Etymologie, Etimología, Étymologie, Etimologia, Etymology
UK Vereinigtes Königreich Großbritannien und Nordirland, Reino Unido de Gran Bretaña e Irlanda del Norte, Royaume-Uni de Grande-Bretagne et d'Irlande du Nord, Regno Unito di Gran Bretagna e Irlanda del Nord, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Zeichen, Signo, Signe, Segno, Sign

A

A, a (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html




ampersand
& (W3)

Die Bezeichnung engl. "ampersand" = dt. "und", "kaufmännisches UND", "Kaufmannsund", "kommerzielles UND-Zeichen", "logisches UND", "Konjunktion", engl. "conjunction", "a punctuation mark used to represent conjunction ("and")", geht zurück auf die Bezeichnung engl. "and per se and" = engl. "& by itself and", dt. "und und nur und", "und an sich". Dies referenziert auf die einstige Behandlung von "&" als letzten Buchstaben des englischen Alphabets.

Das Zeichen "&" war schon seit vielen hundert Jahren (anscheinend schon bei den Römern) in Gebrauch, wird aber erst seit etwa 1835, 1837 als engl. "ampersand" bezeichnet. Das Zeichen "&" entstand aus der verkürzten Schreibweise des lat. "et" = dt. "und". Seine Bezeichnung ist eine Kombination von engl. "and", "per" und "se". Dies bedeutet etwa "und bei sich selbst" (= "und und nichts als und").

In the Middle Ages, the symbol "&" was included in the alphabet following "z". Back then, students spelled out words orally by syllables. When a single letter formed a whole word (like "I") or a complete syllable (like the first "i" in "iris"), it was spelled "I per se, I", which in Latin means "I by itself". The symbol "&" was spelled "& per se, and", which people read as "and per se, and", meaning "and by itself". Over time, that longer phrase was shortened and modified to "ampersand".

(E?)(L?) https://en.99designs.de/blog/tips/history-of-ampersands-typography/

Design History: Get to know your ampersands

by Kaitlyn Ellison


(E?)(L?) https://stock.adobe.com/de/search?k=ampersand

"Ampersand": Adobe Stock-Bilder: 6.305 Ergebnisse


(E?)(L?) http://listserv.linguistlist.org/pipermail/ads-l/2014-December/subject.html




(E?)(L?) https://eyeondesign.aiga.org/this-is-what-happens-when-you-put-out-a-call-for-ampersands/

This is What Happens When You Put Out a Call to Designers For Ampersands


(E?)(L1) http://www.alanwood.net/demos/ent4_frame.html

ampersand


(E?)(L?) https://www.alphadictionary.com/goodword/date/2017/06/23

...
Word History: This word is a contraction of "and per se and", meaning "and by itself and", a hybrid phrase, partly in Latin, partly in English. An earlier form of it was colloquial "ampussy", which was dropped for obvious reasons, though "ampassy" was tried and failed at about the same time. "&c." was once common way of writing "etc.", an abbreviation for "et" = "and" + "cetera" = "the rest". So, the symbol "&" referred the Latin word "et" = "and", and comes from an old Roman system of shorthand signs attested in Pompeiian graffiti. All the later Europeans had to do was drop that final "C".
...


(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20120524194649/http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Ampersand

"AMPERSAND" (a corruption of the mixed English and Latin phrase, "and per se and", of which there are many dialect forms, as "ampussyand", or "amperseand"), the name of the sign "&", which is a combination of the letters "e", "t", of the Lat. "et" = "and". The sign is now usually called "short and". In oldfashioned primers and nursery books the name and sign were always added at the end of the alphabet.


(E?)(L?) https://www.artsy.net/tag/ampersand

Ampersand: 1 Work


(E?)(L?) http://www.bartleby.com/81/655.html

Ampersand


(E?)(L?) http://www.behance.net/gallery/Ampersand-Food-Groups--Typography-Illustrations/597770

Dan Beckemeyer's Ampersand Food Groups


(E?)(L?) http://pica-n-pixel.blogspot.de/search?q=ampersand+

Showing posts sorted by relevance for query ampersand.


(E?)(L?) http://www.businessballs.com/clichesorigins.htm

"ampersand" - the "&" symbol, meaning "and" - the word "ampersand" appeared in the English language in around 1835. It is a corrupted (confused) derivation of the term "And per se", which was the original formal name of the "& symbol" in glossaries, alphabets, and official reference works. "Per se" is Latin and meant "by itself", as it still does today. Traditionally all letters were referenced formally in the same way. The letter "A" would have been "A per se", "B" would have been called "B per se", just as the "&" symbol was "And per se". The "ampersand symbol" itself is a combination - originally a ligature (literally a joining) - of the letters "E" and "t", or "E" and "T", being the Latin word "et" meaning "and". The earliest representations of the "ampersand symbol" are found in Roman scriptures dating back nearly 2,000 years. If you inspect various ampersand symbols you'll see the interpretation of the root "ET" or "Et" letters. The symbol has provided font designers more scope for artistic impression than any other character, and ironically while it evolved from hand-written script, few people use it in modern hand-writing, which means that most of us have difficulty in reproducing a good-looking ampersand by hand without having practised first. (See the ampersand exercise ideas.)


(E?)(L?) https://www.businessballs.com/team-management//team-building-games-training-ideas-and-tips-100#the_ampersand_game

The ampersand game (ice-breakers, warm-ups, demonstrations of learning, thinking, and brain-types, knowledge versus skill)


(E?)(L?) https://css-tricks.com/snippets/css/fancy-ampersand/

Fancy Ampersand


(E?)(L?) https://css-tricks.com/using-the-best-ampersand-available/

Using The Best Ampersand Available


(E?)(L?) https://css-tricks.com/snippets/jquery/find-and-wrap-ampersands/

Find and Wrap Ampersands


(E?)(L?) http://www.dicofr.com/cgi-bin/n.pl/dicofr/definition/20010101000503

"Ampersand"

Définition: (Français : "Esperluète"). - Terme anglais pour "esperluète" ("&").

A voir aussi "Esperluète"


(E?)(L?) http://www.dictionary.com/browse/ampersand?s=t

"ampersand"


(E?)(L?) http://www.dictionary.com/e/ampersand/

What Character Was Removed from the Alphabet?

"ampersand"

Johnson & Johnson, Barnes & Noble, Dolce & Gabbana: the "ampersand" today is used primarily in business names, but that small character was once the 27th part of the alphabet. Where did it come from though? The origin of its name is almost as bizarre as the name itself.

The shape of the character "&" predates the word "ampersand" by more than 1,500 years. In the first century, Roman scribes wrote in cursive, so when they wrote the Latin word "et" which means "and" they linked the "e" and "t". Over time the combined letters came to signify the word "and" in English as well. Certain versions of the "ampersand", like that in the font Caslon, clearly reveal the origin of the shape.

The word "ampersand" came many years later when "&" was actually part of the English alphabet. In the early 1800s, school children reciting their ABCs concluded the alphabet with the "&". It would have been confusing to say "X, Y, Z, and". Rather, the students said, "and per se and". "Per se" means "by itself", so the students were essentially saying, "X, Y, Z, and by itself and". Over time, "and per se and" was slurred together into the word we use today: "ampersand". When a word comes about from a mistaken pronunciation, it’s called a "mondegreen".

The "ampersand" is also used in an unusual configuration where it appears as "&c" and means "etc." The "ampersand" does double work as the "e" and "t".

The "ampersand" isn’t the only former member of the alphabet. Learn what led to the extinction of the "thorn" and the "wynn".


(E?)(L?) http://www.etymologiebank.nl/trefwoord/ampersand

ampersand (bepaald typografisch teken)


(E?)(L?) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=ampersand

"ampersand" (n.)

1837, contraction of "and per se and", meaning "(the character) '&' by itself is 'and'" (a hybrid phrase, partly in Latin, partly in English). An earlier form of it was colloquial "ampassy" (1706). The distinction is to avoid confusion with "&" in such formations as "&c.", a once common way of writing "etc." (the "et" in "et cetera" is Latin for "and"). The letters "a", "I", and "o" also formerly (15c.-16c.) were written "a per se", "etc.", especially when standing alone as words.

The symbol is based on the Latin word "et" "and", and comes from an old Roman system of shorthand signs (ligatures) attested in Pompeiian graffiti, and not (as sometimes stated) from the "Tironian Notes", which was a different form of shorthand, probably invented by Cicero's companion "Marcus Tullius Tiro", which used a different symbol, something like a reversed capital gamma, to indicate "et". This "Tironian symbol" was maintained by some medieval scribes, including Anglo-Saxon chroniclers, who sprinkled their works with a symbol like a numeral "7" to indicate the word "and".

In old schoolbooks the "ampersand" was printed at the end of the alphabet and thus by 1880s the word "ampersand" had acquired a slang sense of "posterior", "rear end", "hindquarters".


(E?)(L?) https://www.facebook.com/analyticalgrammar/posts/10153885493276891:0

Analytical Grammar

23. November 2016 ·

Today's Lunchbox Lesson: THE AMPERSAND

The origin of the "ampersand" can be traced back to the Latin word "et", meaning "and". The "E" and the "T" that make up this word were occasionally written together to form a ligature (a character consisting of two or more joined letters). Writing the word this way saved the writer time, with one letter flowing seamlessly into the next – a form of cursive or joined up writing.
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.fileformat.info/info/unicode/char/0026/index.htm

Unicode Character 'AMPERSAND' (U+0026): &


(E?)(L?) http://www.fileformat.info/info/unicode/char/1f670/index.htm

Unicode Character 'SCRIPT LIGATURE ET ORNAMENT' (U+1F670)


(E?)(L?) http://www.fileformat.info/info/unicode/char/214b/index.htm

Unicode Character 'TURNED AMPERSAND' (U+214B)


(E?)(L?) http://www.flickr.com/groups/ampersandland/pool

Ampersandland


(E?)(L?) http://ampersand.gosedesign.net/

Hier finden Sie eine Sammlung zum "&" in allen Lebenslagen.


Ampersand Blog

The Ampersand
...
First Post

May 9, 2008

So why create a blog about the ampersand? Why not. I plan to explore the variations of my favorite typographic character and see where it takes me. I am a designer, but I am not claiming to be an expert absolute authority on the history and “correct” usage of the "&". I have posted a link to some articles that explore these subjects in great depth.


(E?)(L?) https://h2g2.com/search?search_type=article_quick_search&searchstring=Ampersand&approved_entries_only_chk=1

Entry search results for: Ampersand
  • Ampersands
  • Pictures: Languages
  • How to Write Entries in GuideML
  • GuideML - ENTITY Tag
  • h2g2 FAQ: GuideML
  • Typesetting for Beginners - What's the Point?
  • Ventriloquism
  • Smileys
  • GuideML Syntax
  • Propositional Logic
  • Email Addresses in ASCII Code
  • An Introduction to the Unix Command Line
  • Special Character Codes in GuideML



(E?)(L?) https://h2g2.com/edited_entry/A3599346

Ampersands are one of those useful oddities of the English language that one occasionally trips over, especially in older texts. Today it is taken for granted that it is a synonym for the word "and". However, much of the personal life of this fine mark has been lost to the modern reader.

The Shape

The "ampersand" "&" began its life simply enough. It was originally the Latin word "Et", which of course is translated into English as "and". Note carefully the shape of the character "&" and you will see that resembles a cursive version of the word "Et". This is where it all begins. Some lazy or sloppy fellow quickly writes "Et" in his Latin journal or prayerbook and it ends up looking like "&".

Later, in the ampersand's quest for meaning, another fellow gets lazy and instead of calling the "&" by its Latin name - "Et" - he refers to it as "and".

In the meantime, the printing press was invented. Those clever typesetters, always looking for another way to save time decided it was easier to use the two letters of "Et" instead of the three letters of "and". But using even two letters meant that two blocks would have to be set up on the press. One printer then thought it would be an even better idea to create a single character block combining the "E" and the "t", creating "&".

