" (which see).


L

L, l (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html




Lautverschiebung DE - UK



Ligature (W3)

Engl. "Ligature" geht zurück auf lat. "ligatura" = dt. "Verbindung". Die engl. "Ligature" kam um 1400 aus dem Altfranzösischen nach England und bezeichnete ursprünglich allgemein "etwas das zum Verbinden, Abbinden benutzt wurde".

(E?)(L?) http://www.artlex.com/ArtLex/Li.html#anchor142814


(E?)(L?) http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/ligatures.html


(E?)(L?) http://www.christianlehmann.eu/


(E?)(L?) http://193.175.207.75:8080/lido/Lido


(E?)(L?) http://www.decodeunicode.org/en/glossary


(E?)(L?) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=ligature


(E?)(L1) http://www.fileformat.info/info/unicode/char/a.htm


(E?)(L1) http://www.fileformat.info/info/unicode/char/b.htm


(E?)(L1) http://www.fileformat.info/info/unicode/char/i.htm


(E?)(L1) http://www.fileformat.info/info/unicode/char/l.htm


(E?)(L1) http://www.fileformat.info/info/unicode/char/s.htm


(E?)(L1) http://www.fileformat.info/info/unicode/char/t.htm


(E?)(L?) http://www.kith.org/logos/words/indexes/index.html


(E?)(L?) http://www.kith.org/logos/words/upper2/EEtc.html
ligatures: EEtc

(E?)(L?) http://www.liaretta.co.cc/gene_moutoux/pageL.htm
ligature (ligo)
"ligo", "ligare", "ligavi". "ligatus" - to "bind"

(E?)(L?) http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=4161


(E?)(L?) http://www.odlt.org/


(E1)(L1) http://www.onelook.com/?w=ligature&loc=wotd


(E2)(L1) http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Ligature


(E?)(L?) http://encyclopedie.uchicago.edu/node/175


(E?)(L?) http://artfl.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic31/search3t?dbname=encyclopedie1108&word=&dgdivhead=%5El&dgdivocauthor=&dgdivocplacename=&dgdivocsalutation=&dgdivocclassification=&dgdivocpartofspeech=&dgdivtype=&CONJUNCT=PHRASE&DISTANCE=3&PROXY=or+fewer&OUTPUT=conc&POLESPAN=5&KWSS=1&KWSSPRLIM=500


(E?)(L?) http://www.unicode.org/charts/
Armenian Ligatures | Latin Ligatures

(E6)(L?) http://www.unicode.org/charts/charindex.html
Armenian Ligatures | COMBINING LIGATURE LEFT HALF | HALF, COMBINING LIGATURE LEFT | IJ, LATIN SMALL LIGATURE | Latin Ligatures | LIGATURE IJ, LATIN SMALL | LIGATURE LEFT HALF, COMBINING | ligature tie | Ligatures, Armenian | Ligatures, Latin

(E6)(L?) http://www.unicode.org/charts/charindex3.html
tie, ligature

Erstellt: 2010-04

M

M, m (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html




N

N, n (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html




naturesalphabet

(E?)(L?) http://www.naturesalphabet.com/
Die Alphabet-Schrift wurde von den Griechen erst wenige Jahrzehnte vor Homers Geburt von den Phöniziern übernommen und an ihre Sprache angepasst.
Der Link zeigt Photografien von Buchstbaen, die in der Natur vorkommen.

O

O, o (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html




Oxford Comma (W3)

Warum das "Oxford Comma" (unter anderem) diese Bezeichnung trägt, dürfte daran liegen, dass es im "Style Guide" der "University of Oxford" explizit empfohlen wird. - Aber man achte auf die Details.

