Etymologie, Etimología, Étymologie, Etimologia, Etymology
US Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika, Estados Unidos de América, États-Unis d'Amérique, Stati Uniti d'America, United States of America
Riechen, Oler, Sentir, Sentire, Smell
Flavornet and human odor space
by Terry Acree & Heinrich Arn
Gas chromatography - olfactometry (GCO) of natural products
Sponsored by DATU Inc.
There are 738 odorants listed as of 6.25.04
Flavornet is a compilation of aroma compounds found in human odor space. A seemingly infinite number of perceptions are invoked by less than 1000 odorants that make up this space. These chemicals with mass less than 300 Daltons bind to proteins on the "olfactory receptor neurons" ("ORN"s) at the surface of the olfactory epithelium. Excitation of ORNs generates a topographic map of sensory information in the brain that is a representation of the stimulating chemical features of the external world. The Flavornet lists only those odorants that have been found in a human odor space at supra-threshold levels i.e. at levels likely to stimulate ORNs.
In Flavornet odorants are arranged by chromatographic and sensory properties. Except for indexing standards the data have been taken from published research using GCO. They are listed by retention indices both Kovats n-paraffin and ethyl ester on four different substrates. A link to a summary page containing chemical properties, sensory descriptors, bibliographies and pdb (protein data bank) files of MM2 minimized structures is provided for each ligand. To be included in Flavornet an odorant must have been detected in a natural product or real environment by some form of quantitative GCO method e.g. dilution analysis (Aroma Extraction Dilution Analysis or CharmAnalysis™) perceived intensity analysis (e.g. Osme) or detection frequency analysis (e.g. SNIFF). Therefore, the Flavornet lists only those volatiles that humans use in their chemical ecology. Once on the list, missing data about an odorant was filled in with estimates (shown in square brackets). These estimates will be replaced with experimental measurements as they become available. In every case data from the first report of a GCO detection will be used unless a more accurate report is subsequently made, then, the new data will be included along with the original.
The present data was collected from articles published since 1984 using GCO to detect odorants in natural products. In the summers of 2003 and 2004 Hannah E. Collins, Yale University, read over 100 of these articles and checked the chemical data for the odorants against the Chemical Abstract Service databases.
If you are willing to add to this data base contact Terry Acree with the citation where the data is published or if the source is difficult to obtain send a copy of the paper to:
Terry E. Acree, Cornell University, NYSAES, Geneva, NY 14456 USA
Parfum-Encyclopedy - DE-ES-FR-IT-UK
Hersteller, Produkte, Duft-Stoffe, Historie, Herstellung
The history of fragrances
From ancient times to today, fragrances have always been part of Man's history. For a long time, they were only intended for deities and monarchs. Today, it is a fashion accessory, a seduction tool and much more. Let us travel back through the memorable times of the fragrance world.
Perfumed trails takes us away, and the journey leads us to the borders of civilization. The history of perfume is a reflection of humanity: a means of exchange, a protection against disease, a potion with divine virtues, a gallant message...in each epoch perfume reflects society, perceptibly communicating its sense of commerce and medicine, of the sacred and the sensual.
A world without perfume would be a world without history!
Each fragrance belongs to a specific olfactory category. The various groups may improve thanks to the creativity of top perfumers... an indecent stroll through the genealogy of fragrances.
A perfume creator composes a story around a central theme just as a writer would. That theme constitutes the main accord of the composition and will determine the family of the perfume, whereas, the secondary accords will indicate its subfamily. There are eight major families : Floral, Chypre, Oriental (masculine and feminine), Woody, Aromatic and Hesperide (masculine and feminine). Each one of those olfactive families being itself split into several subfamilies.
Brands and fragrances
An extensive database to learn everything about brand name perfumers.
Enter osMoz.com's dictionary of Fragrances and Brands
Looking for a Brand? Go to Brand Finder or type the name in the Search box, using a key-word.
Looking for a Fragrance? Type name in the Search box, using a key-word, or select one or several search criteria: search by date of creation, and/or according to olfactory group.