So this is how the "ampersand" gained its shape. The next question is, how exactly did the "ampersand" get its name?

The Name

In America, as in other English-speaking places on the globe, schoolchildren are taught their alphabet by rote. However in 19th-Century America, in addition to the standard 26 letters of the English alphabet, there were also three other characters recited.

The typical recitation would be performed as follows:

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z, "A per se A", "I per se I", "& per se &".

The purpose of these odd repetitions of the letters "A" and "I" was to point out to school children that each of these two letters could stand as separate words, per se. The "& per se &" was a reference to the "ampersand" standing as a single character. From this recitation the words "and per se and" were eventually slurred together "andpersand" - and the "ampersand" got its name.


(E?)(L?) http://hotforwords.com/tag/ampersand/

Tag Archives: Ampersand


(E?)(L?) https://www.ibm.com/Search/?q=ampersand

Ergebnisse für “ampersand”


(E?)(L?) https://www.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/en/SSLTBW_2.1.0/com.ibm.zos.v2r1.ieab600/charseh.htm

...
Ampersands are used in JCL to indicate the beginning of a symbolic parameter (see Using system symbols and JCL symbols). If a parameter contains an ampersand and you do not want the system to interpret the ampersand as a symbolic parameter, code the ampersand as two consecutive ampersands. For example, code:
...


(E?)(L?) https://issuu.com/yafetbisrat/docs/all_information_combined_booklet/18

Ampersand, a history


(E?)(L?) http://www.jargon.net/jargonfile/a/ASCII.html

"&" Common: "ampersand"; "amp"; "amper"; "and", "and sign". Rare: address (from C); reference (from C++); "andpersand"; "bitand"; background (from sh(1)); "pretzel". [INTERCAL called this 'ampersand'; what could be sillier?]


(E?)(L?) http://jargonf.org/wiki/ampersand

"ampersand": nom masculin. [caractère]. Contraction de "and, per se and". Nom anglais du caractère "&" ("et commercial" ou "perluète" en français).


(E?)(L?) http://www.javascriptsource.com/forms/val-num-or-char.html

Validation (Num. or Chars)

JavaScriptSource Staff Sep 9, 2000

Validates an input field to make sure that only a number or character is entered. If you enter a number or a letter everything you can continue on. But, try entering another value like an exclamation point (!), an ampersand (&), or a dollar sign ($) and see what happens. It even highlights the incorrect entry field for you. Nice!


(E?)(L?) http://www.kith.org/logos/words/upper2/EEtc.html

...
There's one Latin abbreviation which has become so common it's turned into an independent character: I refer, of course, to the lovely and talented "ampersand", "&", which began life as a ligature of "et", Latin for "and". (Even in modern typeset ampersands you can still sort of see the "e" on the left, and the "t" made by the crossing lines on the lower right; some fancy ampersands look more explicitly like an "e with a crossbar on the end"). The word "ampersand" derives from "and per se and", a sort of self-referential definition of the character. (Anyone who tries to tell you that the term comes from an early typesetter named "Amper" ("Amper's and") is either pulling your leg or just mistaken.)

There are a host of other Latin abbreviations that were once widely used in English but which have fallen out of favor except in certain areas of academia: viz. ("videlicet", "namely" it acquired the final "z" through the same fascinating process by which "oz." for "ounce" acquired its "z" (both zs were originally ampersand-like ligatures for "et", even though they indicated the Latin suffix "-que")), "q.v." ("quod vide," "see which"), "ibid." ("ibidem", "same [source] as preceding [footnote]"), "op. cit." ("opere citato", "same work"), "pass." ("passim", "scattered [references] throughout"), "et al." ("et alia", "and others"). (Not to be confused with "inter alia", "among other things".)
...


(E?)(L?) https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/ampersand

...
Video: The Ampersand &
...


(E?)(L?) https://www.merriam-webster.com/time-traveler/1795

1795 adzuki bean | ampersand | animus | anisette | anti-British | appraisal | Australian | baronetcy | beach pea | bearing rein | bluebeard | cabbage rose | camisole | centigram | centralize | chasseur | Ching | Chinook | citizenes | scitizenry | consonantal | corrie | deepwater | depot | dry rot | en masse | Estonian | exploitation | gal | gendarmerie | Girondist | groaner | groundfish | half-sole | hawkeyed | incalculable | infundibular | intonate | IOU | irregardless | italicize | kame | koto | laryngeal | lay figure | lemur | liver fluke | mantra | message board | Ming | morgue | mudflat | nonbelligerent | noncooperation | nose out | Orange | otiose | pardner | phosphoresce | placement | pleb | port arms | prime mover | printmaking | pruriency | raffish | richen | roothold | roundsman | self-possessed | senhor | Sextans | Shan | shank's mare | single tax | songsmith | spencer | spontaneous combustion | straightedge | stylist | supersensible | terrorism | three-decker | thrips | triangular number | tricolor | trouvère | try-pot | unconvoyed | undesignated | unisexual | untrammeled | Virginia ham | wholemeal | wove paper | yak


(E?)(L?) http://www.merrycoz.org/voices/bartlett/Amer.xhtml

"AMPERSAND". The character "&", representing the conjunction "and". It is a corruption of "and, per se, and" ("and, by itself, and"). This expression was formerly very common in this country, but seems now to have gone out of use. It may, however, be retained in the interior, where the modern system of education has not reached. Mr. Halliwell, who notices this word in his Archaic and Prov. Dict’y, says, that it is or was common in England. In Hampshire it is pronounced "amperzed", and very often "amperze-and". Strutt, in his Sports and Pastimes, mentions an ancient alphabet of the fourteenth century, now in the Harleian Library, at the end of which is "X Y wyth ESED AND per se—Amen".


(E?)(L?) https://kathrynpowers.myportfolio.com/ampersand-infograph

Ampersand Infographic

Infographic on the history of the ampersand


(E?)(L?) http://www.oedilf.com/db/Lim.php?Word=ampersand

ampersand
...
Abisselfa's a word from our past,
Formed by other words spoken too fast.
Back then scholars would say:
"A, by itself, A."
It's no wonder this word didn't last!

Here's an odd little word. An "abisselfa" was the letter "A" when that letter stood by itself as a syllable within a word such as the "A" in able. When spelling this word, a true scholar would say, "A, by itself, A - b - l - e" and, over time, that first part condensed itself down into "abisselfa" in what was called "cumulative spelling" before disappearing from the scene altogether. Another example of this is the word "ampersand", which came from a condensing of "and, per se, and".
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.odlt.org/

ampersand (&)


(E?)(L?) https://onzetaal.nl/taaladvies/ampersand-gebruik-van-het-teken/

Ampersand: gebruik van het &-teken


(E?)(L?) https://onzetaal.nl/taaladvies/ampersand/

& (ampersand): oorsprong

Is er een naam voor het &-teken?

Het "&-teken" wordt wel "ampersand" genoemd, een term die we geleend hebben uit het Engels. Waarschijnlijk is dit een vervorming van "and per se 'and'" (= "en op zichzelf (het teken) &"). Dit wilde zeggen: 'met het teken '&' op zichzelf wordt het woord and bedoeld'. Ook de termen "et-teken" en "en-teken" komen voor. "Ampersand" wordt in het Nederlands uitgesproken als "am-pur-sant" (de klemtoon verschilt: "AM-pur-sant" en "am-pur-SANT" zijn allebei mogelijk).

De "ampersand" is een combinatie van de letters "e" en "t" van het Latijnse "et" (= "en"). Deze letters werden samen verkort weergegeven als "&". Het teken is een overblijfsel van de vele samengestelde tekens (ligaturen) die in middeleeuwse handschriften en ook bij vijftiende-eeuwse drukkers in gebruik waren. K.F. Treebus vermeldt in zijn Tekstwijzer (Sdu, 1990) dat sommigen de Venetiaan Nicolas Jenson noemen als de drukker die – in 1470 – het teken voor het eerst in een gedrukt boek zou hebben toegepast. Anderen noemen als eerste gebruiker een andere drukker uit Venetië, Aldus Manutius. In ieder geval is het teken al uit handschriften uit de achtste eeuw bekend.


(E?)(L?) http://owad.de/owad-archive-quiz.php4?id=170
(E?)(L?) https://owad.de/owad-archive-quiz.php4?id=1109
(E?)(L?) https://owad.de/owad-archive-quiz.php4?id=3373

ampersand
...
This word or the printed character "&" is a combination of the phrase "and," "per" and "se," and literally "and by itself and". The character "&" itself is a conventionalized printed version of an abbreviation used in manuscripts for Latin "et" - "and".

Besides ampersand, you should also know these common sign names:
  • = equals sign
  • "" quotation marks
  • () brackets
  • ! exclamation mark
  • : colon
  • ; semi-colon
  • - dash
  • _ underscore
  • @ the at sign
  • , comma
  • / stroke (slash US)
  • . full stop (period US)



(E?)(L?) https://www.newyorker.com/books/page-turner/the-ancient-roots-of-punctuation

"Ampersand" ("&")

The first recorded "ampersand" — a rudimentary ligature of the letters "E" and "T" from the Latin word "et", meaning "and" — was scratched onto a Pompeian wall by an anonymous graffiti artist around the first century A.D. (shown above, image one). In time, the "ampersand" became a ubiquitous symbol: by the nineteenth century it was taught to schoolchildren as a twenty-seventh letter of the alphabet. Before that, however, it spent an entire millennium in competition with a rival mark. The "Tironian et" (7), had the twofold advantage of a head start and an impeccable pedigree. Created in the first century B.C. by "Tiro", secretary to Rome’s famous orator Cicero, it was well established as part of Tiro’s extensive shorthand system, the "notae Tironianae", by the time the proto-ampersand arrived a century later. The "Tironian et" continued to thrive in the Gothic-script religious texts of the Middle Ages but eventually fell out of use, along with the rest of Tiro’s system. The "ampersand", meanwhile, evolved, as newly legible Roman and italic scripts made their way from Renaissance Italy, eventually assuming its familiar form (above, right, forty-five through forty-eight). Nowadays, the "ampersand" is everywhere — except in Ireland, where observant motorists may still spot a "Tironian et" adorning the occasional Gaelic traffic sign.


(E?)(L?) http://owad.de/wav/ampersand.wav

PRONUNCIATION : ampersand


(E?)(L?) https://blog.oxforddictionaries.com/2015/03/25/signs-and-symbols-the-names-of-punctuation-marks/

The names of punctuation marks

Chances are that you use them every day – from ‘ to # and ? to . – but where did common punctuation marks get their names?

"Ampersand"

The "ampersand" is the sign "&", used to mean "and". The shape of the symbol originated as a ligature for the Latin "et" ("and") – that is, it represents the merged "e" and "t". The name "ampersand" also represents a merge, although one that is perhaps more accidental.

When reciting the alphabet, letters that were also entire words in and of themselves (such as "a" and "I") could once be read as "a per se a", "i per se I", to make it clear that a word was intended, rather than a single letter. "Per se" is the Latin for "by itself", so the "&" symbol, which was traditionally included at the end of the alphabet, was originally chanted as "and per se and" (that is, "& by itself is and"). Over time, this was altered into the single word "ampersand", and the original phrase was largely forgotten.

...


(E?)(L?) https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/explore/origin-of-ampersand

What is the origin of the "ampersand" ("&")?

The "ampersand" is the "&" symbol that stands in place of "and" – but where did it get its curious shape, and how long have people been using it?
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/grammar/ampersand

ampersand

When is it OK to use an ampersand (&) instead of the word "and"?


(E?)(L?) http://www.schnellsuche.de/webmaster/sonderzeichen_iso_codes.htm

& Kaufmännisches Und (Ampersand) & &


(E?)(L?) http://www.searchenginedictionary.com/s.shtml

stop character:

Characters in URLs (like question marks, equal signs and ampersands) that signal the search engine spiders to stop crawling beyond a certain point.


