Etymologie, Etimología, Étymologie, Etimologia, Etymology
US Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika, Estados Unidos de América, États-Unis d'Amérique, Stati Uniti d'America, United States of America
Sprache, Lengua, Langue, Lingua, Language

Amtssprache, Langue Officielle, Official Language:
Englisch (Spanisch), Anglais, English

A

aaal - American Association for Applied Linguistics

(E?)(L?) http://www.aaal.org/
Founded in 1977, the AAAL is a professional organization of scholars who are interested in and actively contribute to the multi-disciplinary field of applied linguistics.

about.com
Differences Between American and British English

(E?)(L?) http://esl.about.com/od/toeflieltscambridge/a/dif_ambrit.htm

By Kenneth Beare

While there are certainly many more varieties of English, American and British English are the two varieties that are taught in most ESL/EFL programs. Generally, it is agreed that no one version is "correct" however, there are certainly preferences in use. The most important rule of thumb is to try to be consistent in your usage. If you decide that you want to use American English spellings then be consistent in your spelling (i.e. The color of the orange is also its flavour - color is American spelling and flavour is British), this is of course not always easy - or possible. The following guide is meant to point out the principal differences between these two varieties of English.
...


alphadictionary
Dr. Goodword
Basics of Language Study

(E1)(L1) http://www.alphadictionary.com/articles/
Am 21.02.2010 waren folgende Artikel online:

Dr. Goodword Linguistics Minicourse Dictionaries, Glossaries, and Lists Language Quizzes Dr. Goodword's Words on English Words, Words, Words, Words, Words Top 10 Words of the Year English Grammar & Style Common Questions about Language and Grammar

Amtssprache von US
Amtssprache von Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika

Amtssprache(n) von US - Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika ist / sind In den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika gibt es auf Bundesebene keine offizielle Amtssprache, aber die Verfassung und sämtliche Gesetze, Verwaltungsakte und Gerichtsentscheidungen sind Englisch abgefasst.

Folgende Bundesstaaten haben Englisch auch offiziell als Amtssprache festgelegt:

Erstellt: 2012-07

B

bartleby064
American Heritage Book of English Usage

(E?)(L?) http://www.bartleby.com/64/
American Heritage® Book of English Usage. 1996
With a detailed look at grammar, style, diction, word formation, gender, social groups and scientific forms, this valuable reference work is ideal for students, writers, academicians and anybody concerned about proper writing style.

CONTENTS BOSTON: HOUGHTON MIFFLIN, 1996
NEW YORK: BARTLEBY.COM, 2000


bartleby068
The Columbia Guide to Standard American English

(E?)(L1) http://www.bartleby.com/68/


(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20080718023146/http://www.bartleby.com/68/
Kenneth G. Wilson
A vigorous assessment of how our language is best written and spoken and how we can use it most effectively, this guide is the ideal handbook of language etiquette: friendly, sensible, reliable, and fun to read. Its 6,500 entries contain thousands of examples, both descriptive and prescriptive, and feature 4,300 hyperlinked cross-references.
Search: CONTENTS NEW YORK: COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1993
NEW YORK: BARTLEBY.COM, 2001
Alphabetic Index of Entries - Browsable alphabetic index to over 6,500 entries

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Entry Index


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anniversary | anno Domini | annoint | annoyed | annual, perennial | annunciate, enunciate, annunciation, enunciation | anodyne | anoint, annoint | anorexia, anorexia nervosa, anorexic, anorectic | another, additional, more | an't, a'n't | antagonist, protagonist | ante-, anti- | ANTECEDENT 1 | antecedent 2 | antelope | antenna | anterior | anthropomorphism | anti- | anticipate | ANTICIPATORY SUBJECTS | antidote | antipathy | antique | anti-Semitic | antiseptic, aseptic | antisocial, asocial, nonsocial, unsociable, unsocial | ANTONYM | anxious, eager | any | any and all | anybody, anyone | anymore, any more | any number of | anyone | any other | anyplace, everyplace, noplace, someplace | anytime | anyway, anyways | anywhere, anywheres | apart from | apathy, apathetic | ape, to go | apex | APHERESIS | APHESIS, APHETIC | aphorism, (old) adage, apothegm, maxim, proverb, (old) saw, saying | apiary, aviary | apiece | aplomb | APOCOPE | apologize, apologise | apophthegm | a posteriori, a priori | APOSTROPHE 1 | APOSTROPHE 2 | apothegm | apparatus | apparently, evidently | append | appendix | applicable | apportion | APPOSITIVE, APPOSITION | APPOSITIVE GENITIVE | appraise, apprise | appreciate | apprehend | apprehensive | apprise | APPROPRIATENESS, THE DOCTRINE OF | approve | approximate | approximately | approximation | a priori | apropos | apt, calculated, liable, likely, prone | aqueduct, aqualung, aquamarine, aquarium, aquatic, aquatint, aqueous | Arab, Arabian, Arabic | arbiter, arbitrator | arbitrate, adjudicate, mediate | arbitrator | arbor, arbour | arch-, arche-, archi- | archaeology, archeology | ARCHAIC, ARCHAISM | archipelago | archive | Arctic, arctics | ardor, ardour | area, field, province, realm, sphere | aren't I | ARGOT | arguably, arguable | arise | aristocratic, aristocrat | armada | armor, armour | aroma | around 1, about | around 2, round | arouse, rouse | arpeggio | arrant | array | arithmetic progression | arrive 1 | arrive 2, depart | arrogate | arse | art 1, arts, fine arts, liberal arts | art 2, state of the | artefact | artful, artistic, artsy-craftsy, arty, arty-crafty | arthritis | ARTICLES | artifact, artefact | artificial, counterfeit, ersatz, fake, false, imitation, sham, spurious, substitute, synthetic | ARTIFICIAL LANGUAGE | artisan, artist | artist, artiste | artistic | artless | art object | arts and sciences | artsy-craftsy, arty, arty-crafty | ary (not), nary | as 1 | as 2 | as 3 | as … as, so … as | as bad or worse than | as best | ascendancy, ascendency, ascendant, ascendent | ascent, assent | ascertain | aseptic | as far as, so far as | as follows | as for, as to | as good as | as good or better than, as great or greater than | as how | Asian, Asiatic, Oriental | aside from | as if, as though | as is | ask | as long as, so long as | as much or more than | asocial | as of | ASPECT 1 | aspect 2 | as per | aspirant | aspiration | aspire | as regards | ass | assassin, murderer | assassinate | assay, essay | assemble | ASSEMBLY OR ASSEMBLAGE, NOUNS OF | assent | assertive | assignment, assignation | assimilate | ASSIMILATION | assist | associate | ASSONANCE | as such | assume, presume | assurance | assure | astern | as the saying goes | asthma, asthmatic | as though | as to | astonished | as to whether, as to how, as to which, as to who(m), as to why | astronaut, cosmonaut | astronomical | as well as | at | at about | ate | at hand | atheist, atheistic | athlete, athletics, athletic | at home | at long last


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atop | attain | attempt | attend | at this point in time | attitude | attorney, attorney-at-law | attorney general | ATTRACTION | ATTRIBUTIVE ADJECTIVES | ATTRIBUTIVE GENITIVES | attrit, attrite | at variance | au contraire | au courant | audible | audience, hearers, listeners, readers, spectators, viewers | au fait | au fond, à fond | auger, augur | aught | augment | augur | augury | au naturel | aunt | au pair, au pair girl | aural, oral | auspice, augury | auspicious | AUSTRALIAN ENGLISH | aut- | authentic, genuine | author | authoress | authoritarian, authoritative | authority | auto-, aut-, auto | automaton | autumn, fall, autumnal, fall | AUXILIARIES, AUXILIARY VERBS | avail | avant-garde, cutting edge, leading edge, van, vanguard | avenge, revenge, vengeance | aver | average | averse | aversion | avert | aviary | avid | avocation, vocation | avoid | avuncular | await | awake, awaken | aware | awash | away, way | awesome, awesomely | awful, awfully | awhile, a while | ax, axe | axis | aye, ay | -b-, -bb- | babe | BABY TALK | bachelor, bachelor girl, bachelor's degree | bacillus | back | BACK-FORMATION | background | backgrounder | backlash | backlog | back of, in back of, in back | backpack, rucksack | backside | back slash, backslash | backward, backwards | back yard, backyard | bacteria | bad, badly, bad(ly) off | BAD GRAMMAR | bade | badmouth | bag 1 | bag 2, poke, sack | baggage, luggage | bail, bale | bait, bate | balance 1 | balance 2, on | BALANCE, BALANCED | bald, balding | bale | baleful, baneful | balk, balk, balk at, balky | ballad, ballade | ball game, a whole new | ball's in your court, the | balmy, barmy | baloney | baluster, balustrade, banister, bannister, railing | banal, banality | band, combo, ensemble, group, orchestra | bandit | bandwagon | bane | baneful | banger | banister, bannister | banjo | bank of a river, the left, the right | banquet | banshee | Bantu | baptismal name | bar | barbarian, barbaric, barbarous, barbarism, barbarity, barbarousness | BARBARISMS | barbecue | barber | barbiturate | bare, bear | barely | bargain | bark, barque | barmy | barque | barrage | barring | barrio | barrister | bar sinister, bend sinister | basal | base | baseball, the language of | based | based on, based upon | bases | basic 1, basal | | basically, basicly | basinet | basis, on the basis of, on a basis of, on a … basis | basketball, the language of | bass, base | bassinet, basinet | bastard, bastardize | bate | bathos, pathos, bathetic, pathetic | bathroom, go to the bathroom | baton, batten | bay window, bow window | bazaar, bizarre | -bb- | B.C., B.C.E. | be | bear | bear, bull, bearish, bullish | beastly | beat | beau | beauteous, beautiful | beauty | because | because of | beck | become | become of | been | before | beg | begin | beg the question | behalf, behoof, in behalf of, in behoof of, on behalf of | behavior, behaviour | behest, request | beholden to | behoof | behoove, behove | beige | being, being as, being as how, being that | belabor, belabour, labor, labour | belie | believe, feel, think | belittle | bells | bellwether | belly | beloved | below | BELT AND SUSPENDERS CONSTRUCTION | bemuse | bend sinister | benedict


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benefactor, beneficiary | benign, benignant, malign, malignant | benny | benzine, benzene | bereave | Berkeley | beseech | beside, besides | bespeak | bespoke | best, had best | best foot forward, put your | bestir | bestow | be sure and | bet | betake oneself | bête noire | betray | better | better | better, had better | better part of, the | better than | better than I, better than me | bettor, better | between, among | between a rock and a hard place | between each, between every | between-maid, tweeny | between you and I, between he and his mother | betwixt, betwixt and between | bi-, semi- | biannual, biennial, semiannual | bias | Bible, bible, biblical | bicentenary, bicentennial | biceps, triceps | bid | bide | biennial | bight, bite, byte | bigness | big of a deal, (not) that | | bilk | billet doux | BILLINGSGATE | billion | bimonthly | biodegradable | bipartisan | birth, birthing | birthday suit, in one's | bisect, dissect | bison | bit | bitch, bitchy | bitch goddess | bite | bitter cold, bitterly cold | bitter end | bivalve | bivouac | biweekly | bizarre | black 1 | black 2, blacken | BLACK ENGLISH | black humor | blackout | blame 1 | blame 2 | blanch, blench | blasé | blatant, flagrant | blaze, blazon | bleeding | blench | blend | BLENDS | BLENDS, SYNTACTIC | blind | BLIND AGREEMENT | blink | blithe, blithesome | blizzard | bloc, block | blond, blonde | blood | blood money | bloody | blooming | blow | blue book, bluebook | blue-collar, white-collar | blue law | blush, flush | boast | boat | boater | boatswain, bosun | bobby | bobby pin | bodacious | bodega | body, dead | BODY ENGLISH | BODY LANGUAGE | boffin | bogey, bogy, bogie | boggle, mind-boggling | bogie, bogy | bogus titles | Bohemian, bohemian | Bologna, bologna, baloney, boloney | bomb | | bonkers | bonk (on the head) | bonnyclabber | bonus | boob | booboisie | boob(s) | boogie-woogie | boon | boondocks, boondockers, boonies | boondoggle | boonies | boost, booster | boot | borax | border | born, borne | born-again | borrow | bosom | boss | bosun | both | bottleneck | bottom | bottom line | boughten | bouillabaisse | bound and determined | boundary | bounden | bourgeois, bourgeoisie | boutique | bow window | boy | boyfriend | boyish, girlish | bracero | BRACES | braces | bracket | BRACKETS (SQUARE, ANGLE) | brae | brag | brain 1 | brain 2, brains | branch | brand | brand-new | brass | brass | brass tacks | bravado, bravery, bravura | brave | bravery, bravura | breach, breech | bread | breakdown, break down | breakthrough, break through | breakup, break up | breast(s), boob(s), bosom(s), bust, chest, tit(s) | breech, breeches | brethren, brothers | BREVE | BREVITY, CONCISENESS, CONCISION, TERSENESS | briar, brier | brickbat | bridegroom | brier | bright | bring 1 | bring 2, fetch | bring 3, take | bring up | Brit | Britain, British Isles, England, Great Britain, (the) U.K., (the) United Kingdom | britches | BRITISH AND AMERICAN DIFFERENCES IN MEANING, PRONUNCIATION, SPELLING, AND VOCABULARY | BRITISH ENGLISH | British (the), Brit, Britisher, Briton, (the) English | Briton | broach, brooch


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broad | broadcast | broke, broken | brolly | brooch | brook | brother-in-law | brothers | brown bag, brown bagging, brown bagger, brown-bag | brownnose, brownnoser | brownout, blackout | browse, graze | brunet, brunette | brusque, brusk | buck | buckaroo, buckeroo | buff, in the buff | buffalo, bison | buffet | bug | bugger | bulimia, bulimic | bulk | bull, bullish | bum | bumble-bee, humble-bee | bummer | bunch | bungalow | bunk into | buns | bureau | bureaucrat, bureaucracy, bureaucratic | burgeon, burgeoning | burger | -burgh, -burg | burglarize, burgle | burglary, robbery | burgle | buried | burlesque, farce, lampoon, parody, travesty | burn | burn out, burnout, burn-out, burned-out, burnt-out | burst | bury, buried, -bury | bus, buss, bus boy, busboy, bus | bush, bush league | bushwa, bushwah | business | buss | bust 1 | bust 2 | busyness, business | but | buttle | buttocks, arse, ass, backside, bottom, bum, buns, butt, can, cheeks, rear (end), rump | but which, but who | buy | BUZZWORD | by- | by | by all means | by and by, by and large, by the by, by the way, bye-bye, bye | by heart, by rote | byte | by the by | by the same token | by the way | by way of being | Byzantine, byzantine, Byzantium | cabaña | cabaret | cabernet sauvignon | cablecast | cacao, coca, coco, cocoa | cache | cactus | caddie, caddy | caesarean, caesarian | cagey | Cajun | calculate, calculated, calculating | calculus | caldron, cauldron | calendar, calender | caliber, calibre | calk, caulk | calligraphy | callous, callus, calloused, callused | Calvary | camp, campy | can | can 1, may | can 2, tin, canned, tinned | canard | can but | cancel out | candelabrum, chandelier | canine | cannibalize | cannon, canon | cannot, can not, can't | cannot help but, can but, cannot but, cannot help, cannot choose but, can't but, can't help, can't help but | canon | cañon | CANT | can't | can't but | can't hardly | can't help, can't help but | can't seem | Canuck | canvas, canvass | canyon, cañon | capable, capability | capacity | capital, capitol | CAPITAL LETTERS, CAPITALIZATION | capital punishment, corporal punishment | CAPITALS, CAPITAL LETTERS, CAPITALIZATION | capitol | carat, caret, carrot, karat | carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide | carburetor, carburettor | cardinal number | care | careen, career | careful, carefree, careless | CAREFUL WRITER, GOOD WRITER, THOUGHTFUL WRITER | care less | careless | caret | carillon | caring | carousal, carousel, carrousel | carrot | carrousel | CASE 1 | case 2 | casket, coffin | cast, caste | caster, castor | CASUAL SPEECH | casualty | | cataclysm, catastrophe | catacomb, catafalque, cenotaph | catalog, catalogue | catalyst | catastrophe | catch | catchup | categorical, categorically | category | cater | cater-corner(ed) | catholic, Catholic | catsup | catty-corner(ed) | Caucasian, Caucasoid | cauldron | caulk | CAUSAL AS | cause | caution | cavalry, Calvary | cay | C.E. | -ce, -cy | -cede, -ceed, -sede | CEDILLA | -ceed | ceiling, floor | celebrant, celebrator | cello | Celsius, centigrade | Celt, Celtic | cement, concrete, mortar | cenotaph | censure, censor, censer | centennial, centenary | center 1 | center 2, centre | centigrade | centimeter | centre | centrifugal, centripetal | centrist | century | cereal, serial | cerebral | ceremonial, ceremonious | certain | certainly | certificated, certified, licensed | cesarean, caesarean, caesarian | cession, session