4711 | Aigner | Andy Wahrol | Anna Sui | Annick Goutal | Aramis | Armani | Azzaro | Balenciaga | Balmain | Bobbi Brown | Bogart | Bogner | Boucheron | Bruno Banani | Bulgari | Burberry | Byblos | Cacharel | Calvin Klein | Carolina Herrera | Caron | Cartier | Carven | Celine | Cerruti | Chacok | Chaumet | Chiemsee | Chloé | Chopard | Christian Lacroix | Clinique | Courrèges | Crabtree & Evelyn | Creed | Dana | Decléor | Dior | Dolce & Gabbana | Donna Karan |
| Elizabeth Arden | Escada | Estée Lauder | Extase | Fendi | Ferragamo | Fragonard | Francesco Smalto | Gabriela Sabatini | Gaultier | Genny | Geoffrey Beene | Gianfranco Ferre | Gigli | Giorgio Beverly Hills | Givenchy | Grès | Gucci | Guerlain | Guy Laroche | Hanae Mori | Helmut Lang | Hermès | Hervé Léger | Hugo Boss | I Coloniali | Iceberg | Inès de la Fressange | Isabella Rossellini | Issey Miyake | Jacomo | Jacques Fath | Jean Couturier | Jean Patou | Jean-Charles Brosseau | Jean-Charles de Castel... | Jean-Louis Scherrer | Jil Sander | Joop! | Kenzo | Kiton | Krizia | L'Artisan Parfumeur | La Perla | Lacoste | Lagerfeld | Lalique | Lancaster | Lancôme | Lanvin | Laura Ashley | Laura Biagiotti | Léonard | Liz Claiborne | Loewe | Lolita | Lempicka | Mauboussin | Mexx | Missoni | Molinard | Molyneux | Montana | Moschino | Naomi Campbell | Nikos | Nina Ricci | Oscar de la Renta | Paco Rabanne | Paloma | Picasso | Paul Smith | Pierre Cardin | Piguet | Popy Moreni | Prescriptives | Pupa | Ralph Lauren | Révillon | Revlon | Rochas | Roger & Gallet |
| Salvador Dali | Schiaparelli | Serge Lutens | Shiseido | Sisley | Sonia Rykiel | Tabac | Ted Lapidus | Thierry Mugler | Tommy Hilfiger | Trussardi | Ungaro | Valentino | Van Cleef & Arpels | Vanderbilt | Versace | Vivienne | Westwood | Worth | Yardley | Yohji | Yamamoto | Yves Saint Laurent
Jasmine from Grasse, gray amber... here is an overview of the most widely used ingredients in perfumery.
A perfumer's organ is composed of roughly 3,000 different scents, which can be either natural or synthetic. In this encyclopedia, you will discover over a hundred of the most commonly used raw materials in perfumery. To facilitate your visit, each raw material is listed under one of the 18 proposed groups and sorted according to their olfactive constituents.
Ambergris (Physeter Macrocephallus) |
| Amyris (Amyris Balsamifera) | Angelica (Angelica Archangelica) | Arnica (Arnica Montana) | Atlas Cedar (Cedrus Atlantica) | Balsam Fir (Abies Balsamea) | Bay (Pimenta Racemosa) | Beeswax (Apis Mellifera) | Bitter orange (Citrus Aurantium Amara) | Blaci currant Buds (Ribes Nigrum) | Blue Camomile (Camomilla Matricana) | Broom (Spartium Junceum) | Camphor (Cinnamomum Camphora) | Cananga (Canangium Odoratum Macrophylla) | Carrot seeds (Daucus Carotta) | Carvi (Carum Carvi) | Cascarilla (Croton Eluteria Benett) | Cinnamon leaves (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum) | Civet (Viverra Civettina) | Cloves (Eugenia Caryophyllata) | Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus Globulus) | Fennel (Foeniculum Vulgare Dolce) | Galbanum (Ferula Galbaniflua) | Gurjum Balsam (Dipterocarpus) | HayHyacinth (Hyacynthus Orientalis) | Jasmine (Jasminum Grandiflorum) | Lemon (Citrus Limomum) | Lemon grassLiatrix (Liatrix Odoratissima) | Marjoram (Origanum Marjorana) | Mimosa (Acacia Decurrens) | Mint (Mentha Viridis, Mentha Spicata) | Narcissus (Narcissus Poeticus) | Orange Blossom (Citrus Aurantium) | Palmarosa (Cymbopogon Martini) | Pennyroyal Mint (Mentha Pulegium) | Peppermint (Mentha Piperata) | Peru Balsam (Myroxolon Pereirae) | Rockweed (Fucus Vesiculosus) | Styrax (Liquidambar Styraciflua) | Sweet Lime (Citrus Aurantifolia) |
| Thuya (Thuya Occidentalis) | Tolu Balsam (Myroxolon Toluiferum) |
| Ylang Ylang (Cananga Odorata)
How are the scents extracted? Various techniques are used, depending on the types of ingredients. OsMoz will give you a rundown on all the secrets of the production techniques. Very often, fragrances are a result of a know-how that has been transmitted throughout generations.
Diverse manufacturing processes supply the perfumer with the hundreds of ingredients that could potentially enter into a composition. From the first distillation techniques to chemical synthesis, each process is adapted to a type of raw material in the search for its essence.
Expression | Destillation | Extraction | Enfleurage | Softact | Synthetic Molecules | Nature Print
Fragrant words. Poets have come up with the most difficult expressions to describe the emotion emanating from a fragrance. Novelists have written some surprising pieces about fragrances. Essays are also available. They give us a complete information with pictures that will make you dream. OsMoz presents the most beautiful literary works in the world of olfaction.
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