(E?)(L?) http://www.sex-lexis.com/Sex-Dictionary/ampersand

"ampersand": Children's fun word and euphemism for the bottom (the ass or buttocks), based on the symbol "&" placed after the letter "Z" in older alphabets, hence the bottom letter of the alphabet. See ass for synonyms.


(E?)(L?) http://www.shadycharacters.co.uk/2011/06/the-ampersand-part-1-of-2/

A post from Shady Characters

The Ampersand, part 1 of 2

June 12, 2011 This is the first of three posts in a series on The Ampersand (&). Con­tinue to PART 2 or view ALL POSTS in the series.
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.shadycharacters.co.uk/2011/06/the-ampersand-part-2-of-2/

A post from Shady Characters

The Ampersand, part 2 of 2

June 26, 2011 This is the second of three posts in a series on The Ampersand (&). Start at PART 1, con­tinue to PART 3 or view ALL POSTS in the series.
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.shadycharacters.co.uk/2011/07/the-ampersand-part-2%c2%bd-of-2/

A post from Shady Characters

The Ampersand, part 2½ of 2

July 3, 2011 This is the last of three posts in a series on The Ampersand (&). Start at PART 1 or view ALL POSTS in the series.
...


(E?)(L?) http://vault.simplebits.com/notebook/2008/08/14/ampersands-2/

Use the Best Available Ampersand


(E?)(L?) https://www.sitepoint.com/community/t/design-history-get-to-know-your-ampersands/147798

Design History: Get to Know Your Ampersands

We see the symbol all of the time. Elegant, curved, infinitely malleable. But what’s the origin of the mysterious and ubiquitous "ampersand"? How can you choose which one is the best version to use? Read on to uncover all you wanted to know about this ancient tool of text:

Origin of the ampersand
...


(E?)(L?) https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2008/08/ampersands-with-attitude/

Ampersands With Attitude


(E?)(L?) https://english.stackexchange.com/search?q=ampersand

80 results
  • Q: Is an ampersand formal?
  • Q: Correct use of ampersand
  • Q: Is there any basis or history for calling @ an ampersand?
  • Q: & What is the story behind the Ampersand? [duplicate]
  • Q: Should there be a space before and after an ampersand when writing numerals?
  • Q: Is it ever appropriate to use a space before and after an ampersand?
  • Q: Did the Tironian “et” (“?”) have any impact on the ampersand being shift + 7 on English keyb… [closed]
  • Q: When to use & instead of “and”
  • Q: What Character Was Removed from the Alphabet?
  • Q: Is there a name or expression for the types of words which originate(etymology) from slurred… [duplicate]
  • Q: Is David Mitchell's writing style in “Cloud Atlas” representative of the described time period?
  • Q: Can I use two ampersands in my logo?
  • Q: Why do we use '/' sign as a representation of 'or'?
  • Q: & as a letter in the alphabet?
  • Q: Which indefinite article to use if the noun starts with a non-letter character?
  • Q: & as a letter in the alphabet?
  • Q: Ye olde english alphabet question: Any other letters lost besides thorn, edh, and yogh?
  • A: & What is the story behind the Ampersand?
  • A: Is an ampersand formal?
  • A: When to use & instead of “and”
  • A: Should I put a comma before the last item in a list?
  • A: Is it ever appropriate to use a space before and after an ampersand?
  • A: Where did the “&” character come from, and why is it here?
  • A: Is there any basis or history for calling @ an ampersand?
  • A: Is it ever appropriate to use a space before and after an ampersand?
  • A: What non-alphabetic characters are valid in English spelling?
  • A: How do you write “and” in short form?
  • A: Is an ampersand formal?
  • A: Why are i.e. and e.g. abbreviated with periods between each word and etc. not?
  • A: Can I use two ampersands in my logo?
  • A: Meaning of the valediction “Yours, &c.”
  • A: How to format “and” or “&” in a three-line header or title
  • A: Can you use two “and”s in a sentence?
  • A: What does “emdash” mean here?
  • A: How to punctuate “A and B and C” properly if “B and C” form a set
  • A: Correct use of ampersand
  • A: When to use & instead of “and”
  • A: & What is the story behind the Ampersand?
  • A: What is the difference between “&” and “and” in writing?
  • A: & as a letter in the alphabet?
  • A: Did the Tironian “et” (“?”) have any impact on the ampersand being shift + 7 on English keyb…
  • A: Is there an alternative, one-word name for the question mark?
  • A: Which indefinite article to use if the noun starts with a non-letter character?
  • A: Is it ever appropriate to use a space before and after an ampersand?
  • A: Can you use two “and”s in a sentence?
  • Q: Is there a distinct term for acronyms with multi-letter parts?
  • A: Is David Mitchell's writing style in “Cloud Atlas” representative of the described time period?
  • A: Use of the “&” symbol
  • A: What Character Was Removed from the Alphabet?
  • A: What do you call the phenomenon where a rectangle ? is shown because a font lacks a glyph?
  • A: semicolons in the heading?
  • Q: How to properly write “Research and Development” [duplicate]
  • A: Is an ampersand formal?
  • A: What does this mean: "Avoid oral calcium, dairy products, shark cartilage & exercise during …
  • A: How did 7 come to be an abbreviation for 'and' in Old English?
  • A: Is it ever appropriate to use a space before and after an ampersand?
  • A: How to properly write “Research and Development”
  • A: Meaning of 'amp' in an emotional-distress context
  • A: What does this mean: "Avoid oral calcium, dairy products, shark cartilage & exercise during …
  • A: Is there a formal spelling for the English letter names?
  • A: Is it okay to use “Love & Regards” formally?
  • Q: The use of “&” or “and” in a complicated list
  • Q: How to format “and” or “&” in a three-line header or title [closed]
  • Q: Where did the “&” character come from, and why is it here? [closed]
  • Q: Does english have complex text layouts?
  • A: How to format “and” or “&” in a three-line header or title
  • A: When to use & instead of “and”
  • A: Why do we use '/' sign as a representation of 'or'?
  • A: Repetition of “and” in a list
  • A: How did 7 come to be an abbreviation for 'and' in Old English?
  • A: Does english have complex text layouts?
  • A: When to use & instead of “and”
  • A: Why use “that” instead of “the”?
  • A: Is this correct for an email campaign subject?
  • A: How to properly write multiple abbreviations
  • A: Is the contraction of “and”, “'n'”, capitalized in a title?
  • A: Alternative to “let me know”
  • A: Ye olde english alphabet question: Any other letters lost besides thorn, edh, and yogh?
  • A: When do I use the possessive with “Tiffany & Co”?
  • A: Hats on to Hatarchy
  • A: What Is the Real Name of the #?



(E?)(L?) http://www.symbols.com/symbol/ampersand

An "ampersand" (or "epershand"; "&") is a logogram representing the conjunction word "and". This symbol is a ligature of the letters "et", Latin for "and".


(E?)(L?) http://www.takeourword.com/Issue010.html

...
As with many recitations, this one came to lose some meaning for those reciting it, so that they came to think of the "& sign" as and "per se and" and then "ampersand" (with the "n" changing to an "m" before a "p"). Today’s spelling of the word dates from 1837.

Interestingly, "&" was invented in 63 BC by Marcus Tirus as shorthand for Latin "et" (which means "and"). You might still come across the words "et cetera" abbreviated as "&c."
...


(E?)(L?) https://www.theguardian.com/education/2014/feb/15/from-a-to-ampersand

...
"ampersand"

Until as recently as the early 1900s, "&" was considered a letter of the alphabet and listed after Z in 27th position. To avoid confusion with the word "and", anyone reciting the alphabet would add "per se" ("by itself") to its name, so that the alphabet ended "X, Y, Z and per se &". This final "and per se and" eventually ran together, and the "ampersand" was born.
...


(E?)(L?) https://www.theguardian.com/books/2013/oct/03/shady-characters-ampersands-keith-houston-review

Shady Characters: Ampersands, Interrobangs and other Typographical Curiosities by Keith Houston – review
...
Keith Houston discusses 10 major typographical marks or groups of symbols: the "pilcrow" ("¶"), the "interrobang" (""?"2), the "octothorpe" ("#") the "ampersand" ("&"), the "@" symbol, the "asterisk" and the "dagger" ("*" and "†"), the "hyphen" ("-"), the "dash" ("—"), the "manicule" (""?"", ""?"", and ""?"" or ""?""), and "quotation marks" of various kinds (" ", ' ', and ? ?).
...


(E?)(L?) http://ampersandampersand.tumblr.com/
(E?)(L?) http://ampersandampersand.tumblr.com/page/53

300&65 Ampersands: 2010-12-31 - 2010-01-01


(E?)(L?) http://nancyfriedman.typepad.com/away_with_words/ampersand/

  • Ampersand
  • Ampersandinistas
  • Ampersand Garden wall
  • Ampersandwich
  • Ampersandstorm



(E?)(L?) http://nancyfriedman.typepad.com/away_with_words/2007/02/index.html

...
February 21, 2007

And Another Thing

I'm reading When You Catch an Adjective, Kill It: The Parts of Speech, for Better and/or Worse, the new book by language maven Ben Yagoda. (Yagoda is a frequent contributor to Slate.com; his most recent column is a very entertaining consideration of the Internet-popularized interjections "awwa", "meh", "feh", and "heh".) In a post here last week, I'd mused about "and" and the symbols that represent it, so I was tickled to see Yagoda's own witty take on the subject:

Something about and - probably its utter indispensability - has made it prone to being represented by other means than just the standard three letters. The plus sign is a favorite of instant messagers, note takers, hip-hop songwriters, conglomerates (Gulf + Western), and people demonstrating eternal love by carving their initials into trees.

A little more elegant is the "ampersand" ("&"), which dates from the first century and is a ligature, or combination, of the letters "e" and "t" (and in Latin) into a single symbol. It was included in systems of typography starting in the fifteenth century, and ever since has been the character into which a type designer can inject the most artistic flair.

The word "ampersand" didn't come into being until the nineteenth century. At that time "&" was customarily taught as the twenty-seventh letter of the alphabet and pronounced "and". When schoolchildren recited their ABCs, they concluded with the words "and, per se and" [i.e., by itself]. This eventually became corrupted to "ampersand". The symbol is a favorite of law and architecture firms, and is invaluable in parsing screenplay credits. For example, the script for the 1989 ampersand-titled film Turner & Hooch is credited to "Dennis Shyrack & Michael Blodgett and Daniel Petrie Jr. and Jim Cash & Jack Epps Jr." This is not the result of haphazard typography. Rather, following Writers Guild of America guidelines, it indicates that Messrs. Shyrack and Blodgett and Messrs. Cash and Epps worked as teams, and that they and Mr. Petrie each contributed separate drafts of the screenplay. A good rule of thumb is that the more ampersands in the credits, the crummier the movie.
...


(E?)(L?) https://www.typography.com/blog/our-middle-name

...
Though it feels like a modern appendix to our ancient alphabet, the ampersand is considerably older than many of the letters that we use today.

By the time the letter "W" entered the Latin alphabet in the seventh century, "ampersands" had enjoyed six hundred years of continuous use; one appears in Pompeiian graffiti, establishing the symbol at least as far back as A.D. 79. One tidy historical account credits Marcus Tullius Tiro, Cicero’s secretary, with the invention of the "ampersand", and while this is likely a simplified retelling, it’s certainly true that Tiro was a tireless user of scribal abbreviations. One surviving construction of the ampersand bears his name, and keen typophiles can occasionally find the “Tironian and” out in the world today.
...


(E6)(L?) http://www.unicode.org/charts/charindex.html

  • AMPERSAND - 0026
  • Ampersand and Ligature-et Ornaments - 1F670
  • AMPERSAND, TURNED - 214B
  • Ligature-et Ornaments, Ampersand and - 1F670
  • TURNED AMPERSAND - 214B



(E?)(L1) https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=ampersand
Achtung: hier findet man auch die Fake-News, wonach engl. "ampersand" im Jahr 1634 zu einem deutschen Drucker "Manfred Johann Amper" als "Amper's and" gebildet worden sein soll.


ampersand


(E?)(L?) https://rpo.library.utoronto.ca/poems/ampersand

Ampersand

Reibetanz, John (1944 - )

Original Text:  Midland Swimmer (London, Ontario: Brick Books, 1996): 31.