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chaff, chafe | chain reaction | chair | chairman, chairlady, chairperson, chairwoman | chaise longue, chaise lounge | champagne, champaign | chance | chancel, chantry, choir | chancery, chancellery, chancellory | chandelier | CHANGE, LINGUISTIC | CHANGE, SEMANTIC | CHANGE AND VARIATION IN LANGUAGE | chantry | chaperon, chaperone | character, nature | characteristic | charged with (by) | charisma, charismatic | chary | chastened | chastise | château, chateau | chauvinism, chauvinist, chauvinistic | cheap, cheaply | check 1 | check 2, cheque | checkers | cheeks | cheerful, cheery | chemistry | cheque | cherub, cherubim, cherubs | chest | chesterfield | Chicano | chide | chief justice | childish, childlike | chili, chile, chilli | Chinaman, chinaman | chintzy | choice | CHOICE ENGLISH | choir, quire | chord, cord | Christian name | chronic | chukker | chutzpah, chutzpa | -ciate, -ciation, -tiate, -tiation | cipher, cypher | circle | CIRCUMFLEX | CIRCUMLOCUTION | circumstances | cite, site, sight | citizen | civilian | clad | claim | clandestine | clang | CLASS DIALECT | classic, classical | CLASSIFYING GENITIVE | CLAUSE | CLAUSE MODIFIERS | clean 1, cleanly | clean 2, cleanse, cleaner, cleanser | cleanly, cleanliness | clean room | cleanse, cleanser | clear 1 | clear 2, clearly | cleave | clench, clinch | clergyman | clever | clew | CLICHE | client, customer, patron | climactic, climatic, climacteric | clinch | cling, clang | CLIPPING, CLIPPED FORMS, CLIPPED WORDS | clique | clone | close proximity | closure | clothes | cloture, closure | club soda | clue, clew | co- | coalesce | coal oil | coarse, course | COASTAL NEW ENGLAND DIALECT | coca | cockamamie | cock a snook (at) | coco, cocoa | coed, co-ed | coequal | coffin | cognate | cohere, coherence | COHERENCE | cohesion, cohesive | cohort | coiffeur, coiffeuse, coiffure, barber, hairdresser | coined titles | col- | cola, COLA | cold slaw, coleslaw, cole slaw | coliseum, Colosseum | collaborate | collaborator, collaborationist | COLLECTIVE NOUNS | collide, collision | COLLOQUIAL, COLLOQUIALISM | collude, collusion | COLON | colored, of color | Colosseum | com- | coma, comma | comatose | combine | COMBINED FORMS: PREPOSITIONS AND ADVERBS COMBINED WITH VERBS | combo | come | come and | comfort, comforter | comic, comical | COMMA 1 | COMMA 2, INVERTED | COMMA FAULT, COMMA BLUNDER, COMMA ERROR, COMMA SPLICE | COMMA FOR CLARITY | COMMA SPLICE | COMMAND | commander, commandant, commando | commence | commend | commensurate | commentate | commiserate | commitment | committee | common | commonality, commonalty | COMMON ENGLISH | COMMON NOUNS | common sense, common-sense, commonsense | commune | communicate, communication | commute, commuter, commutation | comparable | COMPARATIVE, COMPARATIVE DEGREE | comparatively | compare, contrast | compare to, compare with | COMPARISON | COMPARISON, ILLOGICAL | COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES | COMPARISON OF ADVERBS | compass, a pair of compasses | compatible | compel, impel | compendious | compendium | competence, competency | complacence, complacency | complacent, complaisant, compliant | complaint | complaisant | compleat | complected, complexioned | complement, compliment | complementary, complimentary | COMPLEMENTS | complete, completely, wholly | complex | complexioned | COMPLEX SENTENCE | compliance | compliant | compliment | complimentary | comply | compose | COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE | COMPOUND PREPOSITIONS | COMPOUNDS, COMPOUNDING | COMPOUND SENTENCE | COMPOUND SUBJECTS, AGREEMENT WITH VERBS


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comprehend, apprehend | comprehensive, complete, comprehensible | comprise, compose, consist, constitute, include | comptroller, controller | compulsive, compulsory | COMPUTERESE | con- | concave, convex | concensus | concept, conception | concern | concerned | concert, recital | concerto | CONCISENESS 1, CONCISION | conciseness 2, concision | conclave | conclude | concoct | CONCORD | CONCORD, NOTIONAL | concrete | concretize | concur | condemn, contemn | condensation | condition | CONDITIONALS | conducive | conductor | conduit | conferencing | confess | confidant, confidante, confident | confide | confident | conform | conformity | CONFUSION OF SIMILAR OR APPARENTLY SIMILAR WORDS | confute, refute | congenial, genial | congenital | congratulate, congratulation(s) | congruence, congruent | conjugal, connubial | CONJUNCTION | CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS | connect | connection, connexion | connote, denote | connubial | consciousness, conscience, consciousness raising, consciousness-raising | consensus (of opinion) | consequent | consequential, inconsequential | conservative | CONSERVATIVES IN LANGUAGE MATTERS | CONSERVATIVE USAGE | consider | considerable | considerateness, consideration | consist | consistent | consistently, persistently | consist in, consist of | CONSONANCE | consonant | CONSONANTS 1, THE AMERICAN ENGLISH | CONSONANTS 2, DOUBLING OF | conspicuous by its | CONSTITUENCY | constitute | constrain, restrain | consul | consummate | contact | CONTACT CLAUSES | contagious, infectious | contemn | contemporaneous, contemporary | contemptible, contemptuous | contend | CONTEXT, CONTEXTUAL, CONTEXTUALLY | continual, continuous | continually, continuously | continuance, continuation, continuity | continue on | continuity | continuous | continuously | CONTRACTIONS | contrast | controlled substance | controller | | convenient | conventional | conversant | CONVERSATIONAL | CONVERSATIONAL LEVELS | converse | convex | convict | convince, persuade | cool, coolth | cooperate, collaborate | COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS | cop, bobby | cope | cop out, cop a plea | COPULATIVE VERBS | copy | cord | core, corps | coronate | corporal, corporeal | corps | corpse, corpus, corpus delicti | correct | CORRECTNESS, THE DOCTRINE OF, AND THE DOCTRINE OF APPROPRIATENESS | correspond | corrode | cosmetic, cosmetic, cosmeticize, cosmetize | cosmonaut | cost, cost out | couch | could, might | coulda | could care less, couldn't care less | couldn't hardly | could of | council, counsel, consul | councilor, councillor, counselor(-at-law), counsellor(-at-law) | counsel | counteract | counterfeit | counterproductive | COUNTERWORDS | COUNT NOUNS | coup de grace | couple | couple of, a | course | course of, in the; during the course of | courtesy, curtsy | court martial | cover | craft 1 | craft 2 | craft paper | crape, crepe | crass | crayfish, crawdad, crawfish | crazy, like | create havoc | credence, credibility, credulity, credit, credible, creditable, credulous | creek | creep | cremains | crème de menthe | crepe | crevice, crevasse | crew | crick | cripple, crippled | criterion | criticize, criticism | critique | crow | crunch | cry | cryptic | -ction, -xion | culminate | cultivated, cultured | cum | cumulate, cumulation | cumulative | cupful | curate | curb, kerb | cured | current, currant | currently | curriculum | curtains | curtsy | customer | custom-made | cute | cut in half | cutting edge | -cy | cymbal, symbol | cynosure, sinecure | cypher | Cyprus | -d-, -dd-


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(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20080718023146/http://www.bartleby.com/68/

d', de, di, du | dab, darb | daemon | dago | dairy, diary | dais | Dame, dame | damn, dam('), damfool, dammit, damnable, damnation, damned, damnedest, damning, etc. | dance | DANGLING ADVERB | DANGLING MODIFIERS | darb | dare | daresay, dare say | darkling | DASH | dassent, dassn't | dastard, dastardly | data, datum | date | dates | DATIVE CASE | datum | daughter-in-law | davenport | day and age, in this | day bed | daylight saving(s) time | days | de | de-, dis-, dys- | dead | dead body | deadly, deathly | DEAD METAPHORS | dead reckoning, dead center, dead right | DEADWOOD | deaf, deafened | deal | deal, (not that) big of a | | dear | dear, dearly | dearth | deathly | debacle | debar, disbar | debark, disembark | debatable | debate | debouch, debauch | debrief | debris, débris | debug | debut | debutant, debutante | deca-, dec-, deci- | decade | decadence, decadent | decease, deceased, decedent | deceitful, deceptive | decent | deceptive | deci- | decide | decided, decisive | decimate | decisive | DECLARATIVE SENTENCE | declare | déclassé, declass | decline | décolletage, décolleté | decor, décor | decorous, decent | decoy | decriminalize | decry, descry | dedicated | deduce, deduct, deduction | deductive, inductive | deem | deep, deeply | deer | de-escalate | de facto | defect, deficiency | defective, deficient | defence | defend | defenestrate | defense, defence, defense | defensible, defensive | deficiency | deficient | deficit | defile | definite, definitive, definitely, definitively | deflection, deflexion | defuse, diffuse | dégagé | DEGRADATION, DEGRADED, DEGRADING | DEGREE | degree, to a; to the nth degree | degreed | déjà vu | de jure, de facto | delectable | deleterious | deli | deliberate, deliberative | DELIBERATIVE LEVEL | delible | delimit, delimitate | deliver | deliverance, delivery | delusion, illusion | deluxe, de luxe | demand | demean 1 | demean 2 | demeanor, demeanour | demesne, domain | demi- | demise | demo | Democrat, Democratic | demon, daemon | DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS, DEMONSTRATIVES | demur, demurral, demurrer, demurrage | denominator, numerator | denote | denouement, dénouement | dent, dint | DENTAL SUFFIX | depart | depend | dependant | dependence, dependency | dependent, dependant | DEPENDENT CLAUSES | depository, depositary, repository | depot, station | deprecate, depreciate | deprecating, deprecatory, depreciatory | depreciate | depreciatory | depression, recession | deprive | derby, Derby | derelict, dereliction | de rigueur | derisive, derisory | derive | derogate, derogation | DEROGATORY TERMS | derrière | desalinate, desalinize, desalt | descendant, descendent | description | DESCRIPTIVE GENITIVE | DESCRIPTIVE GRAMMAR AND USAGE | descry | desegregate, integrate, segregate | desegregation, integration, segregation | desert, dessert | deshabille | desideratum | design, destine, intend | (-)designate | designed | desirable, desirous | desire | despair | despatch | desperado | despicable | despite | despoil | despondent | dessert | destine, destined | destroyed | destruct, self-destruct | destructible, indestructible | destructive | detail | detente, détente | deter, deterring, deterrent | deteriorate | determinately, determinedly | DETERMINERS | deterrent, deterrence | detour | detract, distract | develop, development | DEVERBAL OR DEVERBATIVE NOUNS | deviate, deviant | device, devise | devil's advocate


(E?)(L1) http://www.bartleby.com/68/a10.html


(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20080718023146/http://www.bartleby.com/68/

devise | deviser, devisor, divisor | devoid | devolve | dexterous, dextrous, dexterously, dexterity, dexterousness, ambidextrous, ambidextrously, ambidexterity | di | diabolic, diabolical | DIACRITICS, DIACRITICAL MARKS | diagnose | diagnosis, prognosis | DIAGONAL | diagram | dial | DIALECT | DIALECTAL, dialectical, dialectic(s) | DIALECTOLOGY, DIALECTOLOGIST | dialogue, dialog | diamond, diaper | diarrhea, diarrhoea | diary | diatribe | dice | dicey | dichotomy | dictate | DICTION | DICTIONARIES | dictum | didn't ought | didn't use to | die, dye | DIERESIS, DIAERESIS | diesel | dietetics, dietician, dietitian | differ | different, separate | different from, different than, different to | differentiate, distinguish | differently abled | different than, different to | diffuse | dig | digest | DIGRAPHS | dike, dyke | dilapidated, dilapidate | dilemma | diminuendo | diminution | dine | dinghy, dingy | dinner, supper | dint | diphtheria, diphthong, naphtha, ophthalmology | DIPHTHONG | diplomat, diplomatist, diplomate | direct, directly | DIRECT ADDRESS, DIRECT QUOTATION, INDIRECT ADDRESS, INDIRECT DISCOURSE, INDIRECT QUOTATION | DIRECT OBJECT | director | dirigible | DIRTY WORDS | dis- | disability, disabled, disadvantaged | disagree | disappointed, disappoint, disappointment | disapprove | disassemble | disassociate | disastrous | disbar | disburse, disperse | disc | discernible, discernable | disciplinary | disco, discotheque, discothèque | discombobulate | discomfit, discomfiture, discomfort, uncomfortable, uncomfortably | discontent | discotheque | discourage | discourse | DISCOURSE, INDIRECT | discover, invent | discreet, discrete | discrepancy, disparity | discrete | discriminate, discrimination | discus | discuss | discussable, discussible | disembark | disenfranchise | disfavor, disfavour | disfranchise, disenfranchise | disgruntle, disgruntled | disgusted | dishabille, deshabille | disinformation, misinformation, propaganda | disinterest, disinterestedness, uninterest | disinterested, uninterested | DISJUNCTS, ADVERBIAL | disk, disc | dislike | dismayed | disorient, disorientate | DISPARAGING LABELS | disparate | disparity | dispassionate, impassioned | dispatch, despatch | dispel | dispense, dispose | dispersal, dispersion | disperse | dispersion | displace, replace | disposal, disposition | dispose, dispose of | disposition | dispossess | disputable | dispute | disqualified | disqualify | disregard | disremember | dissatisfied, unsatisfied | dissect | dissemble, disassemble | dissension | dissent | dissertation, thesis | dissimilar | DISSIMILATION | dissimulate | dissociate, disassociate | distaff | distaste | distasteful, tasteless | distill, distil | distinct, distinctive | distinguish | distinguished, distinguishing | distract | distrait, distracted, distraught | distressed | distrust | distrustful | dive 1 | dive 2 | divergent | diverse, divers | diversion | divest | divide, divide up | DIVIDED USAGE | dividend, divisor, quotient | divide up | divisive | divisor | divorce | divorcé, divorcée | djin, djinn | do 1 | do 2, doings | dock, dry dock, graving dock, pier, wharf, dry-dock | doctor, Dr. | doctrinal | dodo | doesn't | doff, don | dogged, dog | dog watch | doings | dolor, dolour, dolorous | dolphin, porpoise | domain | | domicile | dominate, domineer, domineering | dominie | domino | don | donate | done | donnybrook | don't, doesn't | don't let's | don't seem | don't think | donut | dope | dote | dotty | DOUBLE COMPARATIVE, DOUBLE COMPARISON | DOUBLE ENTENDRE | DOUBLE GENITIVE | DOUBLE HYPHEN


(E?)(L1) http://www.bartleby.com/68/a11.html


(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20080718023146/http://www.bartleby.com/68/

double in brass | DOUBLE MEANING, DOUBLE ENTENDRE | DOUBLE MODAL AUXILIARIES | DOUBLE NEGATIVE | DOUBLE PASSIVE | DOUBLE POSSESSIVE | DOUBLE QUOTATION MARKS | | DOUBLE SUBJECTS | DOUBLE SUPERLATIVE | DOUBLE TALK | DOUBLING | doubt | doubtful | doubtless, doubtlessly, indubitably, no doubt, undoubtedly, unquestionably, without doubt | doughnut, donut | dour | douse, dowse | dove | dower, dowry | down | down and out | downer, upper | downplay | downsize | DOWN STYLE | down the drain, down the pipe, down the tube(s) | down the pike | down the pipe, down the tube | downward, downwards | dowry | dowse | dozen | Dr. | draft, draught | drag | drank | drapes, draperies, curtains | draught(s) | drave | drawer, drawers | drawing room | dream | dreck, drek | drench | drier, dryer | drily | drink | drive | drivel | driven | drop 1 | drop 2 | dropout | drought, drouth | drove | drown | drug | druggist, pharmacist | drug(s) | drunk, drunken | druthers | dry dock, dry-dock | dryer | dryly, drily | du | dual, duel | DUAL COMPARISON | DUAL PRONOUN DECLENSION | dub | dubious | duct tape, duck tape | duel | due to, because of, owing to | due to the fact that | dully, duly | dumb, mute | dumbfound, dumfound | DUMMY SUBJECTS | duo, duo- | duodecimo, folio, octavo, quarto, twelvemo, 12mo | duologue | duopoly | duplicate, duplication, duplicity, duplicitous | durance, duress | during the course of | Dutch, Pennsylvania Dutch | duvet | dwarf | dwell | dyeing | dyke | dynamo | dynasty | dys- | dyslexia, dyslexic | DYSPHEMISM | each | each and every, each and all | each other, one another | eager | EARLY MODERN ENGLISH | early on | Earth, the earth | earthly, earthy, earthen | easily | east, East, easterly, Eastern, eastern | EASTERN NEW ENGLAND REGIONAL DIALECT | eastward, eastwards | easy, easily | eatable, edible | echelon | ECHOIC WORDS | ecology, environment | economic, economical | ecstasy, ecstacy | ect. | -ection, -exion | edible | edifice | EDITED ENGLISH | EDITORIAL WE | EDUCATIONESE | educationist, educator | -ee | e'er, e're, ere, ere | effect | effective, effectual, efficacious, efficient | EFFECTIVENESS | effectual | effectuate | effeminate, female, feminine, womanly | effete | efficacious, efficient | effluent | effluvium | effrontery | e.g., i.e. | egis | egoist, egotist | egregious, egregiously | either, either … or | eke, eke out, eke | elder, eldest, older, oldest | elderly | eldest | electric, electrical, electronic, electronics | elegant, elegance | ELEGANT VARIATION | elegy, eulogy | elephantine | ELEVATION, ELEVATED | elicit, illicit | eligible, ineligible | ELLIPSIS 1 | ELLIPSIS 2 | ELLIPSIS 3 | elope, elopement | else | elude | elusion | elusive, allusive, illusive, illusory | emanate | embark | embellish | emend | emerge | emigrant, immigrant, immigration, in-migration, migrant, migration, outmigration, emigrate, immigrate, migrate | eminent, immanent, imminent | emote | emotional, emotive | empanel | empathetic, sympathetic, empathize, sympathize, empathy, sympathy | EMPHASIS | EMPHATIC PRONOUNS | employ | employee, employe | emporium | empowerment | EMPTY SUBJECTS | enamor | enclave | enclose, inclose, enclosure, inclosure | encomium | encounter | encroach | end | end, rear | endeavor, attempt, try | ended, ending | endemic, epidemic, pandemic | ending | ENDING A SENTENCE WITH A PREPOSITION | endite | endless | endorse, indorse | endow | end product, end result | end up