(E?)(L?) http://www.npr.org/blogs/monkeysee/2011/06/30/137525211/going-going-and-gone-no-the-oxford-comma-is-safe-for-now

Going, Going, And Gone?: No, The Oxford Comma Is Safe ... For Now
by Linda Holmes
June 30, 2011
...
This blew up yesterday when there was a rumbling that the "University of Oxford" was dumping its own comma. - As it turned out, this wasn't the case. - They haven't changed their authoritative style guide, but they've changed their internal PR department procedures that they use for press releases. The PR department and the editorial department are two different things, so this doesn't necessarily mean much of anything, except that it's maybe a little embarrassing to have the PR department of the university with which you're affiliated abandon your style guide.
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.odlt.org/


(E?)(L?) http://www.ox.ac.uk/public_affairs/services_and_resources/style_guide/punctuation.html#acomma

...
note that there is generally no comma between the penultimate item and "and"/"or", unless required to prevent ambiguity – this is sometimes referred to as the "Oxford comma". ...


(E?)(L?) http://oxforddictionaries.com/words/what-is-the-oxford-comma

What is the 'Oxford comma'?


(E?)(L?) http://blog.oxforddictionaries.com/2011/06/oxford-comma/

The Oxford Comma: Hart’s Rules


(E?)(L?) http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/politics/9607794/Owen-Paterson-declares-war-on-the-Oxford-comma.html

Owen Paterson declares war on the Oxford comma

Owen Paterson has produced a 10-point guide for his civil servants on the pitfalls of common punctuation errors including the Oxford Comma.
...


(E?)(L?) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serial_comma

Serial comma

In punctuation, a "serial comma" or "series comma" (also called "Oxford comma" and "Harvard comma") is a comma placed immediately before the coordinating conjunction (usually and, or, or nor) in a series of three or more terms. For example, a list of three countries might be punctuated either as "Portugal, Spain, and France" (with the serial comma), or as "Portugal, Spain and France" (without the serial comma).

Opinions among writers and editors differ on whether to use the serial comma. In American English, a majority of style guides mandate use of the serial comma, including The Chicago Manual of Style, Strunk and White's Elements of Style, and the U.S. Government Printing Office Style Manual. The Associated Press Stylebook for journalistic writing advises against it. It is used less often in British English, but some British style guides recommend it, including the "Oxford University Press's style manual" and Fowler's Modern English Usage. Some writers of British English use it only where necessary to avoid ambiguity.
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hl21Ozt8iXg

Vampire Weekend - Oxford Comma (A CAPPELLA!?)


(E1)(L1) http://ngrams.googlelabs.com/graph?corpus=0&content=Oxford Comma
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "Oxford Comma" taucht in der Literatur nicht signifikant auf.

Erstellt: 2013-04

P

P, p (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html




Peace-Zeichen, Friedens-Zeichen (W3)

(E?)(L?) http://www.figu.org/de/figu/bulletin/s05/menschheitsverbrecher.htm
kommt aus der Signalsprache der Marine. 1958 wurde es dann okkupiert und als Friedenszeichen benutzt.

Am 07.09.2004 erhielt ich folgenden Hinweis:
... gestatten Sie mir den Hinweis, dass das auf Ihrer Webseite veröffentlichte Symbol, das angeblich für "Frieden" stehen soll, das genaue Gegenteil symbolisiert, nämlich für "Tod, Zerstörung, Vernichtung, Krieg" usw. Die Begründung dafür, das wahrheitliche Friedenssymbol, sowie weitere Erklärungen dazu finden Sie hier: "http://www.figu.org/de/figu/bulletin/s05/menschheitsverbrecher.htm"
Achim Wolf

Phonetic Alphabet

Am 07.12.2004 war von Neil Crawford (UK) folgender Beitrag, mit einer interessanten Art des Buchstabierens, in der ADS-Mailingliste zu finden:

This is my first posting from the other side of the pond; so you'll have to excuse the British outlook. Explanations for non-UK English speakers are found within parentheses. And for those having difficulty spelling names, remember what my English teacher taught me: I before E, except after C -- AND Keith, Neil and Sheila.