(E?)(L?) https://www.visualthesaurus.com/cm/candlepwr/amped-on-ampersands/

Amped on Ampersands

April 7, 2011

By Julia Rubiner

Is there any logogram as elegant as the ampersand?

It's no wonder we're still using this ancient ligature millennia after it first appeared. Thanks to texting and tweeting, it's more popular than ever. After all, why expend three precious characters on "and" when the "ampersand" can do the job in one?

In these informal communiqués, the "ampersand" is indeed most welcome. But it's not an all-purpose substitute for "and". In more formal modes, its use is proscribed to only a few circumstances.
...


(E?)(L?) https://www.visualthesaurus.com/cm/dogeared/throwing-light-on-shady-characters/

Dog Eared - Books we love

Throwing Light on Shady Characters

September 16, 2013

By Mark Peters

Some punctuation marks hog the spotlight, like the versatile, omnipresent comma and the flirty, oft-abused semicolon. Question marks and exclamation marks — the good cop, bad cop of punctuation — are forever in your face. The period subtly but emphatically makes its presence known, while parentheses are off gossiping and tittering like teenage girls. These are the usual suspects most people think of when it comes to punctuation.

But the range of non-word squiggles is larger than you would think, and Keith Houston's new book Shady Characters: The Secret Life of Punctuation, Symbols & Other Typographical Marks plumbs the history of these background players in the theater of language. Houston discusses familiar punctuation marks (the asterisk, the hyphen, the dash, the "ampersand") and bizarre oddities (the interrobang, the SarcMark) alike, showing how even the most literally marginal marks have a story to tell. As Houston puts it, "Every character we write or type is a link to the past, and every shady character doubly so."
...


(E?)(L?) https://www.webdesignerdepot.com/2010/01/the-history-of-the-ampersand-and-showcase/

The History of the Ampersand and Showcase

By WebdesignerDepot Staff · Posted Jan. 13, 2010 · Reading time: 3 minutes
...
A Brief History of the Ampersand

The ampersand can be traced back to the first century AD. It was originally a ligature of the letters "E" and "T" ("et" is Latin for "and"). If you look at the modern "ampersand", you’ll likely still be able to see the "E" and "T" separately.

The first ampersands looked very much like the separate "E" and "T" combined, but as type developed over the next few centuries, it eventually became more stylized and less representative of its origins.

You can see the evolution of the ampersand below (1 is like the original Roman ligature, 2 and 3 are from the fourth century, and 4-6 are from the ninth century).

The modern ampersand has remained largely unchanged from the Carolignian ampersands developed in the ninth century.
...


(E?)(L?) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ampersand

"Ampersand"
...
Contents
  • 1 Etymology
  • 2 History
  • 3 Writing the ampersand
  • 4 Usage
  • 5 Computing
  • 5.1 Encoding and display
  • 5.2 Programming languages
  • 5.3 Text markup
  • 5.4 Unix shells
  • 5.5 Web standards
  • 6 See also
  • 7 References
  • 8 External links
...
Through popular etymology, it has been falsely claimed that André-Marie Ampère used the symbol in his widely read publications and that people began calling the new shape "Ampère's and".
...


(E?)(L?) http://mathworld.wolfram.com/AmpersandCurve.html

Ampersand Curve

The "ampersand curve" is the name given by Cundy and Rowlett (1989, p. 72) to the quartic curve with implicit equation:

(y^2-x^2)(x-1)(2x-3)=4(x^2+y^2-2x)^2
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.wordcentral.com/cgi-bin/student?book=Student&va=ampersand

...
Etymology: from older "and per se and", spoken form of the phrase "& per se and", which followed Z in early lists of letters of the alphabet and meant "(the character) & by itself (stands for) and": "a character & standing for the word and".


(E?)(L?) http://www.word-detective.com/052003.html#ampersand

...
It comes from the practice once common in schools of reciting all 26 letters of the alphabet plus the "&" sign, pronounced "and", which was considered part of the alphabet, at least for learning purposes.

Any letter that could also be used as a word in itself ("A", "I", "&" and, at one point, "O") was preceded in the recitation by the Latin phrase "per se" ("by itself") to draw the students' attention to that fact. Thus the end of this daily ritual would go: "X, Y, Z and per se and." This last phrase was routinely slurred to "ampersand" by children rightly bored to tears, and the term crept into common English usage by around 1837.

The ampersand symbol itself, the "&", while devilishly hard to draw by hand, becomes much less mysterious when revealed as a stylized rendition of the Latin word "et", meaning, of course, "and". Finally, it's interesting to note that proofreaders reading copy aloud to one another (as I can attest based on a spell spent as a proofreader) pronounce the ampersand symbol "et" to distinguish it from the actual word "and".
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.wordsmith.org/words/ampersand.html

Ampersand


(E?)(L?) http://www.wordsmith.org/awad/archives/0399

Ampersand


(E?)(L?) http://www.worldwidewords.org/weirdwords/ww-amp1.htm

Ampersand
...
Ampersand is a contraction of "and per se, and". This sounds extremely peculiar, but it’s a continuation of a medieval convention in which Latin "per se", "by or in itself", was often added to those letters that could stand alone as words: "A", "I" and "O" (as in “O for the wings of a dove”). "A per se, a" meant “a by itself makes the word a”. Since it stood first in the recital of the alphabet, in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries it came to mean a pre-eminent person or thing:

In the one, that is for lands and possessions, you have companions many; but in the other, my good lord, you are A per se A with us, to our comfort and joy unspeakable.

In a letter to Lord Russell from John Bradford, 1554.

It was common enough that at this period it was contracted to "apersey", meaning "the first, unique, or most distinguished person or thing".

It was usual in the eighteenth century to have children end their recital of the letters of the alphabet with "&", because it was so common. It was read out as "and per se, and", which meant that the symbol "&", whose name was "and", stood by itself and actually meant “and”.

As it came at the end, people sometimes said "from A to ampersand" to express the whole extent of something, as today we would say from "A to Z":

At length, having tried all the historians from great A, to ampersand, he perceives there is no escaping from the puzzle, but by selecting his own facts, forming his own conclusions, and putting a little trust in his own reason and judgment.

Gleanings through Wales, Holland and Westphalia, by “Mr. Pratt”, 1795. This, by the way, is also the earliest known use of ampersand. (Thanks to Fred Shapiro for finding this.)

In time, the character became known by this phrase, which became slurred through rote recital and oral transmission into all sorts of dialectal and variant forms, including "anparse", "empus-and", "emperzan" and "amperzed". It was only in the 1830s that one form, "ampersand", became dominant and conventional. By then, the old rote way of learning the alphabet seems to have been on the way out:

The expression "and per se, and", to signify the contraction "&", substituted for that conjunction, is not yet forgotten in the nursery.

A Glossary, or Collection, of Words, by Robert Nares, 1822.


(E?)(L?) http://www.worldwidewords.org/

"ASPERAND": Rick McLaughlin told me about this word. When many years ago I wrote (http://wwwords.org/?ATAT) about the varied names used worldwide for the symbol that in English is formally "commercial at" ("@") this one didn't feature. There are many references to it online, the earliest being a posting on misc.writing on 31 December 1996 in which Jerry Kindall notes that he recently heard the word. A rare sighting in print is in Grammar with a Global Perspective by F Melrose Davis, in which the alternative "ampersat" is also given. That's slightly older: Tim Gowens was recorded as suggesting it in February 1996 in the British newspaper, "the Independent", as a blend of "ampersand" and "at". "Asperand" might also be a type of blend, from "asterisk" and "ampersand", but that's a guess. Neither word, despite appearing in at least one dictionary of computing, shows any signs of becoming popular. They are mentioned, but are not used unselfconsciously as the name for the symbol, though Mr McLaughlin says he uses "asperand".


(E?)(L?) http://www.www-kurs.de/gloss_a.htm#Ampersand

"Ampersand": Name des Sonderzeichens "&", das unter HTML eine besondere Bedeutung hat. Siehe auch "Entity".


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/ampersand

ampersand


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/ampersand-codes

ampersand codes - Computer Definition

A set of HTML "escape codes" used to render special characters and foreign letters. Ampersand codes are preceded with an ampersand, followed by a mnemonic name or their ASCII number and ended with a semicolon. They are also used to enable HTML and XML tags to display intact for instructional purposes, rather than be executed by the rendering engine.

The example below uses the HTML codes for the "less-than" ("<") and "greater-than" (">") characters, which open and close an HTML or XML tag. The first example shows the word "Hello" coded as a boldfaced word, and the Web browser would display it bold without the tags. In the second example, used for teaching HTML, the tags and word would be displayed. See escape code.

Following are widely used "HTML ampersand codes". Ampersand codes can always be written as an ASCII number (see ASCII chart); however, many commonly used symbols have mnemonic equivalents such as the "lt" and "gt". Note that numeric codes include a "number sign" ("#") before the number.


(E?)(L?) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GM-ZjCmoLPw

Ampersand


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=ampersand
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "ampersand" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1830 auf.

(E?)(L?) http://corpora.informatik.uni-leipzig.de/


(E?)(L?) http://www.wordmap.co/#ampersand

This experiment brings together the power of Google Translate and the collective knowledge of Wikipedia to put into context the relationship between language and geographical space.


Erstellt: 2017-11

apostrophe, Apostroph (W3)

Engl. "apostrophe", dt. "Apostroph" (auch: = "feierliche Anrede") geht über frz. "apostrophe" zurück auf lat. "apostrophus", und griech. "apóstrophos" = "of turning away", "elision", griech. "apostréphein" = "abwenden", griech. "stréphein" = "drehen", "wenden".

Im rhetorischen Sinn ist damit die "Abwendung" vom bisherigen Thema und die Hinwendung des Redners zu einem anderen Thema, zum Publikum oder zu einer bestimmten, auch abwesenden, Person.

In der Linguistik steht "Apostroph" für ein "abgewendetes", "weggelassenes" Zeichen.

(E?)(L?) http://www.apostrophitis.de/
APOSTROPHENKATASTROPHEN

(E?)(L?) http://www.apostrophe.fsnet.co.uk/


(E?)(L?) http://www.dreaded-apostrophe.com/


(E?)(L?) http://www.eng-lang.co.uk/apostrophes.htm
Problems with apostrophes

(E?)(L?) http://www.languagehat.com/archives/2003_08.php



...
But wait: what does the OED say in small type, there at the end of definition 2 ("The sign (') used to indicate the omission of a letter or letters... and as a sign of the modern English genitive or possessive case")? It says... it says...

In the latter case, it originally marked merely the omission of "e" in writing, as in "fox's, James's", and was equally common in the nominative plural", esp. of proper names and foreign words (as "folio's = folioes"); it was gradually disused in the latter, and extended to all possessives, even where "e" had not been previously written, as in "man's, children's, conscience' sake". [Emphasis added.]

Why, that means that the apostrophe was originally, and thus properly, used in the plural; those greengrocers are right, and the "Apostrophe Protection Society" is wrong! Surely the Williams (Buckley and Safire) and the other preservers will lay off the ancient plural apostrophe and begin working on excising that excrescent final syllable.
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.queens-english-society.com/goodeng2.html
Apostrophe "S"

B

B, b (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html

B : is the second letter of the English alphabet. (See Guide to Pronunciation, // 196, 220.) It is etymologically related to "p", "v", "f", "w" and "m", letters representing sounds having a close organic affinity to its own sound; as in Eng. "bursar" and "purser"; Eng. "bear" and Lat. "ferre"; Eng. "silver" and Ger. "silber"; Lat. "cubitum" and It. "gomito"; Eng. "seven", Anglo-Saxon "seofon", Ger. "sieben", Lat. "septem", Gr. "epta", Sanskrit "saptan".
The form of letter "B" is Roman, from Greek "B" ("Beta"), of Semitic origin. The small "b" was formed by gradual change from the capital "B".


bbc
Discovering sign language dialects

(E2)(L1) http://www.bbc.co.uk/bristol/content/articles/2005/02/03/_feature.shtml

Did you know British Sign Language has regional dialects? The University of Bristol's Centre for Deaf Studies is collecting data from all over the UK for the BBC's Voices project.