(E?)(L1) http://www.bartleby.com/68/a12.html


(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20080718023146/http://www.bartleby.com/68/

enervate, innervate, innerve | enfranchise | engage | England | ENGLISH AND AMERICAN DIFFERENCES IN MEANING, PRONUNCIATION, SPELLING, AND VOCABULARY | English (the) | enhance | enigma, mystery, puzzle, riddle | enigmatic | enjoin | enjoy | enormity, enormousness | enough | enquire, enquirer, enquiry | en route | ensemble | ensure | en't, in't | enter | enthrall, enthral | enthuse | entitle | entitlement | entrust, intrust, trust | enunciate, enunciation | enure | envelop, envelope | envious, enviable | environment | ENVIRONMENT IN PRONUNCIATION | envisage, envision | envoy 1, envoi | envoy 2 | eon, aeon | epic | EPICENE PRONOUNS | epicure, epicurean, Epicurean, epicureanism, Epicureanism | epidemic | | episcopal, Episcopal, Anglican, Episcopalian | epistle, missive | | epithet | epitome | epoch | EPONYM, EPONYMOUS | equable, equitable | equal | equally as | equilibrium | equine | equitable | equivalent | equivocal, ambiguous, ambivalent, cryptic, dubious, enigmatic, mysterious | -er, -est | -er, -or | -er, -re | e're, ere | erode, corrode | erotic | erotica | err | errant, arrant | errata | ersatz | erstwhile, erstwhiles | erupt, irrupt, eruptive, irruptive | -es | escalate | escalator | escape | escapee | esophagus, oesophagus | especial, especially | | Esq. | -esque | Esquire, Esq. | -ess, -ette, -euse, -ienne, -ine, -ix | essay | essential | -est | Establishment, the | esthete, esthetic | estimate | estimation | estrange | estrogen, oestrogen | et al. | etc., et cetera | eth | -eth | Ethiopian | ethnic, ethnicity | ETHNIC SLURS AND TERMS OF ETHNIC OPPROBRIUM, ETHNIC DESIGNATIONS | -ette | ETYMOLOGICAL FALLACY | ETYMOLOGY | ETYMON | eulogy | euphemism, euphuism | EUPHEMISMS, GENTEELISMS | euphuism | -euse | evacuate | even | event (that), in the | eventuate, eventuality | ever, ever so (often), ever such | every | everybody, everyone | everyday, every day | everyone | everyplace | every so often | every time | every which way | evidence | evidently | evoke, invoke | evolute, evolve | ex-, former, late | exact same | exceed | exceedingly, excessively | except | exception | exceptionable, exceptional | exception proves the rule, the | excess | excessively | excise | excitement, excitation | EXCLAMATION POINT, EXCLAMATION MARK | exclude | exclusive | EXCLUSIVE LANGUAGE | excuse | execrable | execute, assassinate, kill, murder, slay | executor, executioner, executrix | exemplar, exemplary | exhaustive, exhausting | exhibitor, exhibitioner, exhibitionist | exhilarate, exhilaration | exhorbitant | exhuberance, exhuberant | -exion | exist | existence, existent | exonerate | exorbitant | expatriate, expatriot | expect | expectant, expecting | expectorate, expectoration | expediate | expedience, expediency, expedition, expeditiousness | expedient, expeditious, expediently, expeditiously | expedite, expediate | expedition | expeditious, expeditiously | expeditiousness | expel | expensive | experience | expert, expertly | expertise | expertize | explain, explanation | EXPLETIVE 1 | EXPLETIVE 2 | explicable | explicate, explain, explication, explanation | EXPOSITORY WRITING, EXPOSITION | ex post facto | expressive | expresso | expressway | exquisite | extant | extemporaneous, impromptu, extempore | extemporize, temporize | extended, extensive | extension | extent, extant | extenuate, extenuating | exterior, external, extraneous, extrinsic | extract, extricate | extraneous | extraordinary | extricate | extrinsic | exuberance, exuberant | exude | EYE DIALECT | eye to eye | eyrie, eyry


(E?)(L1) http://www.bartleby.com/68/a13.html


(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20080718023146/http://www.bartleby.com/68/

-f, -fe | fable | fabulous, fabled | façade, facade | faced | face down | face up to | | facilitator | facility, faculty | facsimile | fact, in fact, in point of fact, the fact is, the fact of the matter is, the fact that | factious, factitious, fictitious | fact is, the; the fact of the matter is | factitious | factor | factotum | facts, true | fact that, the | faculty | faerie, faery | fag, faggot, fagot, fagoting, faggotting | fag end | faggot, faggotting, fagot, fagoting | fail | failing | fair, fare | fairy, faerie, faery, fay | fait accompli | faithfully | fake | faker, fakir | fake titles | fakir | fall | fallacy | fallible, fallacious | false | FALSE COMPARISON, ILLOGICAL COMPARISON, INCOMPLETE COMPARISON | falsehood, falseness, falsity | false titles, bogus titles, coined titles, fake titles | falsity | familiar | fantastic, fantastically | fantasy, phantasy | farce | fare | farther, all the | farther, fartherest, farthest, further, furtherest, furthest | fascinated, fascination | fascinator | fatal, fateful | fated | fateful | father | father-in-law | fault | FAULTY PARALLELISM | faun, fawn | fauna, flora | faux pas | favor, favour | favorable | favorite | favour | fawn | fay | faze, fease, feeze, phase | -fe | fearful, fearsome, fearfully, fearsomely | fease | feasible | feature | feaze | February | fee | feed | feedback | feel | feel bad, feel badly | feel good, feel well | feet | feeze | feisty | feline | fell swoop, one | felony, misdemeanor, violation | female | feminine | FEMININE GENDER | FEMININE OCCUPATIONAL FORMS, FEMININE GENDER FORMS | feminism, feminist | FEMINIST VIEWS OF ENGLISH | ferment, foment | ferrule, ferule, feral | fervent, fervid | fever | fewer | fey, fay | fiancé, fiancee | fiber, fibre | fictitious, fictional | fiddle | field | FIELD LABELS | figurative | figuratively | figure | FIGURE OF SPEECH | Filipino | FILLERS | final | final analysis | finalize | fine, finely | fine arts | finicky, finicking, finical | finished | FINITE AND NONFINITE VERBS | fireproof, fire-resistant, fire-retardant | firm | first | first and foremost | first floor, ground floor | firstly, first | first name, baptismal name, Christian name, forename, given name | FIRST PERSON SINGULAR AND PLURAL | first two/two first, last three/three last | fish | fit 1 | fit 2 | fix | flaccid | flack | flagrant | flair | flak, flack | flak jacket | flamingo | flammable, incombustible, inflammable, noncombustible, nonflammable | flare | flat, flatly | FLAT ADVERBS | flatly | flaunt, flout | flautist | flavor, flavour | flee | flesh, flesh tones, flesh-color(ed), skin-color(ed) | fleshly, fleshy | flesh tones | fleshy | flier, flyer | FLOATING ADVERB | floor | floppy disk | flora | flotsam, jetsam | flounder, founder | flout | flunk | fluoride, fluorine, fluorescent | flush | flutist, flautist | fly, flee | flyer | fob | fo'c'sle | focus | foist, fob | folio | folk, folks | FOLK ETYMOLOGY | folks | follow | following | foment | fond | fondness | foot | for | forbear, forebear | forbid | forceful, forced, forcible | forcemeat | forceps | forcible | forebear | forecast | forecastle, fo'c'sle | forego, forgo | forehead | foreign, alien, foreigner | FOREIGN PHRASES, FOREIGN WORDS, AND FOREIGNISMS | FOREIGN PLURALS | FOREIGN WORDS | forename | foreseeable future | foreword, introduction, preface | for free, free, gratis, without charge, without cost


(E?)(L1) http://www.bartleby.com/68/a14.html


(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20080718023146/http://www.bartleby.com/68/

forget | forgetful | forgo | forlorn | FORMAL AGREEMENT | FORMAL LANGUAGE | formally | FORMAL WRITTEN ENGLISH, FORMAL LANGUAGE, FORMAL USAGE | former, latter | formerly, currently, formally | formidable | formula | formulate, assemble, compose, concoct | for nothing | forte | forthcoming, forthright | for the simple reason (that) | fortissimo | fortuitous, fortunate, fortuitously, fortunately | forum | forward | FOSSIL SUBJUNCTIVES | foul, fowl | found | founder | fowl | | fragrance | franchise | Franglais | frantically, franticly | fraught | free, freely | freedom | free gift | freely | freeway | FRENCH PLURALS | FREQUENCY | friable | fridge | friend | friendly, friendlily, friendlylike | frightened | frightfully | fro | from hence, from thence, from whence | frown | FROZEN FIGURES | fruitful | fruition | fugitive | -ful | full | full dress, full-dress | full-faced, full-figured, full-face | full-fashioned | full-figured | fulsome | fun | FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIVES | FUNCTIONAL GRAMMARS | FUNCTIONAL SHIFT | FUNCTION WORDS | fungus | funny | further, furtherest, furthest | FUSED PARTICIPLE | future 1 | future 2, in the near; in the not too distant future | FUTURE TENSE, NOTIONAL FUTURE | FUTURE PERFECT TENSE | -g, -ge | -g-, -gg- | gabardine, gaberdine | gage | gainfully employed | gainsay | gala | gall | gallant | gallows | gallows humor | galore | gambit | gamble, gambol | gamer | gamut | gamy, gamey | ganglion | gantlet | gaol, gaoler | gap | garage | garb | gargantuan, gigantic | garote, garrote, garrotte | gas | gaseous | | gather | gaucho | gauge, gage, gouge, gouging | gauntlet, gantlet | gay | gazebo | -ge | gear | gendarme | gender 1 | GENDER 2, GRAMMATICAL AND NATURAL | gender gap | genealogy | General, general | general consensus | GENERALIZATION | GENERALIZATIONS, GRAMMATICAL | generation gap | generic | GENERIC PRONOUNS | GENERIC THIRD PERSON MASCULINE SINGULAR PRONOUN | GENERIC WORDS | genetic, congenital, innate | genial | genie, djin, djinn | GENITIVE, ATTRIBUTIVE | GENITIVE, CLASSIFYING | GENITIVE, DESCRIPTIVE | GENITIVE, DOUBLE | GENITIVE, INDEPENDENT | | GENITIVE, PERIPHRASTIC | GENITIVE, SUBJECTIVE | GENITIVE BEFORE A GERUND | GENITIVE CASE | GENITIVE OF ORIGIN | GENITIVE OF PURPOSE | genius | gent | genteel, gentle, gentile | GENTEELISM | gentile | gentle | gentleman, gentlewoman | gentrification, gentrify | genuine | genus | geometric progression | geriatric, geriatrics | germ | German, Germanic, Teutonic | GERMANIC LANGUAGES | gerrymander | GERUND | GERUND, GENITIVE WITH | GERUND, POSSESSIVE WITH | gesture, gesticulation | get | get hold of, get ahold of | get up | -gg- | ghetto | gibe | gift | gigantic | gild the lily | gill | gimmick, gimmicky | Gipsy, gipsy | girl | girlfriend, boyfriend | girlish | git | given name | gladiola, gladiolus | glamour, glamor, glamorize, glamorous | glance | glean | glimpse, glance | GLOTTAL STOP | glow | go | go along with | | go and | go ape | gobbledygook, gobbledegook | goes without saying, that (it) | gofer, go-fer | good, well | good and | goodwill, good will | GOOD WRITER | gopher, gofer, go-fer | go somebody (them) one better


(E?)(L1) http://www.bartleby.com/68/a17.html


(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20080718023146/http://www.bartleby.com/68/

INCLUSIVE LANGUAGE | incoherent | incombustible | incoming | incomparable, irrefutable, irreparable, irrevocable | INCOMPARABLES | INCOMPLETE COMPARISON | INCOMPLETE SENTENCES | incongruous | in connection with | inconsequential | incorporate | incredible, incredulous | incubus | inculcate | incumbent | incursion | indecorous | INDEFINITE PRONOUNS | INDEFINITE YOU, INDEFINITE ONE | independence | independent | INDEPENDENT CLAUSE | INDEPENDENT GENITIVES | in-depth, in depth | indestructible | indeterminately | index | Indian | INDICATIVE, SUBJUNCTIVE | indict, indite | indifferent | INDIRECT ADDRESS, INDIRECT DISCOURSE | INDIRECT OBJECT | INDIRECT QUOTATION | indiscriminate, indiscriminating, undiscriminate, undiscriminating | indisputable | individual | INDO-EUROPEAN | indorse | indubitably | induce, deduce | induction, deduction | inductive | indulge | indulgent | -ine | inedible, poisonous, uneatable, unedible | ineffective, ineffectual, inefficacious | ineligible | inept | in excess of | inexecrable, execrable, inexorable | inexplicable | | infamous, infamy | infatuated | infectious | infer, imply | inferior, superior | inferno | infest | infiltrate | infiltration | INFINITIVE 1 | INFINITIVE 2, SUBJECT OF AN | INFIX | inflammable | INFLATED DICTION | INFLECTION, INFLEXION, INFLECTED, INFLECTIONAL | inflict, afflict | influence | INFORMAL WRITTEN ENGLISH, INFORMAL USAGE, INFORMAL | informant, informer | infrastructure | infringe | infuse | -ing | ingenious, ingenuous, ingenuity, ingenuousness | ingenue, ingénue | ingenuity, ingenuous, ingenuousness | in-group | inhabitable | inhibit, prohibit | in hope(s) of, in hope(s) that | inhuman, nonhuman, unhuman | inimical, inimicable | INITIALISMS | initials as abbreviations for names of people | ink, pencil | INKHORN TERMS | in kind | INLAND NORTHERN REGIONAL DIALECT | -in-law, in-law | in length, in number, in shape, in size, in width | in line | in-migrant, in-migrate, in-migration | innate | innervate, innerve | inning | innocent | innovation, innovative | in number | inoculate | in one's birthday suit | in order that | in order to | in part | in point of fact | input, output, throughput, thruput | inquire, enquire, enquirer, enquiry, inquirer, inquiry | in re | in regard(s) to | in respect to, in respect of, respecting, with respect to | inroad | insanitary, unsanitary | insensible, insensitive | inseparable | in shape | in short supply | inside, inside of | insight | insightful | insignia | insinuate | insist | in size | insoluble, insolvable | inspire, inspiration, inspirational | inspissate, inspissated, inspissation | in spite of | in spite of the fact that | instance | instill, instil | instinctive, instinctual | institution, institutionalize | instruct | instructional, instructive | instructor | INSTRUMENTAL CASE | insure, assure, ensure | insurance, assurance | in surgery | in't | integral | integrate | integration | intend | intend for | intense | INTENSIFIERS, INTENSIVES | intensive, intense | INTENSIVES | intent 1 | intent 2, intention | inter | inter-, intra- | intercede | interest | interesting, interestingly, interestingly enough | interface | interment, internment | in terms of | international, foreign | | internecine | internment | interpersonal | interpose | interpretive, interpretative | INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS | INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE | interstate | intervene | intestinal fortitude | in that case, in the case of | in the absence of | in the altogether | in the buff | in the circumstances | in the course of | in the event that | in the final analysis | in the hope(s) of, in the hope(s) that | in the last analysis | in the light of, in light of | in the near future, in the not too distant future | in the worst way | in this day and age | INTIMATE LEVEL | into | intolerant, intolerable | INTONATION | intra- | INTRANSITIVE VERBS | intricate, intricacy | intrigue | introduce | introduction


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(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20080718023146/http://www.bartleby.com/68/

intrude | INTRUSION, INTRUSIVE R, INTRUSIVE SOUND OR LETTER | intrust | intuit | inundate | inure, enure | inveigh, inveigle | invent | inverse | inversion 1, diversion, perversion | INVERSION 2, SYNTACTIC | INVERSION IN QUESTIONS | INVERTED COMMAS | invest | in view of the fact that | invite | invoke | involve | invulnerable | in whole, in part | in width | iota | IPA | ir- | iridescent | ironically | IRONY | irrefutable | irregardless | irrelevant | irreligious, nonreligious, not religious, unreligious | irreparable | irrevocable | irrupt, irruptive | is, are | is because | | ism, -ism | isolate | Israeli | issue | -ist | -istic | is when, is where | it | Italian | ITALIAN PLURALS | Italian sandwich | ITALICS | iterate | it goes without saying | it is I who, it is they who | its, it's | it's me | -ix | jacket | jamb, jam | JAP | Jap, Japanese | JARGON, CANT | jawbone | jealous, zealous | jeer | jejune | jetsam | jet set | Jew, Israeli, jew, Jewish | jewelry, jewellery | Jewess | jibe, gibe, gybe | job action | jobless | john | join | jot | JOURNALESE | Jr. | judgment, judgement | judicial, judicious | judiciary | judicious | Jugoslavia | juncture | junior | junket | junkie, junky | junta | jurist, juror | just | just as | Justice | justify, explain, account for | juvenile | juvenilia | kangaroo | karat | kempt | kerb | kernel | kerosene, coal oil, kerosine, paraffin | ketchup, catchup, catsup | key | kibbutz | | kickback | kickoff, kick off | kid | kill | -kill | kilo | kilo- | kilometer | kilt, kilts | kin | kind, in | kind, manner, sort, style, type, way | kindly | King James | kith | kitsch, kitschy | kitty-corner(ed), catty-corner(ed), cater-corner(ed) | klutz | knee-jerk | kneel | knickers | knife | knit | knock up | knot | know | know as, know that | know-how | knowing, knowledgeable | know that | kosher | kowtow | kraft paper, craft paper | kudos, kudo | -l-, -ll- | lab, Lab | labor, labour | laboratory, lavatory | labour | lack | lacuna | lad, lass | lade | laden | LADINO | lady | lady-in-waiting | lag | laid-back | lama, llama | lament | lamentable | lampoon | landward, landwards | LANGUAGE COMMUNITY | LANGUAGE OF BASEBALL | LANGUAGE OF BASKETBALL | large, largely | largeness | large-scale, small-scale | larva | larynx | lass | last, latest | lastly | last three | late | later on, later | latest | LATINATE VOCABULARY VERSUS ANGLO-SAXON WORDS | LATIN PLURALS | latter | laudable, laudatory | laugh | lavatory | lawman | lawyer, attorney, attorney-at-law, barrister, counsel, counselor, counselor-at-law, solicitor | lay, lie | lay hold of | lay of the land | lead | leader | leading edge | leading question | leaf | lean | leap | learn, teach | learned | leary | lease, rent, let


(E?)(L1) http://www.bartleby.com/68/a20.html


(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20080718023146/http://www.bartleby.com/68/

materiel | mathematical progression | matrix | mature, maturity | maunder, meander | mauve | maxim | maximize, minimize | maximum | may | may, might | maybe, may be | may can | mayo | may of | mayoral, mayoralty | Mc- | me | meager, meagre | mean | meander | mean for, intend for, want for | MEANING | MEANING: AMERICAN AND BRITISH DIFFERENCES | meaningful | meaningless, mindless, nonsensical, senseless, silly | means | meant | meantime, meanwhile | measles | medal, meddle | media | median, average, mean, modal, mode | mediate | medieval, mediaeval | mediocre | meditate | medium, media, mediums | meet with, meet up, meet up with | mega, mega-, meg- | meld | melted | memento | memo | memorandum | mendacity, mendicity | menial | mentality | mention | meretricious, meritorious | | mesdames | Messrs. | metal, mettle | metamorphosis | METAPHORS | METATHESIS | meter, metre | meticulous | metre | METROPOLITAN NEW YORK CITY REGIONAL DIALECT | mettle | Mexican, Mexican-American | MIDDLE ENGLISH | might | mighta | might could, might should, might would | mightily | might of | might've | might would | mighty, mightily | migrant, migrate, migration | milieu | militate | milliard | mind-boggling | mindless | mine | mine, my, in compound constructions | mineralogy | minimal | minimize | miniscule | minister | minor | minority | minus | minuscule, miniscule | minute | minutia | misanthrope, misogamist, misogynist | mischievous | misdemeanor, misdemeanour | mishap, accident | misinformation | mislead | misogamist, misogynist | MISPLACED MODIFIERS, MISRELATED MODIFIERS | Miss, Misses | missile, missal, missive | Missis, missis, Missus, missus | misspell, misspelling | MISSPELLING | Mister, mister | mistrust, distrust | mistrustful | misunderstanding | mitigate | mix | MIXED METAPHORS | -mm- | mnemonic | moat | mobile, movable, moveable | mock, mock up, mockup, mock-up | modal | MODAL AUXILIARIES, MODALS | mode | MODE | modern, modernistic | MODERN ENGLISH | modernistic | MODIFIERS, MODIFICATION, STRUCTURES OF MODIFICATION | | Mohammed | Mohammedan | mold, mould | molt, moult | molten, melted | momentarily | momentary, momentous | momento | momentous | money | Mongol | mongoose | monogram, monograph | monologue, dialog, dialogue, duologue, monolog | monopoly | MOOD, MODE | moot | moral, morale | moratorium | more, most | more important, more importantly | mores | more than one | MORPHOLOGY | mortar | Moslem | mosquito | most 1 | most 2 | most important, most importantly | mostly | mote, moat | mother-in-law | motif, motive | motorway | mould | moult | movable | move, your | moveable | mow | Mr., Mister, mister | Mrs., Missis, missis, Missus, missus | ms, MS | Ms., Ms | much | muchly | mucous, mucus | mug, mugging | Muhammad | Muhammadan | mulatto, half-breed, octoroon, quadroon | multilateral | multiple negation | munch | munchies | murder | murderer | muse | MUSLIM, MOHAMMEDAN, MOSLEM, MUHAMMADAN | must 1 | must 2 | musta | | must needs | must of, must've | mute | mutual, common, reciprocal | my, mine, in compound constructions | myself | mysterious