Q

Q, q (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html

Q : the seventeenth letter of the English alphabet, has but one sound (that of "k"), and is always followed by "u", the two letters together being sounded like "kw", except in some words in which the "u" is silent. See Guide to Pronunciation, / 249. "Q" is not found in Anglo-Saxon, "cw" being used instead of "qu"; as in "cwic", "quick"; "cwen", "queen". The name ("k/" (?)) is from the French "ku", which is from the Latin name of the same letter; its form is from the Latin, which derived it, through a Greek alphabet, from the Phoenician, the ultimate origin being Egyptian.


R

R, r (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html

R : "R", the eighteenth letter of the English alphabet, is a vocal consonant. It is sometimes called a semivowel, and a liquid. See Guide to Pronunciation, // 178, 179, and 250-254.


robert.marty
76 Definitions of the Sign
by C.S.Peirce

(E?)(L?) http://robert.marty.perso.cegetel.net/semiotique/76defeng.htm


S

S, s (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html




SAMPA

(E?)(L?) http://www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/sampa/home.htm
= Speech assessment methods Phonetic Alphabet - a computer readable phonetic alphabet system, see Professor John Wells' page

significant (W3)

Engl. "significant" (1570) = dt. "bedeutsam", "wichtig", "bedeutend", "bezeichnend", "anschaulich" geht zurück auf lat. "significans", gen. lat. "significantis" = dt. "bezeichnend", "treffend", "deutlich", lat. "significare" = dt. "Zeichen geben", "durch sichtbare Zeichen zeigen".

Lat. "significare" setzt sich zusammen aus lat. "signum" = dt. "Kennzeichen", "Merkmal", "Zeichen" und lat. "facere" = dt. "machen", "tun".

(E?)(L?) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=significant

"significant" (adj.) 1570s, "having a meaning", from Latin "significantem" (nominative "significans", present participle of "significare" "make known", "indicate" (see "signify"). Earlier in the same sense was "significative" (c.1400). Often "having a special or secret meaning", hence "important" (1761). Related: "Significantly". "Significant figure" is from 1680s. "Significant other" (n.) attested by 1961, in psychology, "the most influential other person in the patient's world".


(E2)(L1) http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/significant

significant


(E?)(L?) http://www.shakespeareswords.com/Glossary?let=s

significant


(E?)(L?) http://learningenglish.voanews.com/media/video/news-words-significant/2670609.html

News Words: Significant
Published 03/13/2015
Significant means important. But how is it used in news stories? Our hosts will tell you. See the word in action.
...


(E?)(L?) http://xkcd.com/882/

Significant


(E1)(L1) http://adcs.home.xs4all.nl/woordenweb/s/signum.htm

significant


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=significant
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "significant" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1570 / 1800 auf.

Erstellt: 2015-03

Standard (W3)

Die "Standarte" war das Zeichen der königlichen Zentralgewalt. Was unter diesem Zeichen verkündet wurde war der "Standard".

(E?)(L?) http://www.brandeins.de/home/inhalt_detail.asp?id=2397&MenuID=8&MagID=90&sid=su217247501218548368&umenuid=1

...
Das Wort "Standard" stammt aus dem Englischen, wo die "Fahne des Königs", die "Standarte", als Garantie dafür galt, dass die Männer, die sie trugen, das Recht und den Willen des Königs repräsentierten. Wer die königliche "Standarte" hat, hat immer Recht. Der "Standard" setzt die Maßstäbe für die Wirklichkeit, den sogenannten "Königs-Weg". Das klingt optimal, ist aber das Produkt reiner Willkür. "Standards" und Normen haben gemein, dass sich Menschen an sie gewöhnen. Alternativen verblassen mit der Zeit. Andererseits kommt man im Zeitalter der Ballistik ohne "Standards" nicht aus. Alles wird vorausberechnet, kaum einmal wird nachgedacht. Der Aufstieg des "Standards" und der Norm ist mit dem Industriezeitalter verwoben. Wo massenhaft produziert wird, sind Abweichungen von der Norm fatale Fehler. Eine Maschine produziert Millionen Teile. Ob Kanone oder Maschine - eine falsche Einstellung macht die ganze Produktion zunichte.
...


symbol (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.symbols.com/about.html

The definition of "symbol"

The word "symbol" is derived from the Greek word "symbolon". In ancient Greece it was a custom to break a slate of burned clay into several pieces and distribute them within the group. When the group reunited the pieces were fitted together (Greek "symbollein"). This confirmed the members belonging to the group.