C

C, c (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html




Cemetry Iconography - Friedhofszeichen

(E?)(L?) http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~txcemeteries/symbol.htm
meanings of letters and symbols commonly found on gravestones in cemetries;

What do the symbols and letters mean?

- Ein paar Beispiele:



D

D, d (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html




dictionary.com
Why are zero and the letter "O" both circles?

(E?)(L?) http://blog.dictionary.com/o-zero/

Long, long ago, typewriters made no distinction between the number "0" and the letter "O". While the two share the same shape, the origin of both number and letter are quite different. Let’s look at the distinct astrological and optical inspirations that created these seemingly identical symbols.

Derived from the Semitic letter "Ayin" and inspired by the circular eye-shaped Egyptian hieroglyph for "eye", the letter "O" is the fourth most popular letter in the English alphabet. The sound is probably a derivation of the Arabic letter called "Ayn".
...
In mathematics, the number "0", or simply "zero", most likely derived its shape from the sun and the moon. Many have ascribed divine qualities to circles. The study of the circle eventually led to the development of astronomy, geometry and calculus.
...
It wasn’t until the 12th century via the Arabic numeric system and the work of the Persian scientist al-Khwarizmi that the number "zero" was introduced to the Western world through Latin translations of the al-Khwarizmi’s book titled, appropriately, Arithmetic.


Erstellt: 2014-03

digital

Das Wort "digital" kommt aus dem englischen "digit"- Ziffer und leitet sich von dem lat. "digitus" = "Finger", "Zehe" ab. Gemeint war damit alles, was man "an den Fingern abzählen kann".

Seit 1398 ist "digit" im Englischen nachweisbar. Verwandt ist es mit lat. "dicere" = "tell", "say", "point out".
Seine numerische Bedeutung erhielt es durch das Abzählen an den Fingern.
Das von "digit" abgeleitete "digital" tritt seit 1656 auf. Seit 1945 tritt es im Umfeld der Computertechnologie auf. Im Zusammenhang mit Fernsehen kam es 1960 auf.

Digital-Words: Applicative Language for Digital Signal Processing | Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line | Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Loop | Cellular Digital Packet Data | Dataphone Digital Service | digital | Digital | digital audio | Digital Audio Tape | digital camera | digital carrier | digital dashboard | Digital Data Service | Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications | digital envelope | Digital Equipment Computer Users Society | Digital Equipment Corporation | Digital Equipment Corporation Network | Digital European Cordless Telecommunications | Digital Express Group, Inc. | Digital Lempel Ziv 1 | Digital Library Initiative | Digital Linear Tape | Digital Multimeter | Digital Research | digital service unit | Digital Signal Processing | Digital Signal Processing Language | digital signature | Digital Signature Standard | digital signatures | Digital Simulation Language | Digital Simultaneous Voice and Data | DIGITAL Standard MUMPS | Digital Subscriber Line | Digital Subscriber Line Access Module | Digital Subscriber Loop | Digital Switched Network | Digital to Analog Converter | Digital Versatile Disc | Digital Video Disc | High bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line | Integrated Services Digital Network | Musical Instrument Digital Interface | Personal Digital Assistant | Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy | Random Access Memory Digital-to-Analog Converter | Simulating Digital Systems | Single-line Digital Subscriber Line | Single-pair High Speed Digital Subscriber Line | Synchronous Digital Hierarchy | University of Michigan Digital Library Project | Very high bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line | Western Digital Corporation

(E?)(L?) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=diction


(E?)(L?) http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/dod_dictionary/index.html
tactical digital information link

(E?)(L?) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=digit


(E?)(L?) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=digit


(E?)(L?) http://www-306.ibm.com/software/globalization/terminology/index.jsp
6309 Digital Trunk Quad Adapter | 6310 Digital Trunk Extended Adapter | Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) | cellular digital packet data (CDPD) | Dataphone digital service (DDS) | digital | digital audio | digital certificate | Digital Certificate Manager ( DCM DCM) | Digital Cordless Telephone (DCT) | digital data service adapter (DDSA) | digital envelope | Digital European Cordless Telecommunications (DECT) | digital signal processing (DSP) | digital signature | digital speech synthesizer | Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) | Digital Subscriber signaling System Number 1 (DDS1) | Digital Trunk Extended Adapter ( DTXA 6310 Digital Trunk Extended Adapter, IBM ARTIC960RxD Quad Digital Trunk PCI Adapter) | Digital Trunk Quad Adapter ( DTQA 6309 Digital Trunk Quad Adapter) | digital versatile disc (DVD) | digital video | digital video disc (DVD) | IBM ARTIC960RxD Quad Digital Trunk PCI Adapter | integrated digital enhanced network (iDEN) | Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) | Integrated Services Digital Network call transfer | Integrated Services Digital Network two B-channel transfer (ISDN two B-channel transfer) | Integrated Services Digital Network user part (ISUP, ISDN-UP) | Multiple Digital Trunk Processor | Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) | personal digital assistant (PDA) | personal digital cellular (PDC) | Single Digital Trunk Processor | symmetric digital subscriber line (SDSL)

(E?)(L?) http://dictionary.reference.com/
digital | digital computer | digitalize | digital photography | digital recording | digital satellite system | personal digital assistant

(E?)(L?) http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=digit


(E?)(L?) http://www.reference.com/Dir/Arts/Digital


(E?)(L?) http://whatis.techtarget.com/definitionsAlpha/0,289930,sid9_alpA,00.html
analog-to-digital conversion | Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line | Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network | Cellular Digital Packet Data | digital | Digital advanced mobile phone service | digital audio broadcasting | Digital Audio Tape | digital audio workstation | digital camera | digital cash | digital certificate | Digital Dashboard | Digital Data Storage | Digital Discovery | digital divide | Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications | Digital Equipment Corporation | Digital Evidence | Digital Evidence Discovery | digital film | digital hearing aid | Digital Home Video System | Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine | digital library | digital loop carrier | Digital Millennium Copyright Act | digital multimedia broadcasting | Digital Negative | digital object identifier | digital pen | digital photo album | Digital Powerline | digital print management | digital printer | digital printing | digital projection display system | digital projector | digital pulse wireless | digital radio | digital rights management | digital satellite news gathering | digital signage | digital signal processing | digital signal X | digital signature | digital signature legislation | Digital Signature Standard | Digital Silhouettes | Digital Subscriber Line | Digital Suscriber Line Access Multiplexer | digital switch | digital television | digital terrestrial television | digital versatile disk | digital video | Digital Video Broadcasting | digital video disk | Digital Video Express | Digital Video Interface | digital watermark | Digital-Advanced Mobile Phone Service | digital-to-analog conversion | Digital-VHS | Dolby Digital | DS (digital signal) levels | Electronic Worldwide Switch Digital | High Definition Compatible Digital | High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection | Integrated Digital Enhanced Network | Integrated Services Digital Network | personal digital assistant | random access memory digital-to-analog converter | Satellite Digital Audio Radio Service | Secure Digital card | Serial Digital Interface | Synchronous Digital Hierarchy | Wideband Integrated Digital Enhanced Network

(E3)(L1) http://www.webopedia.com/
analog-to-digital converter | digital | digital access and cross-connect system (DACS) | digital artifact | Digital Audio Formats | digital audio | digital camera | Digital Cameras | digital cash | digital certificate | Digital City | digital divide | digital envelope | digital home | digital ink | Digital Living Network Alliance | digital loop carrier | digital mapping | Digital Media Boost | digital monitor | Digital Photography | Digital Rights Management | digital satellite system | digital signature | Digital Television | digital video surveillance system | digital video | digital wallet | digital watermark | digital zoom | digital-to-analog converter | Digital8 |

(E2)(L1) http://www.wordspy.com/archives/B.asp
born-digital | digital dieting | digital pathogen | tradigital

(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/digit


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/digital


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/digital-audio-tape


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/digital-camera


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/digital-computer


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/digital-control-systems


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/digital-millennium-copyright-act-of-1998


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/digital-money


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/digital-pearl-harbor


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/digital-piracy


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/digital-signature


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/digital-signature-algorithm


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/digital-subscriber-lines


(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/digitalize


E

E, e (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html




F

F, f (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html




fingers crossed

= to hope for good luck
This expression may have originally come from the superstition that keeping your fingers crossed kept away evil and bad luck. Some children believe that if you cross your fingers when you lie it does not 'count'.

Font (W3)

von frz. "fonte", von "fondre" = "schmelzen", "tauen", engl. "foundry" = "Gießerei", frz. "fondre" = "schmelzen", "fondu" = "geschmolzen".
Der "Font", engl. "font", frz. "fonte" bestand ursprünglich aus einem Satz gleichartig "gegossener" Drucktypen und geht zurück auf lat. "fundere" = "gießen".

G

g - w - Wechsel (W3)

Beispiele für den "g - w - Wechsel" sind:
frz. engl. dt.
---------- --------- -------------------
guerre war Krieg
garant warrant Garant
gard ward dt.
gardien warden Wächter
garderobe wardrobe Garderobe, Kleiderschrank
guise wise Art, Weise


Erstellt: 2014-08

G, g (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html




grammarbook
Quotation Marks and Punctuation

Obwohl die englischsprechenden Mitmenschen irgendwann einmal die ursprünglich logische Setzung der Hochkommas geändert haben, halte ich es auf den Seiten des Etymologie-Portals mit der alten Regel. Ich setze - auch im Englischen - nur die betreffenden Wörter in "Hochkommas", andere Satzzeichen bleiben außerhalb der "Hochkommas". - "Es sei denn ein ganzer Satz mit abschließendem Punkt steht in Hochkommas."

(E?)(L?) http://www.grammarbook.com/punctuation/quotes.asp

...
In Grandma’s day, a period used with quotation marks followed logic: Example: Myrtle said the word “darn”. The period went outside the quote because only the last word was in quotation marks, not the entire sentence. Example: Myrtle said, “I would never say that.” The period went inside the quotation mark because the entire sentence is a quote.

Today, in American English usage, the period always goes inside the quotation mark.

Example: Myrtle said the word “darn.”

This does not follow logic, but it makes life easier for those of us who have enough to think about besides punctuation.
...


Grocers' Apostrophe
Greengrocers' Apostrophe (W3)

Der engl. "Grocers' Apostrophe" oder spezieller der engl. "Greengrocers' Apostrophe" erhielt seinen Namen, weil viele Geschäfte und wohl besonders Obst- u. Gemüsehändler ihre Waren anscheinend mit einem überflüssigen oder falschen Apostroph versehen wie etwa "pear's" oder "banana's".

(E?)(L?) http://www.apostrophe.fsnet.co.uk/
pictures of some egregious British examples of the greengrocer's apostrophe

(E?)(L?) http://guardian.co.uk/uk_news/story/0,3604,1256380,00.html
Where to Stick the Grocer's Apostrophe.

(E?)(L?) http://www.translationdirectory.com/article270.htm
The Greengrocer's Apostrophe
Language article reprinted with permission of www.english-to-french-translation.com
By J. McCorquodale

(E2)(L1) http://www.wordspy.com/words/greengrocersapostrophe.asp

greengrocers' apostrophe (green.groh.surz uh.PAWS.truh.fee) n. An apostrophe erroneously inserted before the final "s" in the plural form of a word. Also: greengrocer's apostrophe.


(E1)(L1) http://www.worldwidewords.org/articles/apostrophe.htm
Possessive Apostrophes: The greengrocer's speciality

H

H, h (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html




Hosenbandorden, Honi soit qui mal y pense (W3)

(E?)(L?) http://www.christian-kirsch.de/royalty/questions.html
Der "Hosenbandorden" ("The Order of the Garter") ist der höchste und älteste englische Orden und wurde 1348 von Edward III. (1312-1377) gegründet. Dem Orden gehören neben dem Monarchen 24 Ritter an.