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(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20080718023146/http://www.bartleby.com/68/

mystery | myth, mythical | -n-, -nn- | 'n' | nadir | nag | naif, naif, naive, naive, naivete, naiveté, naïveté, naivety, naivety | naked, nude | namely | names of organizations | naphtha | napkin | narc | narcissus | narcotic | nary | native | Native American | NATURAL LANGUAGE, ARTIFICIAL LANGUAGE | nature | naught, nought | nauseous, nauseated, nauseating | naval, navel | nay | near, nearly | nearby, near by | nearly | near miss | neat | neaten | nebula | necessary | necessity | née, nee | need | needless to say | needs | ne'er | NEGATION | NEGATIVE | NEGATIVE-RAISING | neglectful | negligent, negligible | negotiate | Negress | Negro | neither | neither … nor | NEOLOGISM | ne plus ultra | nerve-wracking, nerve-racking | -ness, -ty | NEUTER GENDER | never | new innovation | new record | news | NEW YORK CITY DIALECT | next | nice | nice and | nicely | nicety, niceness | nickel, nickle | nickname | nigger | nigh | nights | -nik | nimbus | nite | | -nn- | no | nobody, no one | nod (the head) | no doubt | no-host | nohow | noisome, noisy | no less than | nom de plume | NOMINAL 1 | nominal 2 | NOMINATIVE CASE | non- | NONCE WORD, NEOLOGISM | noncombustible | none | nonetheless | none too | NONFINITE VERBS | nonflammable | nonhuman | nonreligious | NONRESTRICTIVE APPOSITIVES | NONRESTRICTIVE CLAUSES | NONRESTRICTIVE MODIFIERS | NONSENSE WORD | nonsensical | non sequitur | nonsocial | NONSTANDARD | non-U | no one | noplace | no problem | nor | normalcy, normality | north, North, northerly, northern, Northern | NORTHERN REGIONAL DIALECT | NORTHERN URBAN AMERICAN BLACK ENGLISH | NORTH MIDLAND REGIONAL DIALECT | northward, northwards | no sooner | nostalgia | nosy, nosey | not about to | not all, all … not | not all that | notary public | not as, not so | not … but | not hardly | nother | nothing loath | notion | NOTIONAL AGREEMENT (NOTIONAL CONCORD) | NOTIONAL FUTURE | NOTIONAL PASSIVE | NOTIONAL SUBJECT | not only … but also | notorious, infamous, infamy, notoriety | not religious | not so, not as | not that big of a deal | not too | not to worry | not un- | nought | NOUN ADJUNCT | NOUN MODIFIER | NOUN PHRASES | NOUNS | NOUNS AS ADJECTIVES | NOUNS AS VERBS, VERBIFIED NOUNS | NOUNS ENDING IN -F, -FE: SPELLING AND PRONUNCIATION OF PLURALS AND FUNCTIONAL SHIFTS TO VERBS | NOUNS JOINED BY AND, OR | nouveau riche | now | no way | nowhere near | nowheres | nth | nubile | nuclear | nucleus | nude | NUMBER 1 | number 2 | NUMBER IN NOUNS ENDING IN -ICS | numbers | numbers, cardinal and ordinal | NUMBERS, THE VERBAL REPRESENTATION OF | numerals, Arabic | numerals, Roman | numerator | numerous | nuptial, nuptials | nurse | O, oh | -o | oasis | oater | oath | obedient | obeisance, obesity | | objet d'art, art object, object of art | obligated, obliged, obligate, oblige | obliqueness, obliquity | oblivious, forgetful, neglectful, unaware | obnoxious | OBSCENE 1 | obscene 2, obscenity | observance, observation | observant | observation | obsessed | OBSOLETE 1, OBSOLESCENT | obsolete 2, obsolescent | obtain


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(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20080718023146/http://www.bartleby.com/68/

picturesque | pidgin, pigeon | PIDGIN ENGLISH | piece, peace | pier | pier glass | pigeon | PIG LATIN | pigmy | pilaf | Pilipino | pinch-hit, pinch hitter | pip | pique | piqué, piquet | pistil, pistol, pistole | pit | piteous, pitiable, pitiful | -place, -where | placebo | PLAGIARISM | plaid, tartan | plain, plane | plaintiff, complaint, plaintive | plan | plane | PLANNED LEVEL | plateau | plausible | play | playwright, playwrite | plead | pleasantry, pleasantness | please | pleasing | pled | plenitude, plentitude | plenteous, plentiful | plentitude | plenty | PLEONASMS | plethora | plow, plough | plunge | PLUPERFECT TENSE | PLUPLUPERFECT TENSE | PLURAL | plurality | PLURALS OF COMPOUND NOUNS | PLURALS OF LETTERS AND NUMBERS | PLURALS OF NOUNS, THE REGULAR PATTERNS FOR | PLURALS OF NOUNS, UNCHANGING | PLURALS OF NOUNS ENDING IN -F, -FE | PLURALS OF NOUNS ENDING IN -O | plus | plus fours | P.M. | podium, dais, lectern, pulpit | poetess | POETIC, LITERARY | POETRY, THE QUOTATION OF | point in time | point is, the | point of fact, in | point of view | poison, poisonous | poke | police officer, policeman, policewoman | political, politic | politically correct, P(.)C(.), political correctness | politics | pollute, pollution | polyglot | pommel, pummel | poncho | ponder | poof, poofter | poor boy | poorly | pop | pore, pour | pork | porpoise | portentous, pretentious | portfolio | portico | portion | PORTMANTEAU WORDS | positive attitude, positive advice, positive influence, positive thinking | POSITIVE DEGREE, COMPARATIVE DEGREE, SUPERLATIVE DEGREE | POSITIVES, LOST | positivism | possess, have, own | possessed | POSSESSIVE | POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS | POSSESSIVE WITH GERUND | possibility | possible, probable | POSSLQ | posterior | post-graduate | postscript | potato | pouf, poof, poofter, pouff, pouffe, poof | pour | -pp- | practicable, practical | practically | practice, practise | preacher | precede, proceed | precedence, precedent(s) | precip, precipitation | precipitate, precipitous, precipitately, precipitously | precipitation | precipitous, precipitously | précis | preclude | precondition, condition | predestine | PREDICATE 1 | predicate 2 | PREDICATE ADJECTIVE | PREDICATE NOMINATIVE | predominant, predominate, predominantly, predominately | preemie | preempt, pre-empt | preface | prefer | preferable | preference | PREFIX | PREFIXES, HYPHENATION OF | pregnant | prejudice, prejudiced | prejudicial | premature | premier, première, premiere | premises, premise, premiss | PREPOSITION 1, ENDING A SENTENCE WITH A | PREPOSITION 2, PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE | prerequisite | prescribe, proscribe | PRESCRIPTIVE AND DESCRIPTIVE GRAMMAR AND USAGE | present | present incumbent | presently | PRESENT PARTICIPLES | PRESENT PERFECT TENSE | PRESENT TENSE | present writer, present author, present commentator, present observer | preside | PRESTIGE DIALECT | presume | presumptive, presumptuous | pretense, pretence | pretentious | PRETENTIOUS WORDS | PRETERIT(E) | preternatural | pretty | prevail | prevaricate, procrastinate | prevent | preventative, preventive | previous to, prior to | prewar | priest, clergyman, curate, dominie, minister, parson, pastor, preacher, rabbi, rector, vicar | prima donna | PRIMARY REFERENCE | PRIMARY STRESS, SECONDARY STRESS, TERTIARY STRESS, UNSTRESSED | principal, principle | PRINCIPAL PARTS OF VERBS | principle | PRINCIPLE OF PROXIMITY | prioritize | prior to | prise | pristine | privatize | prix fixe | prize, prise, pry | pro | proactive | probable | probability | problem | proceed, proceeds, procedure, proceeding(s) | procrastinate | procure, procurement | prodigal | producer, conductor, director | product, end | productive | PROFANITY | professor, instructor, teacher


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(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20080718023146/http://www.bartleby.com/68/

proficient | profit | prognosis | program | progression (arithmetic, geometric, mathematical) | PROGRESSIVE ASPECT | PROGRESSIVE PASSIVE | prohibit | project | prolegomenon | PROLIXITY | promise | prone, prostrate, supine | PRONOUN | PRONOUN AGREEMENT | pronounce | PRONOUNS, REFLEXIVE | PRONOUN WITH POSSESSIVE ANTECEDENT | pronunciation 1 | PRONUNCIATION 2: AMERICAN AND BRITISH DIFFERENCES | PRONUNCIATION OF COMPOUND WORDS | PRONUNCIATION OF NOUNS ENDING IN -AGE | PRONUNCIATION OF NOUNS ENDING IN -F, -FE | PRONUNCIATIONS, SPELLING | PRONUNCIATIONS, VARIANT | PRONUNCIATIONS OF WORDS ENDING IN -TH, -THE | PROOFREADER'S MARKS | propaganda | propellant, propellent | propeller, propellor | PROPER NOUNS, PROPER NAMES | prophecy, prophesy | prophesize | prophesy | propitious | proportion | proportional, proportionable, proportionate | proposal, proposition | proprietary, propriety | prorate | prosaic, prosy | proscribe | PROSE | proselyte, proselytize | prospective | prospectus | prosthesis, prosthetics, prosthetic | prostrate | prosy | protagonist | protect | protégé(e) | protest | protractor | provable, provably, provability | prove | proverb | provide | provided, providing | provident, providential | province | proviso | provoke | proximity | PROXIMITY, THE PRINCIPLE OF | prudent, prudential, providential | pry | pseudo, pseudo- | P.S. | pseudonym | psychoanalyze | psychosis | publicly, publically | publish | pulpit | pummel | punctilious, punctual | PUNCTUATION; PUNCTUATION MARKS | pundit | punish | pupil, student | puppet, marionette | purchase | purebred | purge | PURISTS | purport | purposefully, purposedly, purposely | pursuit | pusillanimous | put down, putdown | put English on | put stock in | put your best foot forward | puzzle | Pygmy, pygmy, pigmy | pyjamas | qua | quadroon | QUALIFIERS | quandary | quantum | quantum jump, quantum leap | quarter | quartet, quartette, quintet, quintette, sextet, sextette, septet, septette, octet, octette | quarto | quasar | quash | quasi, quasi- | quay, cay, key | queer | query, inquiry | question | questionable, questioning | QUESTION MARK | questionnaire | QUESTION SENTENCE | quick 1 | quick 2, quickly | quick fix | quid pro quo | quiet, quieten | quilt, comfort, comforter, duvet | quint | quintet, quintette | quintuplet, quint | quip | quire | quisling | quit | quite | qui vive, on the | Quixote, quixotic | quiz | quondam | QUOTATION, DIRECT AND INDIRECT | quotation, quote | QUOTATION OF POETRY | QUOTATION MARKS | quote | quoth | quotient | q.v. | -r-, -rr- | rabbi | rabbit | rabbit ears | race, racial | racialism | racism | RACIST LANGUAGE | rack, wrack | racket, racquet | radiator | radical, radicle | radio | radius | railing | railroad, railway | rain | raise 1, bring up, rear | raise 2, rise | raise havoc | RAISING | raison d'être | Ralph | rambunctious | rancor, rancour, rancorous | range | rap | rape | rapport | rapt, wrapped | rarebit | rarefy, rarefied | rarely ever | rarify | rather | rather than | ratio | ration | rattle | ravage, ravish, ravishing | rave | ravel, unravel | ravish, ravishing | raze, raise | re | re- | -re, -er | reaction | read | readable | readers | read where | ready-made | real, really | real facts


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(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20080718023146/http://www.bartleby.com/68/

realistic, unrealistic | really something | realm | realtor | ream 1 | ream 2 | rear | rear (end) | rear-end | reason, cause | reasonable | reason is because | reason why, the | rebel | rebuff, refuse, reject, repel, repulse | recall | receipt | receipt | receptive | recess | recession | recipe, receipt | recipient | reciprocal | recital | reckon | recognize | recollect, recall, remember | reconcile | record, new | recorder | recourse | recrudescence | recto, verso | rector | redolent | REDUNDANT, REDUNDANCY | refer | refer back | referee, umpire | referendum | REFERENT | reflection, reflexion | REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS | refuse | refute | regalia | regard | regarding, as regards, in regard(s) to, with regard(s) to | regardless | REGIONAL DIALECT | regret | regretful, regrettable, regretfully, regrettably | REGULAR | REGULAR PATTERNS FOR PLURALS OF NOUNS | reign, rain, rein | reiterate, iterate | reject | rejoice | relate | relating to | relation, relative | relationship | relative | RELATIVE CLAUSES | relatively | RELATIVE PRONOUNS | RELATIVE PRONOUNS, OMITTED | relative to, relating to | release(d) time | relevant | relic, relict | RELIC PLURALS OF NOUNS | RELICS AND FOSSILS | relict | relieve | religious | relish | remains | remand, remand back | remediable, remedial | remedy | remember | remind | remittance, remission | remunerate, remuneration | Renaissance, renascence, renascent | render | rendezvous | renowned, renown | rent | rep | repairable, reparable | repast | repeat | repeat again | repel | repellent, repellant, repulsive, revolting | repertoire, repertory | REPETITION | repetitious, repetitive | replace | replete | replica, copy, reproduction | replicate, copy, duplicate, repeat | reportedly | repository | reprisal | reproduction | republican, Republican | repugnance | repulse | repulsive | request | require | requirement, requisite | resemblance | resentment | reside | resin, rosin | resource, recourse, resort | respect | respectable, respectful, respective | respecting | respective | respectively | RESPONSE UTTERANCE | responsibility | restaurateur, restauranteur | restive, restless | RESTRICTIVE AND NONRESTRICTIVE CLAUSES | RESTRICTIVE AND NONRESTRICTIVE MODIFIERS | RESTRICTIVE APPOSITIVES | result, end | resume, résumé, resumé | reticent, reticence | retiree | retro- | return back | Rev. | revel | revelation, Revelation(s) | revenge | Reverend, Rev. | reversal, reversion | reverse | reverse discrimination | reversion | revert back, revert | review, revue | revise | revolting | revue | reward | RHETORIC | rhinoceros | RHYME, RIME, ASSONANCE, CONSONANCE | RHYME IN PROSE, RIME RICHE | RHYMING COMPOUNDS | RHYMING SLANG | RHYTHM IN PROSE | rich, wealthy | rid | riddle | right | right bank (of a river) | rightly | right of way, right-of-way | right-to-life, right-to-lifer | right-to-work | rigor, rigour, rigorous | rill | RIME | RIME RICHE | ring 1 | ring 2 | riparian | rip off, rip-off, ripoff | rise | rise, arise, get up | rite, right, wright, write | River | riverine, riparian | rivulet | rob, steal | robbery | rock, stone | rock and a hard place, between a | rocks, on the | rodeo | role, rôle, roll | ROMAN | romance | Romania, Rumania | Roman numerals | rondeau, rondo, round | roof | rooftop


(E?)(L1) http://www.bartleby.com/68/a27.html


(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20080718023146/http://www.bartleby.com/68/

root, rout, route | rosin | rostrum | rote, by | rotund | round | round, 'round | ROUND S | rouse | rout, route | royal we | -rr- | R's, the three | rucksack | ruddy | RULES AND GENERALIZATIONS | RULES OF GRAMMAR | Rumania | rumor, rumour | rump | run | run | run for office | runner-up | RUN-ON SENTENCES | -s, -es | -'s, -s' | sabotage | sack | sacrilege, sacrilegious | sacrosanct | sadism | Sahara Desert | said | sailer, sailor | Saint(e), St(e). | St. James, King James | St. John | sake, sakes | salary, fee, honorarium, payment in kind, wage | salary increment, bonus, COLA, raise, rise | salmon, salmonella | salon, saloon | salt, salts | salutary, salute, salvo | salvable, salvageable | salvo | same | same as | same token, by the | sanatorium | sanctimonious, sanctimony | sanction | sanctum, sanctum sanctorum | sang | sanguine, sanguinary | sanitarium, sanatorium, sanitorium | sank | sans | sarcasm, sarcastic | sarcoma | sarcophagus | sardonic | sartorial, sartorially | sat | sated, satiated | sateen | satellite | satiated | satin, sateen | satire, satyr | saturate | saturnalia | satyr | Saud, Saudi | savant, idiot savant | save, save for | saving | saving | saving grace | savior, saviour | savvy | saw 1 | saw 2, old | say | say the least, to | saying | saying, that (it) goes without | saying goes, as the; they say | scabrous, scabious, scabby | scale, large and small | scallop, scollop | scan | scant | scapegoat | scarce, scarcely | scared, scare | scarf | scarify | scena | scenario | scene | scent | sceptic, sceptical, scepticism | scheme, schema | schism, schist, schizo, schizo- | schlemiel, schlep, schlock, schmaltz, schmo, schmuck, schnook, schnozzle, schtick | SCHOLARLY GRAMMARS | SCHWA | science and art | SCIENTIFIC ENGLISH | scintilla, iota, jot, smidgin | scissors | scoff | scollop | scone, Scone | score | scorn | scotch 1 | Scotch 2, Scottish, Scots, Scot, Scotchman, Scotsman, Scotswoman | scrip, script | scripture, Scripture(s) | scruffy | scrumptious | scruple | scull, skull | sculp, sculpt, sculpture | scurfy, scruffy, scurvy | scuttlebutt | s.d. | seamy | seasonable, seasonal, unseasonable, unseasonal, seasonably, seasonally, unseasonably, unseasonally | second | SECONDARY REFERENCE | SECONDARY STRESS | secondly | SECOND PERSON SINGULAR AND PLURAL | second to none | secrete | secretion | SECRET LANGUAGES | secular, sectarian | secure | -sede | see | seed 1 | seed 2, kernel, pip, pit, stone | seed | -seed | see eye to eye | seeing, seeing as, seeing as how, seeing that | seek | seem | seen | see where | see with half an eye | segregate | segregation | seldom ever, seldom if ever, seldom or ever, seldom or never | self | -self | self- | self-confessed, self-addressed, self-defeating, self-deprecating, self-destruct | seltzer | semantic, semantics | SEMANTIC CHANGE | SEMANTIC DISTINCTION, SEMANTIC DIFFERENCE | semi | semi- | semiannual, semi-annual, semimonthly, semimonthly, etc. | SEMICOLON | SEMIFORMAL, SEMIFORMAL WRITTEN ENGLISH, SEMIFORMAL USAGE | semi-monthly | seminal | Semitic, anti-Semitic | senile, senescent | senior, junior, Jr., Sr. | senior citizen | sense, feel, recognize | senseless | sensible, sensitive, susceptible | sensibility, sensitiveness, sensitivity | sensitive | sensitiveness, sensitivity | sensual, sensuous, sensory | SENTENCE | SENTENCE ADJECTIVES | SENTENCE ADVERBS | SENTENCE MODIFIER | SENTENCE TYPES | sentinel, sentry | sentient, sententious | sentry | separate, separateness, separation, separately | SEQUENCE OF TENSES | seraph | serendipity, serendipitous