T

T, t (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html

T : the twentieth letter of the English alphabet, is a nonvocal consonant. With the letter "h" it forms the digraph "th", which has two distinct sounds, as in "thin", "then". See Guide to Pronunciation, //262-264, and also //153, 156, 169, 172, 176, 178-180.


Tudorrose (W3)

Zu der bekanntesten Wappenrose gehört die stilisierte fünfblättrige Tudorrose.

(E2)(L1) http://www.beyars.com/kunstlexikon/lexikon_t_1.html


(E?)(L?) http://www.gartenfreunde.ch/de/rosen/heraldik.php

Rosen in der Heraldik
...
Zu der wohl bekanntesten Wappenrose gehört sicherlich die "Tudorrose". Hier handelt es sich eigentlich um zwei Rosen. Nämlich "Rosa gallica 'Officinalis'" für das "Haus Lancaster" und vermutlich "Rosa alba 'Semiplena'" für das "Haus York". Beide Adelshäuser kämpften im sogenannten Rosenkrieg achtzig lange Jahre um Englands Thron. Beendet wurde dieser Krieg 1486 durch die Heirat von Heinrich von Richmond aus dem Hause Lancaster-Tudor mit Elisabeth von York.
...


U

U
u (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html

U : the twenty-first letter of the English alphabet, is a cursive form of the letter "V", with which it was formerly used interchangeably, both letters being then used both as vowels and consonants. "U" and "V" are now, however, differentiated, "U" being used only as a vowel or semivowel, and "V" only as a consonant. The true primary vowel sound of "U", in Anglo-Saxon, was the sound which it still retains in most of the languages of Europe, that of long "oo", as in "tool", and short "oo", as in "wood", answering to the French "ou" in "tour".

Etymologically "U" is most closely related to "o", "y" (vowel), "w", and "v"; as in "two", "duet", "dyad", "twice"; "top", "tuft"; "sop", "sup"; "auspice", "aviary". See V, also O and Y.


Uni Oxford
Style Guide - University of Oxford

(E?)(L?) http://www.ox.ac.uk/public_affairs/services_and_resources/style_guide/index.html

Introduction

The "University of Oxford Style Guide" aims to provide a guide to writing and formatting documents written by staff on behalf of the University (or one of its constituent departments etc). It is part of the University’s branding toolkit, which enables the University’s formal documentation to be presented consistently across all communications.
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.ox.ac.uk/document.rm?id=2722

Download a PDF of the Style Guide (1168 kb)


(E?)(L?) http://www.ox.ac.uk/sites/files/oxford/media_wysiwyg/University%20of%20Oxford%20Glossaries.pdf