Der Ursprung des Ordenabzeichens, ein "blaues Strumpfband", ist unklar. Das Abzeichen soll angeregt sein durch einen Vorfall, der sich ereignete, als der König mit der Countess of Salisbury tanzte. Das Strumpfband der Countess fiel dabei zu Boden. Der König hob es auf und band es sich ans eigene Bein. Die Verwunderung seiner Gäste kommentierte der Monarch mit den Worten "Honi soit qui mal y pense" (Schlecht, der schlecht darüber denkt). Diese Worte wurden zum Motto des Ordens.

(E1)(L1) http://www.etymonline.com/
honi soit qui mal y pense

(E?)(L?) http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/WarrenAllen/words.htm
honi soit qui mal y pense

(E?)(L?) http://www.geo.de/GEO/interaktiv/frage-des-tages/54999.html?NLC=FdT
Der britische "Hochedle Orden vom Hosenbande" trägt die französische Devise "Honi soit qui mal y pense".
Im Deutschen wird er gerne mit "Ein Schelm, wer Böses dabei denkt" wiedergegeben.
...
Der Hosenbandorden, ein schmales blaues Samtband mit der goldenen Ordensdevise, wird von Herren übrigens unter dem linken Knie, von Damen am linken Oberarm getragen.


Hosenbandorden

(E?)(L?) http://www.heraldicsculptor.com/Garters.html
Eine schöne, illustrierte Seite: The Most Noble Order of the Garter

I

I, i (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html




i-mutation (W3)

Die engl. "i-mutation", dt. "i-Umlaut" entstand aus Umformungen von i-Suffixen.

(E?)(L?) http://www.etymonline.com/imutate.php
Am deutlichsten kann man die "I-Mutation" meines Erachtens in folgenden Beispielen der Pluralbildung erkennen: (So wurde also aus "toothis" oder "toothiz" die heutigen "teeth".)


...
Noun plurals in "-iz": "man" - "men", "foot" - "feet", "tooth" - "teeth", "goose" - "geese", "louse" - "lice", "mouse" - "mice". Along with "woman" - "women" (derived from "wif-man") these are the only survivors of this class, which was numerous in Old English and included such words as the ancestors of modern book, goat, and friend, which now have gone over to the "-s"-plural.
...


J

J, j (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html

J : J is the tenth letter of the English alphabet. It is a later variant form of the Roman letter "I", used to express a consonantal sound, that is, originally, the sound of English "y" in "yet". The forms "J" and "I" have, until a recent time, been classed together, and they have been used interchangeably.


jcf - Joseph Campbell Foundation Associates

(E?)(L?) http://www.jcf.org/
are individuals inspired by the works of Joseph Campbell, and interested in exploring mythic themes in everyday life. (Anmeldung erforderlich)

K

K, k (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html

K : the eleventh letter of the English alphabet, is nonvocal consonant. The form and sound of the letter "K" are from the Latin, which used the letter but little except in the early period of the language. It came into the Latin from the Greek, which received it from a Phoenician source, the ultimate origin probably being Egyptian.
Etymologically "K" is most nearly related to "c", "g", "h" (which see).


L

L, l (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html




Lautverschiebung DE - UK



Ligature (W3)

Engl. "Ligature" geht zurück auf lat. "ligatura" = dt. "Verbindung". Die engl. "Ligature" kam um 1400 aus dem Altfranzösischen nach England und bezeichnete ursprünglich allgemein "etwas das zum Verbinden, Abbinden benutzt wurde".

(E?)(L?) http://www.artlex.com/ArtLex/Li.html#anchor142814


(E?)(L?) http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/ligatures.html


(E?)(L?) http://www.christianlehmann.eu/


(E?)(L?) http://193.175.207.75:8080/lido/Lido


(E?)(L?) http://www.decodeunicode.org/en/glossary


(E?)(L?) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=ligature


(E?)(L1) http://www.fileformat.info/info/unicode/char/a.htm


(E?)(L1) http://www.fileformat.info/info/unicode/char/b.htm


(E?)(L1) http://www.fileformat.info/info/unicode/char/i.htm


(E?)(L1) http://www.fileformat.info/info/unicode/char/l.htm


(E?)(L1) http://www.fileformat.info/info/unicode/char/s.htm


(E?)(L1) http://www.fileformat.info/info/unicode/char/t.htm


(E?)(L?) http://www.kith.org/logos/words/indexes/index.html


(E?)(L?) http://www.kith.org/logos/words/upper2/EEtc.html
ligatures: EEtc

(E?)(L?) http://www.liaretta.co.cc/gene_moutoux/pageL.htm
ligature (ligo)
"ligo", "ligare", "ligavi". "ligatus" - to "bind"

(E?)(L?) http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=4161


(E?)(L?) http://www.odlt.org/


(E1)(L1) http://www.onelook.com/?w=ligature&loc=wotd


(E2)(L1) http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Ligature


(E?)(L?) http://encyclopedie.uchicago.edu/node/175


(E?)(L?) http://artfl.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic31/search3t?dbname=encyclopedie1108&word=&dgdivhead=%5El&dgdivocauthor=&dgdivocplacename=&dgdivocsalutation=&dgdivocclassification=&dgdivocpartofspeech=&dgdivtype=&CONJUNCT=PHRASE&DISTANCE=3&PROXY=or+fewer&OUTPUT=conc&POLESPAN=5&KWSS=1&KWSSPRLIM=500


(E?)(L?) http://www.unicode.org/charts/
Armenian Ligatures | Latin Ligatures

(E6)(L?) http://www.unicode.org/charts/charindex.html
Armenian Ligatures | COMBINING LIGATURE LEFT HALF | HALF, COMBINING LIGATURE LEFT | IJ, LATIN SMALL LIGATURE | Latin Ligatures | LIGATURE IJ, LATIN SMALL | LIGATURE LEFT HALF, COMBINING | ligature tie | Ligatures, Armenian | Ligatures, Latin

(E6)(L?) http://www.unicode.org/charts/charindex3.html
tie, ligature

Erstellt: 2010-04

M

M, m (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html




N

N, n (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html




naturesalphabet

(E?)(L?) http://www.naturesalphabet.com/
Die Alphabet-Schrift wurde von den Griechen erst wenige Jahrzehnte vor Homers Geburt von den Phöniziern übernommen und an ihre Sprache angepasst.
Der Link zeigt Photografien von Buchstbaen, die in der Natur vorkommen.

O

O, o (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html




Oxford Comma (W3)

Warum das "Oxford Comma" (unter anderem) diese Bezeichnung trägt, dürfte daran liegen, dass es im "Style Guide" der "University of Oxford" explizit empfohlen wird. - Aber man achte auf die Details.

(E?)(L?) http://www.npr.org/blogs/monkeysee/2011/06/30/137525211/going-going-and-gone-no-the-oxford-comma-is-safe-for-now

Going, Going, And Gone?: No, The Oxford Comma Is Safe ... For Now
by Linda Holmes
June 30, 2011
...
This blew up yesterday when there was a rumbling that the "University of Oxford" was dumping its own comma. - As it turned out, this wasn't the case. - They haven't changed their authoritative style guide, but they've changed their internal PR department procedures that they use for press releases. The PR department and the editorial department are two different things, so this doesn't necessarily mean much of anything, except that it's maybe a little embarrassing to have the PR department of the university with which you're affiliated abandon your style guide.
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.odlt.org/


(E?)(L?) http://www.ox.ac.uk/public_affairs/services_and_resources/style_guide/punctuation.html#acomma

...
note that there is generally no comma between the penultimate item and "and"/"or", unless required to prevent ambiguity – this is sometimes referred to as the "Oxford comma". ...


(E?)(L?) http://oxforddictionaries.com/words/what-is-the-oxford-comma

What is the 'Oxford comma'?


(E?)(L?) http://blog.oxforddictionaries.com/2011/06/oxford-comma/

The Oxford Comma: Hart’s Rules


(E?)(L?) http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/politics/9607794/Owen-Paterson-declares-war-on-the-Oxford-comma.html

Owen Paterson declares war on the Oxford comma

Owen Paterson has produced a 10-point guide for his civil servants on the pitfalls of common punctuation errors including the Oxford Comma.
...


(E?)(L?) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serial_comma

Serial comma

In punctuation, a "serial comma" or "series comma" (also called "Oxford comma" and "Harvard comma") is a comma placed immediately before the coordinating conjunction (usually and, or, or nor) in a series of three or more terms. For example, a list of three countries might be punctuated either as "Portugal, Spain, and France" (with the serial comma), or as "Portugal, Spain and France" (without the serial comma).

Opinions among writers and editors differ on whether to use the serial comma. In American English, a majority of style guides mandate use of the serial comma, including The Chicago Manual of Style, Strunk and White's Elements of Style, and the U.S. Government Printing Office Style Manual. The Associated Press Stylebook for journalistic writing advises against it. It is used less often in British English, but some British style guides recommend it, including the "Oxford University Press's style manual" and Fowler's Modern English Usage. Some writers of British English use it only where necessary to avoid ambiguity.
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hl21Ozt8iXg

Vampire Weekend - Oxford Comma (A CAPPELLA!?)


(E1)(L1) http://ngrams.googlelabs.com/graph?corpus=0&content=Oxford Comma
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "Oxford Comma" taucht in der Literatur nicht signifikant auf.

Erstellt: 2013-04

P

P, p (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html




Peace-Zeichen, Friedens-Zeichen (W3)

(E?)(L?) http://www.figu.org/de/figu/bulletin/s05/menschheitsverbrecher.htm
kommt aus der Signalsprache der Marine. 1958 wurde es dann okkupiert und als Friedenszeichen benutzt.

Am 07.09.2004 erhielt ich folgenden Hinweis:
... gestatten Sie mir den Hinweis, dass das auf Ihrer Webseite veröffentlichte Symbol, das angeblich für "Frieden" stehen soll, das genaue Gegenteil symbolisiert, nämlich für "Tod, Zerstörung, Vernichtung, Krieg" usw. Die Begründung dafür, das wahrheitliche Friedenssymbol, sowie weitere Erklärungen dazu finden Sie hier: "http://www.figu.org/de/figu/bulletin/s05/menschheitsverbrecher.htm"
Achim Wolf

Phonetic Alphabet

Am 07.12.2004 war von Neil Crawford (UK) folgender Beitrag, mit einer interessanten Art des Buchstabierens, in der ADS-Mailingliste zu finden:

This is my first posting from the other side of the pond; so you'll have to excuse the British outlook. Explanations for non-UK English speakers are found within parentheses. And for those having difficulty spelling names, remember what my English teacher taught me: I before E, except after C -- AND Keith, Neil and Sheila.

Q

Q, q (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html

Q : the seventeenth letter of the English alphabet, has but one sound (that of "k"), and is always followed by "u", the two letters together being sounded like "kw", except in some words in which the "u" is silent. See Guide to Pronunciation, / 249. "Q" is not found in Anglo-Saxon, "cw" being used instead of "qu"; as in "cwic", "quick"; "cwen", "queen". The name ("k/" (?)) is from the French "ku", which is from the Latin name of the same letter; its form is from the Latin, which derived it, through a Greek alphabet, from the Phoenician, the ultimate origin being Egyptian.


R

R, r (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html

R : "R", the eighteenth letter of the English alphabet, is a vocal consonant. It is sometimes called a semivowel, and a liquid. See Guide to Pronunciation, // 178, 179, and 250-254.


robert.marty
76 Definitions of the Sign
by C.S.Peirce

(E?)(L?) http://robert.marty.perso.cegetel.net/semiotique/76defeng.htm


S

S, s (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html




SAMPA

(E?)(L?) http://www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/sampa/home.htm
= Speech assessment methods Phonetic Alphabet - a computer readable phonetic alphabet system, see Professor John Wells' page

significant (W3)

Engl. "significant" (1570) = dt. "bedeutsam", "wichtig", "bedeutend", "bezeichnend", "anschaulich" geht zurück auf lat. "significans", gen. lat. "significantis" = dt. "bezeichnend", "treffend", "deutlich", lat. "significare" = dt. "Zeichen geben", "durch sichtbare Zeichen zeigen".