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(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20080718023146/http://www.bartleby.com/68/

serial | series | SERIES CONSTRUCTIONS | serum | serve my turn | service | serviette, napkin | session | set, sit | settee, settle | sew | sewage, sewer, sewerage | sex, gender | sexism, sexist | SEXIST LANGUAGE | sextet, sextette, septet, septette | shade, blind | shake | shake the head, nod (the head) | Shakespeare, Shakespearean | shall, will | sham | shambles | shan't | share 1 | share 2, stock | shark | sharp | she | s/he, (s)he | sheaf | shear | shears | sheath, sheathe | sheer | sheik, sheikh | shelf life | sherbet, sherbert, sorbet | sheveled | shine | ship 1 | ship 2, boat | shirk | shoe | shone | shook (up) | shooting | shop 1 | shop 2, bodega, boutique, shoppe, store | shoptalk, talk shop | shorn | short | short-lived | short supply, in | should, would | shoulda, should of, coulda, could of, woulda, would of | show | shower activity | show off, showoff | show up | shrink 1 | shrink 2 | shrouded in secrecy | shy of, shy about | shyster | sibling | sic | sick, ill, sickness, illness | sick at the stomach | sick day, sick leave | sick humor, sick joke | sick in the stomach | sick leave | sickness | sick-out | sick to (at, in) the stomach | side | side of the angels | side by side, side to side | sidious | sight | significant, significantly | SIGNS OF AGGREGATION | silencer | SILENT LETTERS | silicon, silicone | silly | similar in, similar to | SIMILAR OR APPARENTLY SIMILAR WORDS, CONFUSION OF | similar to | SIMILES | simpatico | simple | simple reason (that), for the | SIMPLE SENTENCE | SIMPLICITY | simplistic | simply | simulate, dissimulate | simultaneous, simultaneously | since | | sinecure | sine die | sine qua non | sing | single, singles | SINGLE QUOTATION MARKS | sinister | sink | Sino- | Sir, Dame | sirup | sister-in-law | sit | site | sitting room | situate | situation | SITUATION UTTERANCE, RESPONSE UTTERANCE | sizable, sizeable | skeptic, sceptic, scepticism, skepticism, sceptical, skeptical | ski | skillful, skilled, skill, craft, trade | skin-color(ed) | skirt | skull | skycap | skyjack, skyjacker | slack, slacken, slake | slacks, knickers, pants, trousers | slake | slander, libel, slang | SLANG | SLASH, SLASH MARK | slave of, slave to | slay | sleep | sleeper | sleep sound, sleep tight | sleight of hand | slept | slew | slick | slink | slit | slow, slowly | slunk | small businessman, small-business man | small-scale | smarmy | smashing | smell | smidgin | sneak | snow, snow job | snuck | so, so that | soap opera, soap | so … as | sob | so-called | sociable, social | SOCIAL DIALECT, CLASS DIALECT | social disease | SOCIOLINGUISTICS, SOCIOLINGUIST | socks, sox | soda, club soda, pop, seltzer, soda pop, sparkling water, tonic | chesterfield, couch, davenport, day bed, settee, settle, studio bed, studio couch | so far as | softback, softcover | soft sell | software | soiled | SOLECISM | solicitor | SOLIDUS | solon | so long | so long as | solution | some | -some | somebody, someone | somebody else's | someday, some day | | some of | someone | someplace | somersault, summersault | something, somethin', sumpin' | something, somewhat | something else, really something | some time, someday, some day, sometime, sometimes | someway, someways


(E?)(L1) http://www.bartleby.com/68/a29.html


(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20080718023146/http://www.bartleby.com/68/

somewhat | somewhere, somewheres | son-in-law | sophisticated, sophisticate, sophistication | soprano | sorbet | sort | sort of | sort of a | so that | sound, soundly | sound, sound off, sound out | south, South, southerly, Southern, southern | SOUTHERN REGIONAL DIALECT | SOUTH MIDLAND REGIONAL DIALECT | southward, southwards | SOUTHWESTERN REGIONAL DIALECT | soviet | sow | sox | spacial | spake | SPANGLISH | Spaniard, Spanish | sparing in, sparing of, sparing with | sparkling water | spat | spate | spatial, spacial | spay | speak | speak to, speak with | special, especial, specially, especially | speciality, specialty | SPECIALIZATION | specialty | species, specie | speciesism | specious | spectators | speech | SPEECH COMMUNITY, LANGUAGE COMMUNITY | SPEECH FORMULAS | spell 1 | spell 2 | SPELLING 1: AMERICAN AND BRITISH DIFFERENCES | SPELLING 2, MISSPELLING, AND SPELLING REFORM | SPELLING: PLURALS OF NOUNS ENDING IN -F, -FE | SPELLING: PLURALS OF NOUNS ENDING IN -O | SPELLING OF COMPOUND WORDS | SPELLING OF -ING AND -ED FORMS OF VERBS ENDING IN -IC, -AC | SPELLING OF UNSTRESSED VOWELS | SPELLING OF WORDS CONTAINING -EI- OR -IE- | SPELLING OF WORDS ENDING IN -ER, -OR | SPELLING OF WORDS ENDING IN -ER, -RE | | SPELLING OF WORDS ENDING IN -OR, -OUR | SPELLING OF WORDS ENDING IN -SE, -CE | SPELLING OF WORDS USING DIGRAPHS | SPELLING PRONUNCIATIONS | SPELLING REFORM | SPELLINGS, VARIANT | spell out | spend | sperm | sphere | spick-and-span | spiffy | spill | spin, spin doctor | spiral | spiritual, spiritous, spirituous | spit | | splendiferous | split | SPLIT INFINITIVE | spoil | spokesperson | sponge | spontaneity | spoof | spook | SPOONERISMS | spoonful | sport, sporting, sports | spouse | sprain | spring, spring for | sprite, spright, sprightly | spurious | SQUARE BRACKETS | square one | squoze | stadium | staff, staffer | stage | | stall | stamen, stamina | stamp | stanch, staunch | STANDARD, COMMON, AND VULGAR ENGLISH | STANDARD ENGLISH, STANDARD | STANDARD USAGE | standee | stand for office | standpoint, point of view, viewpoint | stanza | start | stash | stat | state | STATEMENT | state of the art, state-of-the-art | station | stationary, stationery | statistics, statistic | status | STATUS LABELS | staunch | stave | stay, stop, stop by | steal | stem | stem to stern | stench | stepmother, stepchild, stepfather | STEREOTYPE | stewardess | stick | stigma | stiletto | still and all | still life | stimulant, stimulus | sting 1 | sting 2 | stink | stock, to put stock in, to take stock in, to take stock of | stocking, sock | stoic, stoical | stomp, stamp | stone | stoned | stonewall | stood | stop, stop by | store | story, storey | straight, strait | straightened, straitened | straightjacket, straightlaced | strain, sprain | strait | straitened | straitjacket, straightjacket, straitlaced, straightlaced | strangle | strata, stratas | strategy, tactics | stratum | stream, beck, brae, branch, brook, creek, crick, rill, rivulet, run, -kill | strength, length | STRESS | STRESS IN COMPOUND WORDS AND PHRASES | strew | stricken | stride | strike | string | strive | stroke, stroking | STRONG VERBS 1 | STRONG VERBS 2, WEAK VERBS, THE ORIGIN AND MEANING OF THE TERMS | strove | struck | STRUCTURAL GRAMMARS | STRUCTURES OF MODIFICATION | strung | stuck | student | studio bed, studio couch | stuff | stung | stunk | stunning | sty, stye | STYLE | style | stylus | suave | sub | subconscious, unconscious | SUBJECT, GRAMMATICAL | SUBJECTIVE GENITIVE | SUBJECT OF AN INFINITIVE | SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT | SUBJUNCTIVE | SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD


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(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20080718023146/http://www.bartleby.com/68/

submarine, grinder, hero, hoagie, Italian sandwich, poor boy, sub, torpedo | submariner | submit | subnormal, abnormal, paranormal, supernormal | SUBORDINATE CLAUSE | SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS | subpoena, subpena | subsequent, subsequently, subsequent to | subsist, exist | substance abuse, controlled substance | SUBSTANDARD, NONSTANDARD | substantial, substantive | SUBSTANTIVE | substitute | subway, tube, underground, underpass | succeed | successfully, successively | succor, succour | succubus, incubus | such | such as | suffer | suffice | sufficient, enough, sufficient enough | sufficiently | SUFFIX | suffragan | suffragist | suggested, suggestive | suitable | sulfuric, sulfureous, sulfurous, sulfury | summersault | summon, summons | sumpin', somethin', something | sundry, sundries | sung | sunk, sunken | super-, supra- | supercede | superfluous | superhighway | superior | SUPERLATIVE DEGREE | SUPERLATIVE DEGREE USED OF TWO | supernatural, preternatural, supranatural, unnatural | supernormal | SUPERPLUPERFECT | supersede, supercede, surpass | supervise | supervisor | supine | supper | supplement, complement | supplementary, complementary | supportive | suppose, supposing | supposed | supposing | supra- | supranatural | supreme | Supreme Court | surcease | sure, surely | sure and | surely | surgery, operation, surgical procedure, in surgery | surmise | surpass | surprised | surveillance, surveillant, surveil | susceptible | suspected | suspenders | sustain | swap, swop | swear, swearword | sweat | sweat equity | sweep | swell 1 | swell 2 | swift, swiftly | swim | swine | swing, swinger, swinging | swivel | swollen | swop | swore, sworn | swum | swung | SYLLABLES | syllabus | SYLLEPSIS | symbol | sympathetic, sympathize, sympathy | symposium | SYNCOPE | syndrome | SYNECDOCHE | synergy, synergism, synergistic | SYNONYM, SYNONYMIES | synopsis | SYNTACTIC | SYNTACTIC BLENDS | SYNTACTIC INVERSION | SYNTAX | synthesis | synthetic | syringe | syrup, sirup | systematic, systemic, systematically, systemically | systemize, systematize | -t-, -tt- | table | tableau | table d'hôte | tablespoonful, teaspoonful | | tactics | tailor-made | take | take aback | take and | take exception to | take food, take meals | take hold of | take it easy | take it under advisement | take meals | taken | take place, occur | take stock in (of) | take thought | talisman | talk | talk | talk shop | tangible | taps | tarry | tart | tartan | taste | tasteful, tasteless, tasty | tattoo | taught, taut | TAUTOLOGY | tax | teach | teacher | team, teem | teaspoonful | teem | teen, adolescent, juvenile, teenager, young adult | tee shirt | telecast, televise | temblor, trembler, tremblor | temerity, timidity | temperature | tempo | temporize | tenant, tenet | tend | tendency | tender | tendinitis, tendonitis | tenet | TENSE | TENSES, SEQUENCE OF | TERMINAL PREPOSITION | terminate | terms | terrible, terribly | TERSENESS | TERTIARY STRESS | tête-à-tête | Teutonic | textual, textural | th | than | than any | thankfully | thanking you in advance | thanks to | than whom | that 1 | that, omitted | that 2, this | that 3, unnecessarily repeated | that 4, which | that 5, which, who, whom | that big of a deal, (not) | that goes without saying | that there, this here | the | theater, theatre | thee | the fact is, the fact of the matter is, the fact that


(E?)(L1) http://www.bartleby.com/68/a31.html


(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20080718023146/http://www.bartleby.com/68/

their, there, they're | theirn | theirs | theirselves, themself | them 1 | them 2 | themself | themselves | then | then | thence | theorize | there | thereabouts, thereafter, thereat, thereby, therefrom, therein, thereof, thereon, thereto, thereupon, therewith | there are | the reason why | therefor, therefore | therefrom, therein | there is, there are | thereof, thereon, thereto, thereupon, therewith | the same as, just as | these kind of, these sort of | thesis | the three R's | the way | they, their, them | they're | they say | thief | thine | thing | think | third, thirdly | THIRD PERSON SINGULAR AND PLURAL | this, that | this here | thither | thitherto | tho, tho' | thorn | thoroughbred, purebred | those kind of, those sort of | thou, thee, thine, thy | though | thought, to take | THOUGHTFUL WRITER | thoughtless | three last | three R's, the | thrill, thrilled | thrive | throng, thronged | through | throughway | throw in the towel | thru | thruput | thrust | thruway, expressway, freeway, interstate, motorway, parkway, throughway | thusly, thus | thy | thyself | -tiate, -tiation | tight, tightly | 'til | TILDE | till, 'til, until | timber, timbre | timely | time period | times more, times less | timidity | tin | tinker | tip, tipster | tirade | tired | TIRED METAPHORS | tits | to 1 | to 2, too, two | to a degree | to all intents and purposes | to-do | together 1 | together 2 | togetherness | together with | to hand | token, by the same | tolerant, tolerance | tomato | tome | tonic | too | took, taken | toothsome, toothy | top 1 | top 2 | topless | tormented | tornado | torpedo | torso | tortuous, torturous | to say the least | total, totally | totality | to the manner (manor) born | to the nth degree | toward, towards | towel, throw in the | to wit | track, tract | trade | TRADE NAMES | TRADITIONAL GRAMMARS | traffic | tragedy | tragic, tragical | transcendent, transcendental, transcendentalism, Transcendentalist | TRANSFORMATIONAL-GENERATIVE GRAMMAR | transient, transitory | TRANSITIVE, INTRANSITIVE VERBS | transitory | translate, transliterate | translucent, opaque, transparent | transmute | transparent | transpire | traumatic, trauma | travesty | tread | treat | treble | trek | trembler, tremblor | tribute | triceps | trillion | triple, treble | triumphal, triumphant | trivia | trod | trooper, trouper | TROPE | trouper | trousers | truculent | true | true facts | truly | trust | trustee, trusty | try | try and | T-shirt, tee shirt | -tt- | tube | tubercular, tuberculous | tummy | turbid, turgid | turnpike | tweeny | twelvemo, 12mo | two | two and two | two-faced | two first | two plus two, two and two | -ty | tycoon | type, -type | U, non-U | uglies, uglify | uglily | ugly, uglies, uglify | uh | | U.K. | ultimate, ultimately | ultimatum | ultra | ultra- | umlaut | umpire | un- | unabridged | unalienable | unapt | UNATTACHED PARTICIPLES | unaware, unawares | unbeknown, unbeknownst | unbend, unbending | UNCHANGING PLURALS OF NOUNS | uncomfortable, uncomfortably | UNCOMPARABLE ADJECTIVES | unconscious | under-


(E?)(L1) http://www.bartleby.com/68/a32.html


(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20080718023146/http://www.bartleby.com/68/

underground | underhanded, underhand, underhandedly | underlay, underlie | underpants | underpass | underprivileged | undershirt | understanding, misunderstanding | UNDERSTATEMENT | UNDERSTOOD | undertaker | under the circumstances | under way, underway, under weigh | underwhelm | undiscriminate, undiscriminating | undoubtedly | undue, unduly | uneatable | uneconomic, uneconomical | unedible | unequal | unequivocally, unequivocably | unexceptionable, unexceptional | unflappable | unhealthful, unhealthy | unhuman | unilateral | uninterest | uninterested | unique | unisex | United Kingdom | United States | unless and until | unlike | unloose, unloosen | unmoral | unnatural | unprecedented | unqualified, disqualified | unquestionably | unravel | unreadable | unrealistic | unreligious | unrepairable, irreparable | unsanitary | unsatisfied | unsavory | unseasonable, unseasonably, unseasonal, unseasonally | unsociable, unsocial | unsolvable, insoluble, insolvable | UNSTRESSED | UNSTRESSED VOWELS, SPELLING OF | unstructured | unthinkable, thoughtless, unthinking | until | untimely | unto | untoward | unwonted, unwanted | up | up against the wall, up the wall | up and | upcoming, incoming, oncoming | upon | upper | UP STYLE, DOWN STYLE | up the pipe | uptight | up until | upward, upwards | Uranus | urban, urbane | URBAN DIALECTS | urbane | U.S., U.S.A. | U.S. AND BRITISH DIFFERENCES IN MEANING, PRONUNCIATION, SPELLING, AND VOCABULARY | us | USA | USAGE 1 | usage 2 | USAGE LEVELS | use | used to | used to could | useful | user- | usherette | utilize | vacant, vacuous | vaccinate, inoculate | vacuity, vacuousness | vacuous | vacuousness | vacuum | vade mecum | vagary | vain, vane, vein | valance, valence | vale 1 | vale 2, veil | valence | valet | value-added, value-added tax | van 1 | van 2 | van 3, von | vane | vanguard | vantage | variance, at | VARIANT PRONUNCIATIONS | VARIANT SPELLINGS | VARIATION, ELEGANT | VARIATION, LINGUISTIC | VARIETIES OF LANGUAGE | various | various and sundry | various different | vary | vase | vastly | vast majority | 've | veggie | vehement, vehicular, vehemence, vehicle | veil | vein | venal, venial | vengeance | venial | venison | venom, poison, poisonous, venomous | venture | venue | verbal, oral, orally, verbally | VERBALIZATION OF NUMBERS | VERBAL NOUN | VERBALS | verbiage | VERBIFIED NOUNS | verbose, verbosely, verbosity | VERB PHRASE | VERBS | VERBS, PRINCIPAL PARTS OF | veritable | vermin | VERNACULAR | verse, stanza | verso | vertex, vortex | vertical | very | very spit of | vest 1 | vest 2 | vet | veto | via | viable | vial, viol | vicar | vice, vise | vice versa | vicious, viscous | victual, vittles | vie | view | viewers | viewpoint | view with alarm | vigilant | villain, villein | viol | violation | violoncello | VIP | VIRGULE | virile, virilism | VIRTUAL SUBJECT | virtuoso | virus | vis-à-vis | visceral | viscous | vise | visible | visionary | visit, visit with | visitation, visit | visual, visible | vitamin | vittles | viva voce | viz, viz. | VOCABULARY 1: AMERICAN AND BRITISH DIFFERENCES | VOCABULARY 2, LEXICON | VOCABULARY 3: SIZE