Glossary of Oxford terms

| Academic dress | Aegrotat | Almanack | Alumni | Ashmolean - www.ashmolean.org | Assessor | Bate Collection - www.bate.ox.ac.uk | Battels | Bedel | Blue | Blue Book | Blueprint - www.ox.ac.uk/blueprint | Botanic Garden - www.botanic-garden.ox.ac.uk | Bulldog | Bursar | Calendar | Carfax | Chancellor - www.ox.ac.uk/about_the_university/oxford_people/key_university_officers/chancellor.html | Cherwell | Christ Church Picture Gallery - www.chch.ox.ac.uk/gallery | Churchill | Class | Clerk of the Market | Collections | College | Collegiate University | Coming up/going down | Commoner | Conference of Colleges | Conference Oxford - www.conference-oxford.com | Confirmation of Status | Congregation | Continuing Education, Department of - www.conted.ox.ac.uk | Convocation | Convocation House | Council - www.admin.ox.ac.uk/council | Creweian Oration | Custodians | Dean | Degree Days - www.ox.ac.uk/students/graduation/ceremonies/dates | Demonstrating | Department | Director of Study | Divinity School | Division | Domestic Bursar | Don | DPhil | Duke Humfrey's Library | EdC | Eights | Emeritus | Encaenia | Estates Bursar | Examination Regulations - www.admin.ox.ac.uk/examregs | Examination Schools | Exhibition | Expulsion | Faculty | Fellows | Final Honour School | Finalist | Finals | First | First public examination (PE) | Formal Hall | Fresher | Full Economic Costs (FEC) | Full term - www.ox.ac.uk/about_the_university/university_year/dates_of_term.html | Gathered field | Gaudy | Gazette - www.ox.ac.uk/gazette | GCR | Governing body | Graduate | Greats | Grey Book | GSO | Half-Blue - www.sport.ox.ac.uk/sports-federation/blues | Harcourt Arboretum | Head of House | High Table | Highers | Hilary term | The House | iProcurement - www.admin.ox.ac.uk/finance/purchasing | JCR (Junior Common Room) | Jenner Institute | Joint appointment | Joint Consultative Committee (JCC) | JR (John Radcliffe) | JRF (Junior Research Fellow) | Junior Member | Language Centre | Lecturer | Literae humaniores | LMH - www.lmh.ox.ac.uk | Long vac | Marketplace | Master | Matriculation | MCR (Middle Common Room) | Michaelmas term | Mods (Moderations) | Moral Tutor | Museum of the History of Science - www.mhs.ox.ac.uk | Museum of Natural History - www.oum.ox.ac.uk | Norrington Table - ww.ox.ac.uk/about_the_university/facts_and_figures/undergraduate_degr_3.html#anorrington_scores_and_number_of_students_20062011_sorted_alphabetically | Noughth week | Old Road Campus | OLIS | OPENdoor - www.admin.ox.ac.uk/opendoor | Oracle Financials - www.admin.ox.ac.uk/finance/financials | Oracle Student System | OUDCE | OUDS | OUP | OUSU - www.ousu.org | Oxbridge | Oxford Limited - www.oushop.com | Oxford Magazine | Oxford Student | Oxford Thinking - www.campaign.ox.ac.uk | Oxford Today - www.oxfordtoday.ox.ac.uk | Oxford University Archives | Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust | Oxford University Press - www.oup.com | Oxford University Society - www.alumni.ox.ac.uk | Papers | Parks | Permanent private hall | Personnel Committee | PGCE | PGR | PGT | Pigeon post | Pitt Rivers Museum - www.prm.ox.ac.uk | Planon | Postdoctoral | Postgraduate | PPE | PPP | PRAC (Planning and Resource Allocation Committee) | Prelims (Preliminary examinations) | Pre-sessional | President | Principal | Proctors | Pro-Vice-Chancellor (PVC) | Provost | PRS (Probationer Research Student) | Public Orator | Radcliffe Camera | Radcliffe Observatory Quarter (ROQ) | Recognised Student | Rector | Regent | Registrar | Regius Professor | Research Committee | Research Excellence Framework (REF) | Resolve | Romanes Lecture | Ruskin | Rustication | Salary exchange | Salary sacrifice | Schools | SCR | SEH | Sending down | Sheldonian Theatre | Split Finals | Springboard - www.learning.ox.ac.uk/support/women/programmes | Steward | Stint | Student | Sub fusc | Supplicate | Suspension | Teddy Hall | Torpids | Trinity term | Tutor | Tutorial | Tutorial System | Undergraduate | Union, The | Univ | University Calendar | University Chest | University Club | University Parks | Vac (vacation) | Varsity | Varsity Match | Vice-Chancellor (VC) | Viva (viva voce) | Voltaire Foundation | Warden | Wytham Woods


(E?)(L?) https://www.ox.ac.uk/sites/files/oxford/media_wysiwyg/University%20of%20Oxford%20Glossaries.pdf