Lat. "significare" setzt sich zusammen aus lat. "signum" = dt. "Kennzeichen", "Merkmal", "Zeichen" und lat. "facere" = dt. "machen", "tun".

(E?)(L?) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=significant

"significant" (adj.) 1570s, "having a meaning", from Latin "significantem" (nominative "significans", present participle of "significare" "make known", "indicate" (see "signify"). Earlier in the same sense was "significative" (c.1400). Often "having a special or secret meaning", hence "important" (1761). Related: "Significantly". "Significant figure" is from 1680s. "Significant other" (n.) attested by 1961, in psychology, "the most influential other person in the patient's world".


(E2)(L1) http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/significant

significant


(E?)(L?) http://www.shakespeareswords.com/Glossary?let=s

significant


(E?)(L?) http://learningenglish.voanews.com/media/video/news-words-significant/2670609.html

News Words: Significant
Published 03/13/2015
Significant means important. But how is it used in news stories? Our hosts will tell you. See the word in action.
...


(E?)(L?) http://xkcd.com/882/

Significant


(E1)(L1) http://adcs.home.xs4all.nl/woordenweb/s/signum.htm

significant


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=significant
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "significant" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1570 / 1800 auf.

Erstellt: 2015-03

Standard (W3)

Die "Standarte" war das Zeichen der königlichen Zentralgewalt. Was unter diesem Zeichen verkündet wurde war der "Standard".

(E?)(L?) http://www.brandeins.de/home/inhalt_detail.asp?id=2397&MenuID=8&MagID=90&sid=su217247501218548368&umenuid=1

...
Das Wort "Standard" stammt aus dem Englischen, wo die "Fahne des Königs", die "Standarte", als Garantie dafür galt, dass die Männer, die sie trugen, das Recht und den Willen des Königs repräsentierten. Wer die königliche "Standarte" hat, hat immer Recht. Der "Standard" setzt die Maßstäbe für die Wirklichkeit, den sogenannten "Königs-Weg". Das klingt optimal, ist aber das Produkt reiner Willkür. "Standards" und Normen haben gemein, dass sich Menschen an sie gewöhnen. Alternativen verblassen mit der Zeit. Andererseits kommt man im Zeitalter der Ballistik ohne "Standards" nicht aus. Alles wird vorausberechnet, kaum einmal wird nachgedacht. Der Aufstieg des "Standards" und der Norm ist mit dem Industriezeitalter verwoben. Wo massenhaft produziert wird, sind Abweichungen von der Norm fatale Fehler. Eine Maschine produziert Millionen Teile. Ob Kanone oder Maschine - eine falsche Einstellung macht die ganze Produktion zunichte.
...


symbol (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.symbols.com/about.html

The definition of "symbol"

The word "symbol" is derived from the Greek word "symbolon". In ancient Greece it was a custom to break a slate of burned clay into several pieces and distribute them within the group. When the group reunited the pieces were fitted together (Greek "symbollein"). This confirmed the members belonging to the group.


T

T, t (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html

T : the twentieth letter of the English alphabet, is a nonvocal consonant. With the letter "h" it forms the digraph "th", which has two distinct sounds, as in "thin", "then". See Guide to Pronunciation, //262-264, and also //153, 156, 169, 172, 176, 178-180.


Tudorrose (W3)

Zu der bekanntesten Wappenrose gehört die stilisierte fünfblättrige Tudorrose.

(E2)(L1) http://www.beyars.com/kunstlexikon/lexikon_t_1.html


(E?)(L?) http://www.gartenfreunde.ch/de/rosen/heraldik.php

Rosen in der Heraldik
...
Zu der wohl bekanntesten Wappenrose gehört sicherlich die "Tudorrose". Hier handelt es sich eigentlich um zwei Rosen. Nämlich "Rosa gallica 'Officinalis'" für das "Haus Lancaster" und vermutlich "Rosa alba 'Semiplena'" für das "Haus York". Beide Adelshäuser kämpften im sogenannten Rosenkrieg achtzig lange Jahre um Englands Thron. Beendet wurde dieser Krieg 1486 durch die Heirat von Heinrich von Richmond aus dem Hause Lancaster-Tudor mit Elisabeth von York.
...


U

U
u (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html

U : the twenty-first letter of the English alphabet, is a cursive form of the letter "V", with which it was formerly used interchangeably, both letters being then used both as vowels and consonants. "U" and "V" are now, however, differentiated, "U" being used only as a vowel or semivowel, and "V" only as a consonant. The true primary vowel sound of "U", in Anglo-Saxon, was the sound which it still retains in most of the languages of Europe, that of long "oo", as in "tool", and short "oo", as in "wood", answering to the French "ou" in "tour".

Etymologically "U" is most closely related to "o", "y" (vowel), "w", and "v"; as in "two", "duet", "dyad", "twice"; "top", "tuft"; "sop", "sup"; "auspice", "aviary". See V, also O and Y.


Uni Oxford
Style Guide - University of Oxford

(E?)(L?) http://www.ox.ac.uk/public_affairs/services_and_resources/style_guide/index.html

Introduction

The "University of Oxford Style Guide" aims to provide a guide to writing and formatting documents written by staff on behalf of the University (or one of its constituent departments etc). It is part of the University’s branding toolkit, which enables the University’s formal documentation to be presented consistently across all communications.
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.ox.ac.uk/document.rm?id=2722

Download a PDF of the Style Guide (1168 kb)


(E?)(L?) http://www.ox.ac.uk/sites/files/oxford/media_wysiwyg/University%20of%20Oxford%20Glossaries.pdf

Glossary of Oxford terms

| Academic dress | Aegrotat | Almanack | Alumni | Ashmolean - www.ashmolean.org | Assessor | Bate Collection - www.bate.ox.ac.uk | Battels | Bedel | Blue | Blue Book | Blueprint - www.ox.ac.uk/blueprint | Botanic Garden - www.botanic-garden.ox.ac.uk | Bulldog | Bursar | Calendar | Carfax | Chancellor - www.ox.ac.uk/about_the_university/oxford_people/key_university_officers/chancellor.html | Cherwell | Christ Church Picture Gallery - www.chch.ox.ac.uk/gallery | Churchill | Class | Clerk of the Market | Collections | College | Collegiate University | Coming up/going down | Commoner | Conference of Colleges | Conference Oxford - www.conference-oxford.com | Confirmation of Status | Congregation | Continuing Education, Department of - www.conted.ox.ac.uk | Convocation | Convocation House | Council - www.admin.ox.ac.uk/council | Creweian Oration | Custodians | Dean | Degree Days - www.ox.ac.uk/students/graduation/ceremonies/dates | Demonstrating | Department | Director of Study | Divinity School | Division | Domestic Bursar | Don | DPhil | Duke Humfrey's Library | EdC | Eights | Emeritus | Encaenia | Estates Bursar | Examination Regulations - www.admin.ox.ac.uk/examregs | Examination Schools | Exhibition | Expulsion | Faculty | Fellows | Final Honour School | Finalist | Finals | First | First public examination (PE) | Formal Hall | Fresher | Full Economic Costs (FEC) | Full term - www.ox.ac.uk/about_the_university/university_year/dates_of_term.html | Gathered field | Gaudy | Gazette - www.ox.ac.uk/gazette | GCR | Governing body | Graduate | Greats | Grey Book | GSO | Half-Blue - www.sport.ox.ac.uk/sports-federation/blues | Harcourt Arboretum | Head of House | High Table | Highers | Hilary term | The House | iProcurement - www.admin.ox.ac.uk/finance/purchasing | JCR (Junior Common Room) | Jenner Institute | Joint appointment | Joint Consultative Committee (JCC) | JR (John Radcliffe) | JRF (Junior Research Fellow) | Junior Member | Language Centre | Lecturer | Literae humaniores | LMH - www.lmh.ox.ac.uk | Long vac | Marketplace | Master | Matriculation | MCR (Middle Common Room) | Michaelmas term | Mods (Moderations) | Moral Tutor | Museum of the History of Science - www.mhs.ox.ac.uk | Museum of Natural History - www.oum.ox.ac.uk | Norrington Table - ww.ox.ac.uk/about_the_university/facts_and_figures/undergraduate_degr_3.html#anorrington_scores_and_number_of_students_20062011_sorted_alphabetically | Noughth week | Old Road Campus | OLIS | OPENdoor - www.admin.ox.ac.uk/opendoor | Oracle Financials - www.admin.ox.ac.uk/finance/financials | Oracle Student System | OUDCE | OUDS | OUP | OUSU - www.ousu.org | Oxbridge | Oxford Limited - www.oushop.com | Oxford Magazine | Oxford Student | Oxford Thinking - www.campaign.ox.ac.uk | Oxford Today - www.oxfordtoday.ox.ac.uk | Oxford University Archives | Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust | Oxford University Press - www.oup.com | Oxford University Society - www.alumni.ox.ac.uk | Papers | Parks | Permanent private hall | Personnel Committee | PGCE | PGR | PGT | Pigeon post | Pitt Rivers Museum - www.prm.ox.ac.uk | Planon | Postdoctoral | Postgraduate | PPE | PPP | PRAC (Planning and Resource Allocation Committee) | Prelims (Preliminary examinations) | Pre-sessional | President | Principal | Proctors | Pro-Vice-Chancellor (PVC) | Provost | PRS (Probationer Research Student) | Public Orator | Radcliffe Camera | Radcliffe Observatory Quarter (ROQ) | Recognised Student | Rector | Regent | Registrar | Regius Professor | Research Committee | Research Excellence Framework (REF) | Resolve | Romanes Lecture | Ruskin | Rustication | Salary exchange | Salary sacrifice | Schools | SCR | SEH | Sending down | Sheldonian Theatre | Split Finals | Springboard - www.learning.ox.ac.uk/support/women/programmes | Steward | Stint | Student | Sub fusc | Supplicate | Suspension | Teddy Hall | Torpids | Trinity term | Tutor | Tutorial | Tutorial System | Undergraduate | Union, The | Univ | University Calendar | University Chest | University Club | University Parks | Vac (vacation) | Varsity | Varsity Match | Vice-Chancellor (VC) | Viva (viva voce) | Voltaire Foundation | Warden | Wytham Woods


(E?)(L?) https://www.ox.ac.uk/sites/files/oxford/media_wysiwyg/University%20of%20Oxford%20Glossaries.pdf