(E?)(L1) http://www.bartleby.com/68/a33.html


(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20080718023146/http://www.bartleby.com/68/

vocal chords, vocal cords | VOCALIZED PAUSES AND SPEECH FORMULAS | vocation | VOGUE WORDS | voice 1 | VOICE 2: ACTIVE, PASSIVE | VOICED AND VOICELESS SPEECH SOUNDS | void | von | vortex | VOWELS, THE AMERICAN ENGLISH | VULGAR, VULGARITY | VULGAR ENGLISH, VULGATE | vulnerable | waffle | wage | waist, waste | waistcoat, weskit | wait, await | wait on, wait upon | waive, wave | waiver, waver | wake, waken | wall, (up) against the, with one's back to the wall, go to the wall for, off the wall, to drive (someone) up the wall | wane | wangle, wrangle | want | want down, want in, want into, want off, want out, want up | want for | want in, want into, want off, want out | want that | want up | -ward, -wards | warm, warmly | warn | warp, web, weft, woof | wary | was, were | wash up, washed up, wash one's hands | waste | watch | watershed | wave | waver | wax | way 1 | way 2 | way, no | way, under; under weigh | ways | we | weak, week | WEAK VERBS | wealthy | wean | WEASEL WORDS | weather, whether | weave | web | wed | week | weep, cry, sob | weft | weird | welch, welcher | well | well | well-nigh | welsh, welch, Welsh, welch, welsh, welcher, welsher | Welsh rabbit, Welsh rarebit | were | weskit | west, West, westerly, western, Western | western | WESTERN REGIONAL DIALECT | westward, westwards | wet | wh- | wharf | what | what clauses | whatever | whatsoever | when, where | when and if | whence | whenever | when worse (worst) comes to worst | where | where, when | -where | whereabouts | where … at, where … to | whereas | whereat, whereupon | whereby | wherefore | wherein | whereof | whereon | where … to | whereupon | wherever | wherewithal | whether | whether or not, whether or no | which | which, and | while | whilom | whilst | whiskey, whisky | white-collar | white paper | whither | who, whom | whodunit | who else's | whoever, whomever | whole new ball game | wholly | whom | whomever | whopping, whopper | who's, whose | why | whys and wherefores | widow, widower | wife | wilful | will | willful, wilful | win | wind | wind shear | windward | wink | winner | -wise | wish, wish for | with | withal | with a view, with the view | within | with one's back to the wall | without | without charge, without cost | without doubt | without hardly | with regard(s) to | with respect to | with the company (corporation, firm) | with the exception of | with the hope of, with the hope that | witness | wizen, wizened | wolf | woman | womanly | wonder | wonk | wont | won't | wood, woods | woof | wop | WORD CHOICE | WORDINESS, PROLIXITY | WORD ORDER | WORDS AS WORDS | WORDY | work | worldly | worse comes to worst, if (when) | worser | worst comes to worst, if (when) | worst way, in the | worthwhile | would | woulda | would have | would of | would rather | wrack | wrangle | wrapped | wrath, wrathful, wroth | wreak, wreck | wreath, wreathe | wreck | wright | writ | write | write-up | wrong, wrongly | wroth | wrought | X 1 | X 2 | Xanadu


bartleby141
The Elements of Style

(E?)(L?) http://www.bartleby.com/141/
William Strunk, Jr.
Asserting that one must first know the rules to break them, this classic reference book is a must-have for any student and conscientious writer. Intended for use in which the practice of composition is combined with the study of literature, it gives in brief space the principal requirements of plain English style and concentrates attention on the rules of usage and principles of composition most commonly violated.
CONTENTS
Bibliographic Record Frontmatter
ITHACA, N.Y.: W.P. HUMPHREY, 1918
NEW YORK: BARTLEBY.COM, 1999

INTRODUCTORY
ELEMENTARY RULES OF USAGE ELEMENTARY PRINCIPLES OF COMPOSITION A FEW MATTERS OF FORM
WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS COMMONLY MISUSED
WORDS COMMONLY MISSPELLED

bartleby185
The American Language
An Inquiry into the Development of English in the United States

(E?)(L?) http://www.bartleby.com/185/
H.L. Mencken
This classic was written to clarify the discrepancies between British and American English and to define the distinguishing characteristics of American English. Mencken’s groundbreaking study was undoubtedly the most scientific linguistic work on the American language to date and continues to serve as a definitive resource in the field. CONTENTS
Bibliographic Record Subject Index Word and Phrase List
SECOND EDITION, REVISED AND ENLARGED
NEW YORK: ALFRED A. KNOPF, 1921
NEW YORK: BARTLEBY.COM, 2000

Preface to the First Edition Preface to the Second Edition II. The Beginnings of American III. The Period of Growth IV. American and English Today V. International Exchanges VI. Tendencies in American VII. The Standard American Pronunciation VIII. American Spelling IX. The Common Speech X. Proper Names in America XI. American Slang Appendices
I. Specimens of the American Vulgate II. Non-English Dialects in America III. Proverb and Platitude
Bibliography

bartleby186
An Introduction to the Study of Speech

(E?)(L?) http://www.bartleby.com/186/
Edward Sapir
The noted linguist and anthropologist Edward Sapir wrote this work to show language in “relation to other fundamental interests—the problem of thought, the nature of the historical process, race, culture, art.” Language is not only a study of language and culture, but ultimately on the world of relations and influence.
CONTENTS
NEW YORK: HARCOURT, BRACE, 1921
NEW YORK: BARTLEBY.COM, 2000

Introductory: Language Defined
Language a cultural, not a biologically inherited, function. Futility of interjectional and sound-imitative theories of the origin of speech. Definition of language. The psycho-physical basis of speech. Concepts and language. Is thought possible without language? Abbreviations and transfers of the speech process. The universality of language.

The Elements of Speech
Sounds not properly elements of speech. Words and significant parts of words (radical elements, grammatical elements). Types of words. The word a formal, not a functional unit. The word has a real psychological existence. The sentence. The cognitive, volitional, and emotional aspects of speech. Feeling-tones of words.

The Sounds of Language
The vast number of possible sounds. The articulating organs and their share in the production of speech sounds: lungs, glottal cords, nose, mouth and its parts. Vowel articulations. How and where consonants are articulated. The phonetic habits of a language. The “values” of sounds. Phonetic patterns.

Form in Language: Grammatical Processes
Formal processes as distinct from grammatical functions. Intercrossing of the two points of view. Six main types of grammatical process. Word sequence as a method. Compounding of radical elements. Affixing: prefixes and suffixes; infixes. Internal vocalic change; consonantal change. Reduplication. Functional variations of stress; of pitch.

Form in Language: Grammatical Concepts
Analysis of a typical English sentence. Types of concepts illustrated by it. Inconsistent expression of analogous concepts. How the same sentence may be expressed in other languages with striking differences in the selection and grouping of concepts. Essential and non-essential concepts. The mixing of essential relational concepts with secondary ones of more concrete order. Form for form’s sake. Classification of linguistic concepts: basic or concrete, derivational, concrete relational, pure relational. Tendency for these types of concepts to flow into each other. Categories expressed in various grammatical systems. Order and stress as relating principles in the sentence. Concord. Parts of speech: no absolute classification possible; noun and verb.

Types of Linguistic Structure
The possibility of classifying languages. Difficulties. Classification into form-languages and formless languages not valid. Classification according to formal processes used not practicable. Classification according to degree of synthesis. “Inflective” and “agglutinative.” Fusion and symbolism as linguistic techniques. Agglutination. “Inflective” a confused term. Threefold classification suggested: what types of concepts are expressed? what is the prevailing technique? what is the degree of synthesis? Four fundamental conceptual types. Examples tabulated. Historical test of the validity of the suggested conceptual classification.

Language as a Historical Product: Drift
Variability of language. Individual and dialectic variations. Time variation or “drift.” How dialects arise. Linguistic stocks. Direction or “slope” of linguistic drift. Tendencies illustrated in an English sentence. Hesitations of usage as symptomatic of the direction of drift. Leveling tendencies in English. Weakening of case elements. Tendency to fixed position in the sentence. Drift toward the invariable word.

Language as a Historical Product: Phonetic Law
Parallels in drift in related languages. Phonetic law as illustrated in the history of certain English and German vowels and consonants. Regularity of phonetic law. Shifting of sounds without destruction of phonetic pattern. Difficulty of explaining the nature of phonetic drifts. Vowel mutation in English and German. Morphological influence on phonetic change. Analogical levelings to offset irregularities produced by phonetic laws. New morphological features due to phonetic change.

How Languages Influence Each Other
Linguistic influences due to cultural contact. Borrowing of words. Resistances to borrowing. Phonetic modification of borrowed words. Phonetic interinfluencings of neighboring languages. Morphological borrowings. Morphological resemblances as vestiges of genetic relationship.

Language, Race and Culture
Naïve tendency to consider linguistic, racial, and cultural groupings as congruent. Race and language need not correspond. Cultural and linguistic boundaries not identical. Coincidences between linguistic cleavages and those of language and culture due to historical, not intrinsic psychological, causes. Language does not in any deep sense “reflect” culture.

Language and Literature
Language as the material or medium of literature. Literature may move on the generalized linguistic plane or may be inseparable from specific linguistic conditions. Language as a collective art. Necessary esthetic advantages or limitations in any language. Style as conditioned by inherent features of the language. Prosody as conditioned by the phonetic dynamics of a language.

bartleby190
On the Art of Writing

(E?)(L?) http://www.bartleby.com/190/
Lectures Delivered in the University of Cambridge, 1913–1914
Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch
This renowned critic, scholar and educational reformer speaks on the artistic and vital nature of language as well as the skills needed both to convey and receive the written word.
CONTENTS
Bibliographic Record Preface
TO JOHN HAY LOBBAN
CAMBRIDGE: UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1916
NEW YORK: BARTLEBY.COM, 2000



bartleby191
On the Art of Reading

(E?)(L?) http://www.bartleby.com/191/
Lectures Delivered in the University of Cambridge, 1916–1917
Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch
As well as being a noted scholar and critic, Arthur Quiller-Couch was an active proponent for educational reform at Cambridge. This series of lectures is dedicated to his closest allies in the battle for a reformed English program at Cambridge and are rich with Quiller-Couch’s customary insight and intelligence.
CONTENTS
Bibliographic Record Preface
TO H. F. S. AND H. M. C.
CAMBRIDGE: UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1920
NEW YORK: BARTLEBY.COM, 2000



Bering Strait Inupiatun
Language of US
Sprache von USA

(E?)(L?) http://www.ethnologue.com/


(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=esk


Bering Strait Yupik
Language of US
Sprache von USA

(E?)(L?) http://www.ethnologue.com/


(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ess


C

Corsican (W3)
Language of US
Sprache in US

(E?)(L?) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cos

...
Region Corsica, Paris, Marseilles. Also spoken in Bolivia, Canada, Cuba, Italy, Puerto Rico, Uruguay, USA, Venezuela.
...


D

dictionary.com
Language - Posts

(E?)(L?) http://blog.dictionary.com/category/language/




Erstellt: 2014-03

E

effingpot
The Best of British

(E?)(L?) http://www.effingpot.com/

The American's guide to speaking British.

The seven sections on the left contain over 1000 words and expressions that have varied in their usage between the US and the UK. This site started as a simple list to amuse our friends when we moved to the USA for 2 years - believe it or not, to a house in Tossa Lane!!!

This list was compiled around 10 years ago and is all based on actual discussions with Americans from many States as we travelled around the USA. Of course, everyone has different experiences and the language seems to vary so much, and has moved on over the last decade, so don't be surprised if you find yourself questioning some of what you read.

Take it all with a pinch of salt and in the spirit of fun.

But most of all .... Enjoy!

Dr. Effingpot!




(E?)(L?) http://www.effingpot.com/slang.shtml

Ace | Aggro | All right? | Anti | Any road | Arse | Arse about face | Arse over elbow | Arse over tit | Arsehole | Arseholed | As well | Ass | Au fait | Baccy | Bang | Barmy | Beastly | Bees Knees | Belt up | Bender | Bespoke | Best of British | Biggie | Bite your arm off | Bladdered | Blast | Blatant | Bleeding | Blimey | Blinding | Blinkered | Bloody | Blooming | Blow me | Blow off | Blunt | Bob's your uncle | Bodge | Bogey | Bollocks | Bomb | Bomb | Bonk | | Bottle | Box your ears | Brassed off | Brill | Budge up | Bugger | Bugger all | Bum | Bung | Bung | Butchers | C of E | Camp | Chat up | Cheeky | Cheerio | Cheers | Cheesed off | Chin Wag | Chinese Whispers | Chivvy along | Chuffed | Clear off! | Cobblers | Cock up | Cockney rhyming slang | Codswallop | Cor | Cracking | Cram | Crap | Crikey | Crusty dragon | Daft | Dekko | Dear | Dicky | Diddle | Dim | Dishy | Do | Do | Do | Doddle | Dodgy | Dog's bollocks | Dog's dinner | Donkey's years | Drop a clanger | Duck | Duff | Duffer | Dull | Easy Peasy | Engaged | Excuse me | Faff | Fagged | Fagging | Fancy | Fanny | Fanny around | Fiddle sticks | Filch | Fit | Flog | Fluke | Flutter | Fortnight | Fruity | Full monty | Full of beans | Gagging | Gallivanting | Gander | Gen | Gen up | Get lost! | Get stuffed! | Getting off | Give us a bell | Gobsmacked | Good value | Goolies | Gormless | Grem | Grub | Gutted | Haggle | Hanky panky | Hard | Hard lines | Hash | Have | Healthy | Her Majesty's pleasure | Hiya | Honking | Horses for courses | How's your father? | Hump | Hunky | I'm easy | Irony/sarcasm | Jammy | Jimmy | John Thomas | Jolly | Keep your pecker up | Khazi | Kip | Knackered | Knees up | Knob | Knock off | Knock up | Knockers | Knuckle sandwich | Leg it | Left, right and centre | Love bite | Lurgy | Luvvly | | Mate | Momentarily | Morish | Mufti | Mug | Mush | Mutt's nuts | Naff | Nancy boy | Nark | Narked | Nesh | Nice one! | Nick | Nicked | Nitwit | Nookie | Nosh | Not my cup of tea | Nowt | Nut | Off colour | Off your trolley | On about | On the job | On the piss | On your bike | One off | Owt | Pants | Pardon me | Parky | Pass | Pavement pizza | Peanuts | Pear shaped | Piece of cake | Pinch | Pip pip | Piss poor | Piss up | Pissed | Pissing around | Porkies | Porridge | Posh | Potty | Pound sign | Prat | PTO | Puff | Puke | Pukka | Pull | Pussy | Put a sock in it | Put paid to | Queer | Quid | Quite | Rat arsed | Read | Really | Redundancy | Reverse the charges | Right | Ring | Roger | Round | Row | Rubbish | Rugger | Rumpy pumpy | Sack/sacked | Sad | Scrummy | Scrumping | Send | Shag | Shagged | Shambles | Shambolic | Shirty | Shite | Shitfaced | Shufti | Skew | Skive | Slag | Slapper | Slash | Sloshed | Smarmy | Smart | Smashing | Smeg | Snap | Snog | Snookered | Sod | Sod all | Sod's law | Sorted | Speciality | Spend a penny | Splash out | Squidgy | Squiffy | Starkers | Stiffy | Stone the crows | Stonker | Stonking | Strop | Stuff | Suss | Sweet fanny adams | Swotting | Ta | Table | Taking the biscuit | Taking the mickey | Taking the piss | Talent | Tara | Throw a spanner in the works | Tickety | Tidy | To | Todger | Toodle pip | Tool | Tosser | Totty | TTFN | Twat | Twee | Twit | Two finger salute | U | Uni | Wacky backy | Waffle | Wangle | Wank | Wanker | Watcha | Waz | Well | Welly | Whinge | Willy | Wind up | Wobbler | Wonky | Write to | Yakking | Yonks | Zed | Zonked


(E?)(L?) http://www.effingpot.com/people.shtml

Anorak | Barmaid | Barman | Barrister | Beefeater | Bender | Berk | Big girl's blouse | The Bill | Bint | Bird | Bloke | Bobby | Boffin | Bonce | Bristols | Brum | Brummy | Bum chum | Buns | Burk | Busker | Butterfingers | Cack | Cake hole | Cashier | Chalk and cheese | Chap | Chav | Christian name | Chuck | Chum | Clever clogs | Clever dick | Clot | Cloth ears | Codger | Copper | Dapper | Dim wit | Dip stick | Divvy | Dog's body | Don | Duck | Duffer | Dustman | Estate agents | Father Christmas | Fire brigade | Flat mate | Flower | Forehead | Fresher | Gaffer | Geezer | Git | Gob | Grockles | Guard | Gumby | Guv | Gypo | Hooray Henry | Hooter | Jammy beggar | Job's worth | Konk | Lad | Ladette | Landlady | Landlord | Loaf | Lollipop man | Long sighted | Lug holes | Mate | Mean | Minger | Morris dancer | Mother | Mum | Namby pamby | Naughty bits | Nobby no | Nosey parker | Nutter | Old Lag | On your tod | Page three girl | Pikey | Pillock | Plod | Plonker | Po | Ponce | Poofter | Posty | Prefect | Punter | Randy | Red Indian | Room mate | Scatty | School leaver | Scouse | Scouser | Scrubber | Septic | Shareholder | Short sighted | Sideboards | Skiver | Slag | Slapper | Smart arse | Solicitor | Sponger | Spotty youth | Sprog | Squire | Staff | Swot | Tart | Thick | Toff | Trainspotter | Tramp | Turf accountant | Ulcer | Up the duff | Very well | Vet | Wally | Wazzock | Weed | Woofter | Wuss | Yank | You lot