P. 16 ff

Glossary of Oxford University acronyms

| AAD - www.admin.ox.ac.uk/ac-div/index.shtml | ADEX | AHRC | ARACU - www.ouls.ox.ac.uk/services/disability/aracu | BBSRC | BDLSS - www.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/bdlss | BESC - www.admin.ox.ac.uk/statutes/regulations/520-122d.shtml | BIS - www.bis.gov.uk | CABDyN - www.cabdyn.ox.ac.uk/complexity_home.asp | CBF - www.cbf.ox.ac.uk | CCMP - www.ccmp.ox.ac.uk | CCVTM - www.ccvtm.ox.ac.uk | CEMS - www.cems.ox.ac.uk | CEU - www.ceu.ox.ac.uk | CICTC | COMPAS - www.compas.ox.ac.uk | CPD - http://cpd.conted.ox.ac.uk | CSG - www.admin.ox.ac.uk/pras/committees/workinggroups/capital | CTSU - www.ctsu.ox.ac.uk | CUF | CUREC - www.admin.ox.ac.uk/curec | DARS | DGS | DPAG - www.dpag.ox.ac.uk | DTU - www.dtu.ox.ac.uk | EAS - www.lang.ox.ac.uk/courses/english.html | ECI - www.eci.ox.ac.uk | EdC - www.admin.ox.ac.uk/epsc | EDU - www.admin.ox.ac.uk/eop | ELQ - www.ox.ac.uk/feesandfunding/fees/information/elq | EPSRC | ERG | ESRC | ETHOX Centre - www.ethox.org.uk | FEC | FHS | FMRIB | FOI - www.admin.ox.ac.uk/foi | GAO | GPC | HEFCE | HESA | HFS - www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/hfs | HRIS - www.admin.ox.ac.uk/personnel/corehr | IBME - www.ibme.ox.ac.uk | ICTF - www.ict.ox.ac.uk/oxford/groups/ict_forum | IMSU - www.imsu.ox.ac.uk | ITLP | ITSS | JCC | JCUSS | JISC - www.jisc.ac.uk | JR | JRAM | KTP | LASR | LICR | MPLS | MRC | MSD | NDA | NDM | NERC | NHSPS | NPEU - www.npeu.ox.ac.uk | NSMS | OCDEM - www.ocdem.com | OCIAM - www2.maths.ox.ac.uk/ociam | ODIT - www.ict.ox.ac.uk/odit | OED - www.oed.com | OeRC - www.oerc.ox.ac.uk | OHS - www.admin.ox.ac.uk/uohs | OIA - www.ageing.ox.ac.uk | OII - www.oii.ox.ac.uk | OLI - www.learning.ox.ac.uk | OPENdoor - www.admin.ox.ac.uk/opendoor | OPIC - www.opic.ox.ac.uk | OPPF - www.oppf.ox.ac.uk | ORA - http://ora.ouls.ox.ac.uk | OSC - www.oerc.ox.ac.uk/resources/osc | OSEM - www.osem.ox.ac.uk | OSPS - www.admin.ox.ac.uk/finance/pensions/osps | OSS - www.admin.ox.ac.uk/bsp/studsys-support-centre | OUEM - www.ouem.co.uk | OUMC - www.museums.ox.ac.uk | OUP - www.oup.com | OXAM - http://oxam.ox.ac.uk | OxCERT - www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/network/security | OxCORT - www.oxcort.ox.ac.uk | OXLIP+ | PAD - www.ox.ac.uk/public_affairs/index.html | PI | PRAC | PRAS | PVC | QA | QAA | QE | REF - www.ref.ac.uk | ROQ | SGC - www.sgc.ox.ac.uk | SKOPE - www.skope.ox.ac.uk | SIS | SLC - www.slc.co.uk | SOLO - http://solo.bodleian.ox.ac.uk | SORP - www.admin.ox.ac.uk/finance/information/accountingpolicy | SSO | STEM subjects | STFC | STRUBI - www.strubi.ox.ac.uk | TALL - www.tall.ox.ac.uk | TRAC - www.admin.ox.ac.uk/finance/trac | UAS - www.admin.ox.ac.uk | UCU - www.ucu.org.uk | USS - www.admin.ox.ac.uk/finance/pensions/uss | UUK | VLE | VRE - www.vre.ox.ac.uk | WebAuth - https://webauth.ox.ac.uk | WebLearn - http://weblearn.ox.ac.uk/site | WildCRU - www.wildcru.org | WIMM - www.imm.ox.ac.uk | WTCHG - www.well.ox.ac.uk