P. 16 ff

Glossary of Oxford University acronyms

| AAD - www.admin.ox.ac.uk/ac-div/index.shtml | ADEX | AHRC | ARACU - www.ouls.ox.ac.uk/services/disability/aracu | BBSRC | BDLSS - www.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/bdlss | BESC - www.admin.ox.ac.uk/statutes/regulations/520-122d.shtml | BIS - www.bis.gov.uk | CABDyN - www.cabdyn.ox.ac.uk/complexity_home.asp | CBF - www.cbf.ox.ac.uk | CCMP - www.ccmp.ox.ac.uk | CCVTM - www.ccvtm.ox.ac.uk | CEMS - www.cems.ox.ac.uk | CEU - www.ceu.ox.ac.uk | CICTC | COMPAS - www.compas.ox.ac.uk | CPD - http://cpd.conted.ox.ac.uk | CSG - www.admin.ox.ac.uk/pras/committees/workinggroups/capital | CTSU - www.ctsu.ox.ac.uk | CUF | CUREC - www.admin.ox.ac.uk/curec | DARS | DGS | DPAG - www.dpag.ox.ac.uk | DTU - www.dtu.ox.ac.uk | EAS - www.lang.ox.ac.uk/courses/english.html | ECI - www.eci.ox.ac.uk | EdC - www.admin.ox.ac.uk/epsc | EDU - www.admin.ox.ac.uk/eop | ELQ - www.ox.ac.uk/feesandfunding/fees/information/elq | EPSRC | ERG | ESRC | ETHOX Centre - www.ethox.org.uk | FEC | FHS | FMRIB | FOI - www.admin.ox.ac.uk/foi | GAO | GPC | HEFCE | HESA | HFS - www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/hfs | HRIS - www.admin.ox.ac.uk/personnel/corehr | IBME - www.ibme.ox.ac.uk | ICTF - www.ict.ox.ac.uk/oxford/groups/ict_forum | IMSU - www.imsu.ox.ac.uk | ITLP | ITSS | JCC | JCUSS | JISC - www.jisc.ac.uk | JR | JRAM | KTP | LASR | LICR | MPLS | MRC | MSD | NDA | NDM | NERC | NHSPS | NPEU - www.npeu.ox.ac.uk | NSMS | OCDEM - www.ocdem.com | OCIAM - www2.maths.ox.ac.uk/ociam | ODIT - www.ict.ox.ac.uk/odit | OED - www.oed.com | OeRC - www.oerc.ox.ac.uk | OHS - www.admin.ox.ac.uk/uohs | OIA - www.ageing.ox.ac.uk | OII - www.oii.ox.ac.uk | OLI - www.learning.ox.ac.uk | OPENdoor - www.admin.ox.ac.uk/opendoor | OPIC - www.opic.ox.ac.uk | OPPF - www.oppf.ox.ac.uk | ORA - http://ora.ouls.ox.ac.uk | OSC - www.oerc.ox.ac.uk/resources/osc | OSEM - www.osem.ox.ac.uk | OSPS - www.admin.ox.ac.uk/finance/pensions/osps | OSS - www.admin.ox.ac.uk/bsp/studsys-support-centre | OUEM - www.ouem.co.uk | OUMC - www.museums.ox.ac.uk | OUP - www.oup.com | OXAM - http://oxam.ox.ac.uk | OxCERT - www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/network/security | OxCORT - www.oxcort.ox.ac.uk | OXLIP+ | PAD - www.ox.ac.uk/public_affairs/index.html | PI | PRAC | PRAS | PVC | QA | QAA | QE | REF - www.ref.ac.uk | ROQ | SGC - www.sgc.ox.ac.uk | SKOPE - www.skope.ox.ac.uk | SIS | SLC - www.slc.co.uk | SOLO - http://solo.bodleian.ox.ac.uk | SORP - www.admin.ox.ac.uk/finance/information/accountingpolicy | SSO | STEM subjects | STFC | STRUBI - www.strubi.ox.ac.uk | TALL - www.tall.ox.ac.uk | TRAC - www.admin.ox.ac.uk/finance/trac | UAS - www.admin.ox.ac.uk | UCU - www.ucu.org.uk | USS - www.admin.ox.ac.uk/finance/pensions/uss | UUK | VLE | VRE - www.vre.ox.ac.uk | WebAuth - https://webauth.ox.ac.uk | WebLearn - http://weblearn.ox.ac.uk/site | WildCRU - www.wildcru.org | WIMM - www.imm.ox.ac.uk | WTCHG - www.well.ox.ac.uk


(E?)(L?) http://www.ox.ac.uk/public_affairs/services_and_resources/style_guide/glossary_of_obsolete.html

Glossary of obsolete terms


Erstellt: 2013-04

V

V, v (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html




Victory

Das Spreizen von Zeige- und Mittelfinger stellt das V von 'Victory' = 'Sieg' nach.

W

W, w (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html

W : the twenty-third letter of the English alphabet, is usually a consonant, but sometimes it is a vowel, forming the second element of certain diphthongs, as in "few", "how". It takes its written form and its name from the repetition of a "V", this being the original form of the Roman capital letter which we call "U".
Etymologically it is most related to "v" and "u". See V, and U. Some of the uneducated classes in England, especially in London, confuse "w" and "v", substituting the one for the other, as "weal" for "veal", and "veal" for "weal"; "wine" for "vine", and "vine" for "wine", etc. See Guide to Pronunciation, // 266-268.


w- - gu- (W3)

Die französischen Normannen brachten im 11., 12. Jh. das frz. "gu-" als "w-" nach England.

(E?)(L?) http://www.dailywritingtips.com/wardens-and-guardians/

"Wardens" and "Guardians"

By Maeve Maddox
...
From 1066 until about 1250, English and French were spoken side by side in England. Then, because of political changes, the French-speaking ruling class shifted to English.

The words "warden" and "guardian" are good examples of the linguistic mingling that went on between the two languages at that time.

Old English had the verb "weardian" "to keep guard", and the noun "weard" "a guard", "a watchman", "a sentry".

Old French had the verb "guarder", "to guard".

Speakers of Norman French were people who had been Vikings a hundred years before William of Normandy invaded England in 1066. They brought their own distinctive pronunciations to French. One peculiarity was that Normans tended to pronounce the letter combination "gu–" as "w-".

For example, Old French "guarder", "to guard", became "warder" in Norman French. However, Parisian French kept the "gu–" spelling and pronunciation. As a result, English ended up with words derived from both forms.

The OED gives numerous meanings for the word "warden", including one that is identical to one of its definitions for "guardian". In general usage, however, a "guardian" is a "protector", while a "warden" is a "keeper".

A similar pair of words is "warranty" and "guarantee". Both words have the sense of an assurance that a certain standard of quality or integrity will be upheld.
...
A new car comes with a "warranty". If anything goes wrong with the car during a specified period, the "warranty" is a document that entitles the owner to have the problem corrected without charge.

The word "guarantee" is often used as a synonym for "warranty". However, a "guarantee" can be something more concrete.
...
Etymology nerds can have fun looking for modern French words beginning with "gu–" that correspond to English words beginning with "w-". For example:

"war"/"guerre": Old English "wyrre"; Norman French "werre"; Modern French "guerre".

And of course there’s "William the Conqueror" whom the French refer to as "Guillaume le Conquérant".


Erstellt: 2016-01

worldwidewords.org
Pronunciation Symbols

(E1)(L1) http://www.worldwidewords.org/pronguide.htm
pronunciation symbols with link to sound samples

X

X, x (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html

X : "X", the twenty-fourth letter of the English alphabet, has three sounds; a compound nonvocal sound (that of "ks"), as in "wax"; a compound vocal sound (that of "gz"), as in "example"; and, at the beginning of a word, a simple vocal sound (that of "z"), as in "xanthic". See Guide to Pronunciation, // 217, 270, 271.


Y

Y, y (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html




Z

Z, z (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.objectgraph.com/dictionary.html

Z : "Z", the twenty-sixth and last letter of the English alphabet, is a vocal consonant. It is taken from the Latin letter "Z", which came from the Greek alphabet, this having it from a Semitic source. The ultimate origin is probably Egyptian.
Etymologically, it is most closely related to "s", "y", and "j"; as in "glass", "glaze"; E. "yoke", Gr. /, L. "yugum"; E. "zealous", "jealous". See Guide to Pronunciation, // 273, 274.


Bücher zur Kategorie:

Etymologie, Etimología, Étymologie, Etimologia, Etymology
UK Vereinigtes Königreich Großbritannien und Nordirland, Reino Unido de Gran Bretaña e Irlanda del Norte, Royaume-Uni de Grande-Bretagne et d'Irlande du Nord, Regno Unito di Gran Bretagna e Irlanda del Nord, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Zeichen, Signo, Signe, Segno, Sign

A

B

C

D

Drucker, Johanna (Autor)
The Alphabetic Labyrinth
The Letters in History and Imagination

(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/0500280681/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/0500280681/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/0500280681/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.it/exec/obidos/ASIN/0500280681/etymologporta-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0500280681/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0500280681/etymologpor09-20
Taschenbuch: 320 Seiten
Verlag: Thames & Hudson Ltd; Auflage: New edition (Februar 1999)
Sprache: Englisch


Kurzbeschreibung
The letters of the alphabet have been the source of some speculation since their invention almost 4000 years ago. Through research this text examines the many ways in which the letters of the alphabet have been used in political, spiritual and religious systems over two millennia. The book also presents the more general history of lettering, printing and calligraphy, as well as using colour illustrations to support the text. The book provides a source to historians studying art, culture or typography.


Erstellt: 2011-03

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

N

O

P

Q

R

S

T

Trosborg, Anna (Herausgeber)
Pragmatics Across Languages and Cultures
(Handbooks of Pragmatics)

(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110214431/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110214431/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110214431/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.it/exec/obidos/ASIN3110214431//etymologporta-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110214431/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L1) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/3110214431/etymologpor09-20
Gebundene Ausgabe: 644 Seiten
Verlag: Gruyter (31. Oktober 2010)
Sprache: Englisch


Kurzbeschreibung
This handbook provides a comprehensive overview, as well as breaking new ground, in a versatile and fast growing field. It contains 4 sections: Contrastive, Cross-cultural and Intercultural Pragmatics, Interlanguage Pragmatics, Teaching and Testing of Second/Foreign Language Pragmatics, and Pragmatics in Corporate Culture Communication, covering a wide range of topics, from speech acts and politeness issues to Lingua Franca and Corporate Crises Communication. The approach is theoretical, methodological as well as applied, with a focus on authentic, interactional data. All articles are written by renowned leading specialists, who provide in-depth, up-to-date overviews, and view new directions and visions for future research.

Über den Autor
Anna Trosborg, University of Aarhus, Denmark.


(E?)(L?) http://www.degruyter.de/cont/fb/sk/detailEn.cfm?id=IS-9783110214437-1

About this Title
covers topics such as international communication, intercultural politeness and impoliteness, intercultural business discourse, theoretical and methodological approaches to interlanguage pragmatics, speech acts in second/foreign languages and corporate culture communication introduces new and emergent fields, such as Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Corporate Crisis Communication in a cross-cultural perspective includes more than 20 articles and a helpful subject index


(E?)(L?) http://www.degruyter.de/cont/fb/sk/skReiEn.cfm?rc=40489

Handbooks of Pragmatics
Ed. by Bublitz, Wolfram / Jucker, Andreas H. / Schneider, Klaus P.

This new landmark series of nine self-contained handbooks provides a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the entire field of pragmatics. It is based on a wide conception of pragmatics as the study of intentional human interaction in social and cultural contexts. The series reflects, appraises and structures a field that is exceptionally vast, unusually heterogeneous and still rapidly expanding. In-depth articles by leading experts from around the world discuss the foundations, major theories and most recent developments of pragmatics including philosophical, cognitive, sociocultural, contrastive and diachronic perspectives. Wolfram Bublitz, University of Augsburg, Germany; Andreas H. Jucker, University of Zurich, Switzerland; Klaus P. Schneider, University of Bonn, Germany.

Flyer




Erstellt: 2011-07

Tschichold, Jan
The ampersand: its origin and development

(E?)(L?) http://www.worldcat.org/title/ampersand-its-origin-and-development/oclc/721129570

The Ampersand Its origin and development
Autor: Jan Tschichold; Frederick Plaat
Verlag: London Woudhuysen 1957


(E?)(L?) http://adcglobal.org/hall-of-fame/jan-tschichold/

Jan Tschichold (Born April 2, 1902 - Died August 11, 1974), Born in Leipzig, the son of a designer and painter of letters, Jan Tschichold was exposed early in childhood to the craft that became his life’s work. This first exposure to type notwithstanding, Tschichold studied to become an artist and took evening classes in calligraphy.
...


(E?)(L?) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jan_Tschichold

Jan Tschichold (2 April 1902 Leipzig, Germany – 11 August 1974 Locarno, Switzerland) (born as Johannes Tzschichhold, also Iwan Tschichold, Ivan Tschichold) was a calligrapher, typographer and a book designer. He designed posters, was a teacher and wrote books on typography.

He was one of the leaders of the movement Elementare Typografie or "Elementary Typography". Sometimes also referred to as "New Typography" of "Functional Typography". His most famous type font was Sabon.
...


Erstellt: 2017-11

U

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X

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Z