(E?)(L?) http://www.effingpot.com/motoring.shtml

AA | Aerial | Amber | Articulated lorry | Banger | Belisha beacon | Bonnet | Boot | Bulb | Bump start | Bus station | Cab | Cabriolet | Call | Car | Car park | Cat's eyes | Cattle class | Central reservation | Chunnel | Coach | Crash | Cul | De | Diversion | Double decker | Double yellow lines | Drink driving | Drunk in charge | Dual carriageway | Due care and attention | Economy | Estate car | Excess | Fire engine | Flyover | Fog lights | Ford | Gallon | Gas | Gearstick | Give way | Glove box | Hard shoulder | Hand brake | Head lamp | Hire car | Hooter | Indicator | Jam sandwich | Lay | Level crossing | Lights | Lorry | Lorry driver | Magic Roundabout | Manual | Motorway | Multi storey | Near side lane | No entry | Number plate | Overtake | Pavement | Pedestrian crossing | Pelican crossing | Petrol | Petrol station | Pile | Prang | RAC | Red route | Road works | Roof | Roof | Roundabout | Saloon | Second class | Silencer | Slip road | Spanner | Subway | Tailback | Tick over | Ton | Traffic wardens | Transporter | Turn right | Verge | Windscreen | Windscreen wipers | Wing | Write | Zebra crossing


(E?)(L?) http://www.effingpot.com/clothing.shtml

Anorak | Balaclava | Boiler suit | Boob tube | Brace | Braces | Bum bag | Cagoule | Cardie | Cozzy | Daps | Dinner jacket | Dressing gown | Dungarees | Frock | Jersey | Jumper | Knickers | Mac | Muffler | Nappy | Pants | Pinafore | Pinny | Plimsolls | Polo neck | Pullover | Pumps (Plimsolls, Daps) | Suspenders | Swimming costume | Tights | Trainers | Trousers | Undies | Vest | Waistcoat |


(E?)(L?) http://www.effingpot.com/house.shtml

Action replay | Aga | Airing cupboard | Answerphone | Bathroom | Beading | Bedsit | Bin | Bin bag | Bin day | Bin liner | Bin lorry | Bin men | Blower | Bog | Box | Brolly | Budgie | Bungalow | Caravan | Ceefax | Continental quilt | Cooker | | Couch | Council house | Council estate | Cubby hole | Cupboard | Des res | Dresser | Dust cart | Dustbin | Duvet | Earth | Eiderdown | Emulsion | En | Estate | Flat | Flex | Garden | Gazumping | Hand basin | Hessian | Hob | Housing estate | Khazi | Kitchen towel | Laundry basket | Loft | Loo | Lounge | Mobile home | Paper knife | Paraffin | Power point | Run the bath | Sand pit | Schooner | Secateurs | Settee | Shammy | Skirting board | Tap | Teletext | Telly | Thatch | To let | Toilet | Trunk call | Video | Wardrobe | White goods | Wireless


(E?)(L?) http://www.effingpot.com/food.shtml

99 | Afters | Aubergine | Bacon | Banger | Bap | Barbie | Beer | Beer mat | Beetroot | Best | Bevvy | Bickie | Bill | Biscuit | Bitter | Black pudding | Blancmange | Brown bread | Brown sauce | Bubble & squeak | Bucks fizz | Buns | Butty | Candyfloss | Canteen | Castor sugar | Chip butty | Chip shop | Chipolata | Chips | Cider | Clingfilm | Clotted cream | Cocktail stick | Cordial | Coriander | Cornflour | Cornish pasty | Cottage pie | Courgette | Crackling | Cream Tea | Crisps | Crispy duck | Crumpet | Cuppa | Curry | Digestive biscuit | Dish up | Doner | Double cream | English muffin | Entree | Faggot | Fairy cake | Fillet | Fish and chip shop | Fish cake | Flake | Garibaldi | Gherkin | Golden Syrup | Granary | Gravy | Grill | Grub | Haggis | Herb | Hob nobs | Horlicks | Hot pot | HP Sauce | Iced tea | Icing sugar | Jacket potato | Jaffa cake | Jam | Jellied eels | Jelly | Joint | Kedgeree | Kipper | Lager | Lager lout | Lemonade | Liver sausage | Marmite | Mash | Mince | Mince Pies | Mushy peas | Neat | Normal | Nosh | Nosh | Offal | Off licence | Pancake roll | Parkin | Parsley sauce | Parson's nose | Pastry base | Pea fritter | Peckish | Perry | Pickle | Pickled eggs | Pickled onions | Pie | Pimms | Pint | Plonk | Ploughman's Lunch | Pop | Pork pies | Pork scratchings | Porridge | Pub grub | Pudding | Rasher | Rump steak | Runner beans | Salad cream | Sarny | Saveloy | Savoury | Scoff | Scones | Scotch egg | Scrumpy | Semi skimmed | Semolina | Shandy | Shepherd's pie | Simnel cake | Single cream | Sirloin steak | Skimmed milk | Soldiers | Spirits | Spotted dick | Spring onions | Spring roll | Squash | Starter | Steak & kidney pie | Steak & kidney pudding | Stock cube | Stodge | Stone | Stuffed | Suet | Sweets | Swiss roll | Take | Tarts | Tea | Tin | Toad in the hole | Tomato sauce | Treacle pudding | Twiglets | Vacuum flask | Water | White | White sauce | Wine gums | Yorkshire pudding


(E?)(L?) http://www.effingpot.com/objects.shtml

24 hour clock | 999 | A | Abbatoir | Advert | Aeroplane | AGM | Aluminium | American football | Autocue | Autumn | B&B | Bank holiday | Bar billiards | BBC English | Beeb | Big dipper | Big Issue | Bill | Billiards | Billion | Biro | Blighty | Bling | Blinkers | Blu tac | Boarding school | Bob | Bob | Bonfire night | Booze cruise | Brackets | Britain | Car boot sale | Carnival | Carvery | Cashpoint machine | Casualty | Catapult | Chat show | Chemist | Cheque | Christmas Crackers | Chrysanths | Cinema | Coconut shy | College | Comprehensive school | Conkers | Cot | Counterfoil | Course | Cutlery | CV | Daddy long legs | Day boys/girls | Desmond | Direct debit | Directory enquiries | Dirty weekend | Dodgem cars | Doodle bug | Dosh | Draughts | Drawing pin | Drink up | Dummy | Egg timer | Elastoplast | Eleven plus | Elevenses | Eurovision song contest | Fag | Fair | Fancy dress | Fete | Film | Finals | First floor | Fiver | Flannel | Football | Form | Fresher's ball | Fringe | Fringe | Fruit machine | Full stop | Gangway | GCSE | Grammar school | Guide dog | Gum | Handbag | Hen night | High Street | High Street Shops | Hole in the wall | Holiday | Hoover | Hurling | Hypermarket | Insects | Jasper | Johnny | Kiss gate | Chuck was determined to make friends during his trip to England | Ladybird | Lead | Leaving do | Letter box | Licence fee | Lift | Local | Lounge bar | Marigolds | Marks and Sparks | Marquee | Maths | Mobile | Naughts and crosses | Note | O | Over the moon | Oxbridge | Pantomime | Parcel | Pay packet | Pay rise | Pence | Penny farthing | Photocopier | Pictures | Pillar box | Polystyrene | Polytechnic | Pompey | Pontoon | Post | Post mortem | Postbox | Postcode | Postman | Pram | Premium bonds | Prep school | Primary school | Property | Pub | Pub crawl | Public convenience | Public school | Purse | Pushchair | Pylon | Queue | RAF | Railway | Rates | Reception | Return | Revise | Rise | Rounders | Rubber | Rubber Johnny | Rubbish | Saloon | School | Secondary school | Sellotape | Semi | Serviette | Set down | Shares | Shop | Shopping trolley | Shove | Skip | Skipping rope | Sledge | Snooker | Spondulicks | Stag night | Stand for election | Standing order | Stone | Strimmer | Surgery | Swimming baths | Telephone box | Telephone directory | Tenner | Tick | Timber | Time | Tippex | Tire | Torch | Trolley | Tube | TV licence | TV programme | Tyre | UK | Underground | University | VAT | Wad | Wallet | Wash up | Way out | WC | Wedge | White horse | Wonga | Year


ethnologue - Languages of / Sprachen von USA (Americas)

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=US


ethnologue - Abenaki - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=aaq


ethnologue - Abnaki, Eastern - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=aaq


ethnologue - Acadian - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=fra


ethnologue - Acadian - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=frc


ethnologue - Acadien - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=fra


ethnologue - Acgachemem - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=lui


ethnologue - Achomawi - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=acv


ethnologue - Achumawi - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=acv


ethnologue - Acoma - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kjq


ethnologue - Adyghe - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ady


ethnologue - Afro-Seminole - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=afs


ethnologue - Afro-Seminole Creole - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=afs


ethnologue - Agachemem - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=lui


ethnologue - Ahahnelin - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ats


ethnologue - Ahe - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ats


ethnologue - Ahtena - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=aht


ethnologue - Ahtna - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=aht


ethnologue - Ajachema - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=lui


ethnologue - Ajachemem - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=lui


ethnologue - Akimel O'odham - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ood


ethnologue - Alabama - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=akz


ethnologue - Albanian, Gheg - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=aln


ethnologue - Albanian, Tosk - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=als


ethnologue - Aleut - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ale


ethnologue - Aleut - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ems


ethnologue - Alibamu - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=akz


ethnologue - Alkansea - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=qua


ethnologue - Alsea - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=aes


ethnologue - Alséya - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=aes


ethnologue - Alutiiq - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ems


ethnologue - Amerax - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=aex


ethnologue - American Sign Language - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ase


ethnologue - Ameridish - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=yib


ethnologue - Ameslan - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ase


ethnologue - Amish Pennsylvania German - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pdc


ethnologue - Anaktuvik Pass Inupiatun - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=esi


ethnologue - Ananin - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ats


ethnologue - Andaste - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=sqn


ethnologue - Angloromani - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=rme


ethnologue - Apache, Jicarilla - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=apj


ethnologue - Apache, Kiowa - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=apk


ethnologue - Apache, Lipan - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=apl


ethnologue - Apache, Mescalero-Chiricahua - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=apm


ethnologue - Apache, Western - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=apw


ethnologue - Apsaalooke - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cro


ethnologue - Arabic, Judeo-Tunisian - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ajt


ethnologue - Arabic, Najdi Spoken - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ars


ethnologue - Arapaho - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=arp


ethnologue - Arctic Red River - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=gwi


ethnologue - Arctic Village Gwich'in - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=gwi


ethnologue - Arikara - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ari


ethnologue - Arikaree - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ari


ethnologue - Arikari - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ari


ethnologue - Arikaris - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ari


ethnologue - Arkansas - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=qua


ethnologue - Armenian - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=hye


ethnologue - Arrapahoe - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=arp


ethnologue - ASL - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ase


ethnologue - Assiniboin - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=asb


ethnologue - Assiniboine - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=asb


ethnologue - Assyrian Neo-Aramaic - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=aii


ethnologue - Atakapa - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=aqp


ethnologue - Atka - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ale


ethnologue - Atkan - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ale


ethnologue - Atna - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=aht


ethnologue - Atsina - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ats


ethnologue - Atsugewi - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=atw


ethnologue - Attuan - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ale


ethnologue - Azerbaijani, South - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=azb


ethnologue - Bahamas Creole English - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=bah


ethnologue - Bahnar - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=bdq


ethnologue - Ballo-Kai-Pomo - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=poo


ethnologue - Bannock - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pao


ethnologue - Barbareño - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=boi


ethnologue - Basque - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eus


ethnologue - Batem-Da-Kai-Ee - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ktw


ethnologue - Baxoje - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=iow


ethnologue - Belarusan - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=bel


ethnologue - Belize Kriol English - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=bzj


ethnologue - Bengali - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ben


ethnologue - Bethel Yupik - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=esu


ethnologue - Big Woods French - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=frc


ethnologue - Biloxi - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=bll


ethnologue - Black American Sign Language - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ase


ethnologue - Black English - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eng


ethnologue - Black Seminole - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=afs


ethnologue - Blackfeet - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=bla


ethnologue - Blackfoot - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=bla


ethnologue - Bodega - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=csi


ethnologue - Brao - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=brb


ethnologue - Breton - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=bre


ethnologue - Bru, Western - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=brv


ethnologue - Brulé - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=lkt


ethnologue - Bukharic - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=bhh


ethnologue - Bulgarian - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=bul


ethnologue - Burmese - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mya


ethnologue - Cabanapo - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=poo


ethnologue - Caddo - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cad


ethnologue - Caddoe - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cad


ethnologue - Cadien - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=frc


ethnologue - Cahto - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ktw


ethnologue - Cahuilla - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=chl


ethnologue - Cajan - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=frc


ethnologue - Cajun - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=frc


ethnologue - Campo - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=dih


ethnologue - Capa - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=qua


ethnologue - Carmel - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=css


ethnologue - Carolina Algonquian - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=crr


ethnologue - Castellano - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=spa


ethnologue - Catalan-Valencian-Balear - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cat


ethnologue - Catawba - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=chc


ethnologue - Cayuga - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cay


ethnologue - Cebuano - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ceb


ethnologue - Central Alaskan Yupik - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=esu


ethnologue - Central Minnesota Chippewa - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ciw


ethnologue - Central Yana - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ynn


ethnologue - Chaldean Neo-Aramaic - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cld


ethnologue - Cham, Eastern - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cjm


ethnologue - Cham, Western - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cja


ethnologue - Chaplino - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ess


ethnologue - Chehalis - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cjh


ethnologue - Chehalis, Lower - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cea


ethnologue - Chehalis, Upper - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cjh


ethnologue - Chelan - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=col


ethnologue - Chemakum - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cmk


ethnologue - Chemehuevi - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ute


ethnologue - Chena - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=taa


ethnologue - Cherokee - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=chr


ethnologue - Chetco - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ctc


ethnologue - Cheyenne - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=chy


ethnologue - Chickasaw - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cic


ethnologue - Chiliwack - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=hur


ethnologue - Chimakum - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cmk


ethnologue - Chimariko - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cid


ethnologue - Chimmezyan - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tsi


ethnologue - Chinese, Hakka - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=hak


ethnologue - Chinese, Mandarin - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cmn


ethnologue - Chinese, Min Nan - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=nan


ethnologue - Chinese, Yue - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=yue


ethnologue - Chinook - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=chh


ethnologue - Chinook Jargon - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=chn


ethnologue - Chinook Pidgin - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=chn


ethnologue - Chinook Wawa - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=chn


ethnologue - Chippewa - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ciw


ethnologue - Chippewa - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=otw


ethnologue - Chiricahua - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=apm


ethnologue - Chitimacha - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ctm


ethnologue - Chiwere - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=iow


ethnologue - Choctaw - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cho


ethnologue - Chru - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cje


ethnologue - Chugach - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ems


ethnologue - Chugach Eskimo - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ems


ethnologue - Chumash - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=chs


ethnologue - Cibecue - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=apw


ethnologue - Clackama - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=chh


ethnologue - Clallam - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=clm


ethnologue - Clear Lake Pomo - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=peb


ethnologue - Coast Tsimshian - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tsi


ethnologue - Coastal Inupiatun - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=esk


ethnologue - Coastal-Inland - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tfn


ethnologue - Cochiti - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kee


ethnologue - Cocomaricopa - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mrc


ethnologue - Cocopa - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=coc


ethnologue - Cocopah - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=coc


ethnologue - Coeur d'Alene - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=crd


ethnologue - Columbia - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=col


ethnologue - Columbia River Sahaptin - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=uma


ethnologue - Columbian - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=col


ethnologue - Columbia-Wenatchi - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=col


ethnologue - Colville - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=oka


ethnologue - Comanche - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=com


ethnologue - Concow - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mjd


ethnologue - Conestoga - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=sqn


ethnologue - Conoy - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=psy


ethnologue - Coos - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=csz


ethnologue - Copper River - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=aht


ethnologue - Coquille - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=coq


ethnologue - Cora, El Nayar - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=crn


ethnologue - Coso - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=par


ethnologue - Costanoan - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=css


ethnologue - Costanoan - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cst


ethnologue - Coushatta - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cku


ethnologue - Cowichan - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=hur


ethnologue - Cowlitz - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cow


ethnologue - Coyotero - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=apw


ethnologue - Cree, Plains - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=crk


ethnologue - Creek - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mus


ethnologue - Creek - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mus


ethnologue - Crimean Turkish - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=crh


ethnologue - Crioulo, Upper Guinea - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pov


ethnologue - Croatan - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=lmz


ethnologue - Crow - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cro


ethnologue - Cruzeño - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=crz


ethnologue - Cucapá - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=coc


ethnologue - Cupeño - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cup


ethnologue - Czech - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ces


ethnologue - Dakhota - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=dak


ethnologue - Dakota - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=dak


ethnologue - Dakota - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=dak


ethnologue - Danish - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=dan


ethnologue - Dawson - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=haa


ethnologue - Deg Xinag - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ing


ethnologue - Deg Xit'an - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ing


ethnologue - Degexit'an - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ing


ethnologue - Delaware - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=unm


ethnologue - Delaware, Pidgin - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=dep


ethnologue - Delta River Yuman - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=coc


ethnologue - Dena'ina - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tfn


ethnologue - Diegueño - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=dih


ethnologue - Digger - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mjd


ethnologue - Digueño - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=dih


ethnologue - Diné - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=nav


ethnologue - Duwamish - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=slh


ethnologue - East Bay - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cst


ethnologue - Eastern Aleut - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ale


ethnologue - Eastern Central Sierra Miwok - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=csm


ethnologue - Eastern Cherokee - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=chr


ethnologue - Eastern Keres Pueblo - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kee


ethnologue - Eastern Ojibwa - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=otw


ethnologue - Elati - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=chr


ethnologue - English - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eng


ethnologue - English Romani - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=rme


ethnologue - Entiat - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=col


ethnologue - Eskimo - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=esi


ethnologue - Eskimo - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=esk


ethnologue - Español - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=spa


ethnologue - Esselen - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=esq


ethnologue - Estonian - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=est


ethnologue - Eyak - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eya


ethnologue - Fall Indians - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ats


ethnologue - Farsi, Western - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pes


ethnologue - Finnish - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=fin


ethnologue - Flathead-Kalispel - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=fla


ethnologue - Fort Yukon Gwich'in - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=gwi


ethnologue - Fox - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=sac


ethnologue - Français Acadien - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=frc


ethnologue - French - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=fra


ethnologue - French Cree - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=crg


ethnologue - French, Cajun - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=frc


ethnologue - Frisian, Eastern - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=frs


ethnologue - Gaelic, Irish - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=gle


ethnologue - Gaelic, Scottish - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=gla


ethnologue - Galice - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=gce


ethnologue - Gallinoméro - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=peq


ethnologue - Garifuna - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cab


ethnologue - Geechee - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=gul


ethnologue - Georgia - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=gul


ethnologue - Georgian - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kat


ethnologue - German, Hutterite - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=geh