(E?)(L?) http://www.ox.ac.uk/public_affairs/services_and_resources/style_guide/glossary_of_obsolete.html

Glossary of obsolete terms


Erstellt: 2013-04

V

V, v (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html




Victory

Das Spreizen von Zeige- und Mittelfinger stellt das V von 'Victory' = 'Sieg' nach.

W

W, w (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html

W : the twenty-third letter of the English alphabet, is usually a consonant, but sometimes it is a vowel, forming the second element of certain diphthongs, as in "few", "how". It takes its written form and its name from the repetition of a "V", this being the original form of the Roman capital letter which we call "U".
Etymologically it is most related to "v" and "u". See V, and U. Some of the uneducated classes in England, especially in London, confuse "w" and "v", substituting the one for the other, as "weal" for "veal", and "veal" for "weal"; "wine" for "vine", and "vine" for "wine", etc. See Guide to Pronunciation, // 266-268.


w- - gu- (W3)

Die französischen Normannen brachten im 11., 12. Jh. das frz. "gu-" als "w-" nach England.

(E?)(L?) http://www.dailywritingtips.com/wardens-and-guardians/

"Wardens" and "Guardians"

By Maeve Maddox
...
From 1066 until about 1250, English and French were spoken side by side in England. Then, because of political changes, the French-speaking ruling class shifted to English.

The words "warden" and "guardian" are good examples of the linguistic mingling that went on between the two languages at that time.

Old English had the verb "weardian" "to keep guard", and the noun "weard" "a guard", "a watchman", "a sentry".

Old French had the verb "guarder", "to guard".

Speakers of Norman French were people who had been Vikings a hundred years before William of Normandy invaded England in 1066. They brought their own distinctive pronunciations to French. One peculiarity was that Normans tended to pronounce the letter combination "gu–" as "w-".

For example, Old French "guarder", "to guard", became "warder" in Norman French. However, Parisian French kept the "gu–" spelling and pronunciation. As a result, English ended up with words derived from both forms.

The OED gives numerous meanings for the word "warden", including one that is identical to one of its definitions for "guardian". In general usage, however, a "guardian" is a "protector", while a "warden" is a "keeper".

A similar pair of words is "warranty" and "guarantee". Both words have the sense of an assurance that a certain standard of quality or integrity will be upheld.
...
A new car comes with a "warranty". If anything goes wrong with the car during a specified period, the "warranty" is a document that entitles the owner to have the problem corrected without charge.

The word "guarantee" is often used as a synonym for "warranty". However, a "guarantee" can be something more concrete.
...
Etymology nerds can have fun looking for modern French words beginning with "gu–" that correspond to English words beginning with "w-". For example:

"war"/"guerre": Old English "wyrre"; Norman French "werre"; Modern French "guerre".

And of course there’s "William the Conqueror" whom the French refer to as "Guillaume le Conquérant".


Erstellt: 2016-01

worldwidewords.org
Pronunciation Symbols

(E1)(L1) http://www.worldwidewords.org/pronguide.htm
pronunciation symbols with link to sound samples

X

X, x (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html

X : "X", the twenty-fourth letter of the English alphabet, has three sounds; a compound nonvocal sound (that of "ks"), as in "wax"; a compound vocal sound (that of "gz"), as in "example"; and, at the beginning of a word, a simple vocal sound (that of "z"), as in "xanthic". See Guide to Pronunciation, // 217, 270, 271.


Y

Y, y (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html




Z

Z, z (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html

Z : "Z", the twenty-sixth and last letter of the English alphabet, is a vocal consonant. It is taken from the Latin letter "Z", which came from the Greek alphabet, this having it from a Semitic source. The ultimate origin is probably Egyptian.
Etymologically, it is most closely related to "s", "y", and "j"; as in "glass", "glaze"; E. "yoke", Gr. /, L. "yugum"; E. "zealous", "jealous". See Guide to Pronunciation, // 273, 274.


Bücher zur Kategorie:

Etymologie, Etimología, Étymologie, Etimologia, Etymology
UK Vereinigtes Königreich Großbritannien und Nordirland, Reino Unido de Gran Bretaña e Irlanda del Norte, Royaume-Uni de Grande-Bretagne et d'Irlande du Nord, Regno Unito di Gran Bretagna e Irlanda del Nord, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Zeichen, Signo, Signe, Segno, Sign

A

B

C

D

Drucker, Johanna (Autor)
The Alphabetic Labyrinth
The Letters in History and Imagination

(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/0500280681/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/0500280681/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/0500280681/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.it/exec/obidos/ASIN/0500280681/etymologporta-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0500280681/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0500280681/etymologpor09-20
Taschenbuch: 320 Seiten
Verlag: Thames & Hudson Ltd; Auflage: New edition (Februar 1999)
Sprache: Englisch


Kurzbeschreibung
The letters of the alphabet have been the source of some speculation since their invention almost 4000 years ago. Through research this text examines the many ways in which the letters of the alphabet have been used in political, spiritual and religious systems over two millennia. The book also presents the more general history of lettering, printing and calligraphy, as well as using colour illustrations to support the text. The book provides a source to historians studying art, culture or typography.


Erstellt: 2011-03

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

N

O

P

Q

R

S

T

Trosborg, Anna (Herausgeber)
Pragmatics Across Languages and Cultures
(Handbooks of Pragmatics)

(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110214431/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110214431/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110214431/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.it/exec/obidos/ASIN3110214431//etymologporta-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110214431/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110214431/etymologpor09-20
Gebundene Ausgabe: 644 Seiten
Verlag: Gruyter (31. Oktober 2010)
Sprache: Englisch


Kurzbeschreibung
This handbook provides a comprehensive overview, as well as breaking new ground, in a versatile and fast growing field. It contains 4 sections: Contrastive, Cross-cultural and Intercultural Pragmatics, Interlanguage Pragmatics, Teaching and Testing of Second/Foreign Language Pragmatics, and Pragmatics in Corporate Culture Communication, covering a wide range of topics, from speech acts and politeness issues to Lingua Franca and Corporate Crises Communication. The approach is theoretical, methodological as well as applied, with a focus on authentic, interactional data. All articles are written by renowned leading specialists, who provide in-depth, up-to-date overviews, and view new directions and visions for future research.

Über den Autor
Anna Trosborg, University of Aarhus, Denmark.


(E?)(L?) http://www.degruyter.de/cont/fb/sk/detailEn.cfm?id=IS-9783110214437-1

About this Title
covers topics such as international communication, intercultural politeness and impoliteness, intercultural business discourse, theoretical and methodological approaches to interlanguage pragmatics, speech acts in second/foreign languages and corporate culture communication introduces new and emergent fields, such as Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Corporate Crisis Communication in a cross-cultural perspective includes more than 20 articles and a helpful subject index


(E?)(L?) http://www.degruyter.de/cont/fb/sk/skReiEn.cfm?rc=40489

Handbooks of Pragmatics
Ed. by Bublitz, Wolfram / Jucker, Andreas H. / Schneider, Klaus P.

This new landmark series of nine self-contained handbooks provides a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the entire field of pragmatics. It is based on a wide conception of pragmatics as the study of intentional human interaction in social and cultural contexts. The series reflects, appraises and structures a field that is exceptionally vast, unusually heterogeneous and still rapidly expanding. In-depth articles by leading experts from around the world discuss the foundations, major theories and most recent developments of pragmatics including philosophical, cognitive, sociocultural, contrastive and diachronic perspectives. Wolfram Bublitz, University of Augsburg, Germany; Andreas H. Jucker, University of Zurich, Switzerland; Klaus P. Schneider, University of Bonn, Germany.

Flyer




Erstellt: 2011-07

U

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