ethnologue - German, Pennsylvania - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pdc


ethnologue - German, Standard - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=deu


ethnologue - Giáy - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pcc


ethnologue - Goshute - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=shh


ethnologue - Gosiute - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=shh


ethnologue - Greek - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ell


ethnologue - Gros Ventre - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ats


ethnologue - Gros Ventres - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ats


ethnologue - Guidiville - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pej


ethnologue - Gujarati - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=guj


ethnologue - Gullah - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=gul


ethnologue - Guyanese Creole English - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=gyn


ethnologue - Gwich'in - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=gwi


ethnologue - Habenapo - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=poo


ethnologue - Haida, Northern - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=hdn


ethnologue - Haitian Creole French - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=hat


ethnologue - Halkomelem - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=hur


ethnologue - Han - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=haa


ethnologue - Hanis - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=csz


ethnologue - Han-Kutchin - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=haa


ethnologue - Hano - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tew


ethnologue - Havasupai - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=yuf


ethnologue - Havasupai-Walapai-Yavapai - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=yuf


ethnologue - Hawai'i Creole English - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=hwc


ethnologue - Hawai'i Pidgin - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=hwc


ethnologue - Hawai'i Pidgin Sign Language - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=hps


ethnologue - Hawaiian - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=haw


ethnologue - HCE - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=hwc


ethnologue - Healy Lake - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tcb


ethnologue - Hebrew - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=heb


ethnologue - H'hana - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=poo


ethnologue - Hidatsa - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=hid


ethnologue - Hiligaynon - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=hil


ethnologue - Hinatsa - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=hid


ethnologue - Hindi - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=hin


ethnologue - Hindustani, Fijian - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=hif


ethnologue - Hiraca - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=hid


ethnologue - Hitchiti - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mik


ethnologue - Hitchiti - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mik


ethnologue - Hmong Daw - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mww


ethnologue - Hmong Njua - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=blu


ethnologue - Hocák - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=win


ethnologue - Hocak Wazijaci - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=win


ethnologue - Hocank - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=win


ethnologue - Hochank - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=win


ethnologue - Ho-Chunk - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=win


ethnologue - Hoh - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=qui


ethnologue - Hohe - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=asb


ethnologue - Holikachuk - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=hoi


ethnologue - Holkomelem - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=hur


ethnologue - Holólupai - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mjd


ethnologue - Hoopa - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=hup


ethnologue - Hopi - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=hop


ethnologue - Hopland - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=poo


ethnologue - Hualpai - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=yuf


ethnologue - Huimen - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=csi


ethnologue - Hulaulá - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=huy


ethnologue - Hungarian - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=hun


ethnologue - Hupa - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=hup


ethnologue - Huron - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=wya


ethnologue - Hutterian German - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=geh


ethnologue - Hwalbáy - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=yuf


ethnologue - Icelandic - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=isl


ethnologue - Illinois - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mia


ethnologue - Ilocano - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ilo


ethnologue - Indonesian - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ind


ethnologue - Ineseño - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=inz


ethnologue - Ingalik - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ing


ethnologue - Ingalit - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ing


ethnologue - Inupiat - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=esi


ethnologue - Inupiatun - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=esk


ethnologue - Inupiatun, North Alaskan - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=esi


ethnologue - Inupiatun, Northwest Alaska - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=esk


ethnologue - Iowa - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=iow


ethnologue - Iowa-Oto - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=iow


ethnologue - Ioway - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=iow


ethnologue - Ipai - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=dih


ethnologue - Island Chumash - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=crz


ethnologue - Isleño - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=crz


ethnologue - Isleta - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tix


ethnologue - Isleta Pueblo - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tix


ethnologue - Italian - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ita


ethnologue - Iu Mien - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ium


ethnologue - Japanese - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=jpn


ethnologue - Jarai - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=jra


ethnologue - Jemez - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tow


ethnologue - Jiwele - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=iow


ethnologue - Jiwere - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=iow


ethnologue - Juaneño - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=lui


ethnologue - Kabardian - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kbd


ethnologue - Kábinapek - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=poo


ethnologue - Kabuverdianu - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kea


ethnologue - Kabuverdianu Sotavento - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kea


ethnologue - Kado - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cad


ethnologue - Kadohadacho - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cad


ethnologue - Kai Po-Mo - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ktw


ethnologue - Kalapuya - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kyl


ethnologue - Kalispel - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=fla


ethnologue - Kalispel-Flathead - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=fla


ethnologue - Kalispel-Pend D'oreille - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=fla


ethnologue - Kalmyk-Oirat - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=xal


ethnologue - Kamia - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=dih


ethnologue - Kanien'kehaka - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=moh


ethnologue - Kanjobal, Eastern - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kjb


ethnologue - Kanjobal, Western - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=knj


ethnologue - Kansa - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ksk


ethnologue - Kanze - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ksk


ethnologue - Karachay-Balkar - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=krc


ethnologue - Karkin - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=krb


ethnologue - Karok - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kyh


ethnologue - Karuk - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kyh


ethnologue - Kashaya - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kju


ethnologue - Kato - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ktw


ethnologue - Kaw - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ksk


ethnologue - Kawaiisu - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=xaw


ethnologue - Kechan - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=yum


ethnologue - Kenai Peninsula - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tfn


ethnologue - Keres, Eastern - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kee


ethnologue - Keres, Western - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kjq


ethnologue - Khabenapo - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=poo


ethnologue - Khana - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=poo


ethnologue - Khmer, Central - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=khm


ethnologue - Khmu - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kjg


ethnologue - Khuen - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=khf


ethnologue - Kichai - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kii


ethnologue - Kickapoo - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kic


ethnologue - Kikapoo - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kic


ethnologue - Kikapú - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kic


ethnologue - Kikima - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=coc


ethnologue - Kiksht - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=chh


ethnologue - Kimiai - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=dih


ethnologue - Kinayskiy - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tfn


ethnologue - King Island Inupiatun - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=esk


ethnologue - Kiowa - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kio


ethnologue - Kitsai - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kii


ethnologue - Kituhwa - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=chr


ethnologue - Klallam - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=clm


ethnologue - Klamath-Modoc - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kla


ethnologue - Klao - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=klu


ethnologue - Klatsop - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=chh


ethnologue - Klikitat - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=yak


ethnologue - Koasati - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cku


ethnologue - Kobuk River Inupiatun - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=esk


ethnologue - Koho - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kpm


ethnologue - Kolchan - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kuu


ethnologue - Koniag - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ems


ethnologue - Koniag-Chugach - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ems


ethnologue - Konkau - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mjd


ethnologue - Konkow - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mjd


ethnologue - Konze - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ksk


ethnologue - Kootenai - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kut


ethnologue - Korean - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kor


ethnologue - Koso - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=par


ethnologue - Koso Shoshone - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=par


ethnologue - Kotzebue Sound Inupiatun - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=esk


ethnologue - Koyukon - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=koy


ethnologue - Ktunaxa - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kut


ethnologue - Kulanapan - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=poo


ethnologue - Kulanapo - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=poo


ethnologue - Kumeyaay - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=dih


ethnologue - Kumiai - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=dih


ethnologue - Kurdish, Northern - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kmr


ethnologue - Kuskokwim Yupik - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=esu


ethnologue - Kuskokwim, Upper - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kuu


ethnologue - Kutchin - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=gwi


ethnologue - Kutenai - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kut


ethnologue - Kwaiailk - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cjh


ethnologue - Kwakiutl - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kwk


ethnologue - Kweedishchaaht - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=myh


ethnologue - Kwe-Nee-Chee-Aht - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=myh


ethnologue - Kwikapa - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=coc


ethnologue - Ladin - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=lld


ethnologue - Ladino - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=lad


ethnologue - Laguna - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kjq


ethnologue - Lahu Shi - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kds


ethnologue - Lake - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=oka


ethnologue - Lakhota - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=lkt


ethnologue - Lakota - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=lkt


ethnologue - Lamet - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=lbn


ethnologue - Lao - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=lao


ethnologue - Latvian - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=lav


ethnologue - Laven - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=lbo


ethnologue - Laz - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=lzz


ethnologue - Lenape - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=unm


ethnologue - Lenni-Lenape - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=unm


ethnologue - Lithuanian - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=lit


ethnologue - Lombard - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=lmo


ethnologue - Loucheux - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=gwi


ethnologue - Louisiana Creole French - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=lou


ethnologue - Low German - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pdt


ethnologue - Lower Chehalis - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=qun


ethnologue - Lower Cherokee - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=chr


ethnologue - Lower Chinook - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=chh


ethnologue - Lower Cowlitz - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cow


ethnologue - Lower Lake Pomo - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pom


ethnologue - Lowland Takelma - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tkm


ethnologue - Luiseño - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=lui


ethnologue - Luiseño - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=lui


ethnologue - Lukamiute - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kyl


ethnologue - Lumbee - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=lmz


ethnologue - Lummi - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=str


ethnologue - Lushootseed - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=lut


ethnologue - Luxembourgeois - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ltz


ethnologue - Mahairi - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=oma


ethnologue - Mahican - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mjy


ethnologue - Maidu, Northeast - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=nmu


ethnologue - Maidu, Northwest - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mjd


ethnologue - Maidu, Valley - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=vmv


ethnologue - Maiduan - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mjd


ethnologue - Makah - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=myh


ethnologue - Mal - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mlf


ethnologue - Malay - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mly


ethnologue - Malay, Ambonese - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=abs


ethnologue - Malecite - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pqm


ethnologue - Maliseet - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pqm


ethnologue - Maltese - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mlt


ethnologue - Mandan - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mhq


ethnologue - Mansfield-Ketchumstuck - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tcb


ethnologue - Maricopa - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mrc


ethnologue - Marin Miwok - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=csi


ethnologue - Marsh French - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=frc


ethnologue - Martha's Vineyard Sign Language - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mre


ethnologue - Massachusett - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=wam


ethnologue - Massachusetts - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=wam


ethnologue - Masset - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=hdn


ethnologue - Mattole - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mvb


ethnologue - Mcdermitt - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pao


ethnologue - Mcgrath Ingalik - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kuu


ethnologue - Mednovskiy - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=aht


ethnologue - Meewoc - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=skd


ethnologue - Meidoo - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mjd


ethnologue - Mennonite German - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pdt


ethnologue - Menominee - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mez


ethnologue - Menomini - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mez


ethnologue - Mescalero - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=apm


ethnologue - Meskwakie - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=sac


ethnologue - Mesquakie - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=sac


ethnologue - Mesquakie - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=sac


ethnologue - Mewoc - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=skd


ethnologue - Me-Wuk - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=skd


ethnologue - Mexico - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=afs


ethnologue - Miami - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mia


ethnologue - Miami - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mia


ethnologue - Miami-Illinois - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mia


ethnologue - Miami-Myaamia - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mia


ethnologue - Miccosukee - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mik


ethnologue - Michif - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=crg


ethnologue - Michopdo - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mjd


ethnologue - Micmac - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mic


ethnologue - Middle Cherokee - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=chr


ethnologue - Mi'gmaw - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mic


ethnologue - Miigmao - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mic


ethnologue - Mikasuki - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mik


ethnologue - Mikasuki - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mik


ethnologue - Mikasuki Seminole - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mik


ethnologue - Mi'kmaw - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mic


ethnologue - Minitari - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=hid


ethnologue - Minnesota Border Chippewa - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ciw


ethnologue - Minqua - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=sqn


ethnologue - Mishikhwutmetunee - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=coq


ethnologue - Missouri - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=iow


ethnologue - Missouria - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=iow


ethnologue - Mitchif - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=crg


ethnologue - Miwoc - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=skd


ethnologue - Miwok, Bay - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mkq


ethnologue - Miwok, Central Sierra - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=csm


ethnologue - Miwok, Coast - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=csi


ethnologue - Miwok, Lake - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=lmw


ethnologue - Miwok, Northern Sierra - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=nsq


ethnologue - Miwok, Plains - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pmw


ethnologue - Miwok, Southern Sierra - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=skd


ethnologue - Miwokan - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=skd


ethnologue - Mixtec, Mixtepec - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mix


ethnologue - Mixtec, Peñoles - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mil


ethnologue - Mixtec, Silacayoapan - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mks


ethnologue - Mnong, Eastern - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mng


ethnologue - Mobilian - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mod


ethnologue - Mobilian Jargon - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mod


ethnologue - Mohave - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mov


ethnologue - Mohawk - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=moh


ethnologue - Mohegan-Montauk-Narragansett - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mof


ethnologue - Mojave - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mov


ethnologue - Mokélumne - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=skd


ethnologue - Molala - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mbe


ethnologue - Molale - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mbe


ethnologue - Molalla - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mbe


ethnologue - Molele - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mbe


ethnologue - Monachi - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mnr


ethnologue - Mono - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mnr


ethnologue - Montauk - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mof


ethnologue - Monterey - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=css


ethnologue - Moosehide - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=haa


ethnologue - Moquelumnan - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=skd


ethnologue - Mountain Maidu - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=nmu


ethnologue - Muckleshoot - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=slh


ethnologue - Muskogee - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mus


ethnologue - Musqueam - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=hur


ethnologue - Mutsun - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=css


ethnologue - MVSL - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mre


ethnologue - Nabesna - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tau


ethnologue - Na'klallam - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=clm


ethnologue - Nakoda - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=dak


ethnologue - Nakota - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=dak


ethnologue - Nákum - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mjd


ethnologue - Nambe - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tew


ethnologue - Nanaimo - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=hur


ethnologue - Nanticoke - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=nnt


ethnologue - Narrangansett - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mof


ethnologue - Natchez - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ncz


ethnologue - Natick - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=wam


ethnologue - Navaho - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=nav


ethnologue - Navajo - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=nav


ethnologue - Nawathinehena - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=nwa


ethnologue - Nebome - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ood


ethnologue - Nebraska - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=win


ethnologue - Neeshenam - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=nsz


ethnologue - Nevome - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ood


ethnologue - Nez Perce - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=nez


ethnologue - Nisenan - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=nsz


ethnologue - Nishinam - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=nsz


ethnologue - Nisqually - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=slh


ethnologue - Niutaji - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=iow


ethnologue - Nomlaki - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=wit


ethnologue - Non-Amish Pennsylvania German - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pdc


ethnologue - Non-Plain Pennsylvania German - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pdc


ethnologue - Nooksack - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=nok


ethnologue - Nootsack - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=nok


ethnologue - North Alaskan Inupiat - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=esi


ethnologue - North Northern Paiute - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pao


ethnologue - North Slope Inupiatun - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=esi


ethnologue - Northeast Florida Coast - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=gul


ethnologue - Northeast Sahaptin - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=waa


ethnologue - Northern Foothill Yokuts - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=yok


ethnologue - Northern Lushootseed - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=lut


ethnologue - Northern Malimiut Inupiatun - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=esk


ethnologue - Northern Puget Sound Salish - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=lut


ethnologue - Northern Shoshoni - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=shh


ethnologue - Northern Yana - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ynn


ethnologue - Northwest Alaska Inupiat - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=esk


ethnologue - Nottoway - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ntw


ethnologue - Nung - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=nut


ethnologue - Nyut'chi - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=iow


ethnologue - Obispeño - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=obi


ethnologue - Odawa - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=otw


ethnologue - Ofo - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ofo


ethnologue - Ogaxpa - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=qua


ethnologue - Ohlone, Northern - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cst


ethnologue - Ohlone, Southern - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=css


ethnologue - Ojibway - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ciw


ethnologue - Ojibwe - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ciw


ethnologue - Ojibwe - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=otw


ethnologue - Okanagan - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=oka


ethnologue - Okanagan-Colville - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=oka


ethnologue - Okanagon - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=oka


ethnologue - Okanogan - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=oka


ethnologue - 'Olelo Hawai'i - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=haw


ethnologue - 'Olelo Hawai'i Makuahine - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=haw


ethnologue - Omaha - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=oma


ethnologue - Omaha-Ponca - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=oma


ethnologue - Onandaga - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ono


ethnologue - Oneida - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=one


ethnologue - Onondaga - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ono


ethnologue - O'odham - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ood


ethnologue - O'othham - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ood


ethnologue - Osage - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=osa


ethnologue - Otali - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=chr


ethnologue - Oto - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=iow


ethnologue - Otoe - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=iow


ethnologue - Otomi, Mezquital - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ote


ethnologue - Ottawa - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=otw


ethnologue - Overhill Cherokee - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=chr


ethnologue - Overhill-Middle Cherokee - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=chr


ethnologue - Pacific Yupik - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ems


ethnologue - Paiute, Northern - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pao


ethnologue - Panamint - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=par


ethnologue - Panamint Shoshone - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=par


ethnologue - Panjabi, Eastern - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pan


ethnologue - Panjabi, Western - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pnb


ethnologue - Papago - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ood


ethnologue - Papago-Pima - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ood


ethnologue - Parsi - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=prp


ethnologue - Patwin - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=wit


ethnologue - Paviotso - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pao


ethnologue - Pawnee - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=paw


ethnologue - Peigan - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=bla


ethnologue - Pend D'oreille - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=fla


ethnologue - Pennsylvania Deitsh - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pdc


ethnologue - Pennsylvania Dutch - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pdc


ethnologue - Pennsylvanish - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pdc


ethnologue - Penobscot - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=aaq


ethnologue - Pensylvanisch Deitsch - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pdc


ethnologue - Peoria - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mia


ethnologue - Pequot-Mohegan - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mof


ethnologue - Phu Thai - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pht


ethnologue - Picuris - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=twf


ethnologue - Pidgin - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=hwc


ethnologue - Pidgin Sign Language - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=hps


ethnologue - Piegan - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=bla


ethnologue - Piemontese - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pms


ethnologue - Pikanii - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=bla


ethnologue - Pima - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ood


ethnologue - Pingelapese - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pif


ethnologue - Piro - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pie


ethnologue - Piscataway - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=psy


ethnologue - Pitt River - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=acv


ethnologue - Plain Pennsylvania German - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pdc


ethnologue - Plains Indian Sign Language - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=psd


ethnologue - Plains Sign Language - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=psd


ethnologue - Plautdietsch - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pdt


ethnologue - Point Arena - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=poo


ethnologue - Point Barrow Inupiatun - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=esi


ethnologue - Point Hope Inupiatun - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=esi


ethnologue - Pojoaque - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tew


ethnologue - Polish - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pol


ethnologue - Pomo, Central - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=poo


ethnologue - Pomo, Eastern - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=peb


ethnologue - Pomo, Northeastern - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pef


ethnologue - Pomo, Northern - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pej


ethnologue - Pomo, Southeastern - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pom


ethnologue - Pomo, Southern - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=peq


ethnologue - Ponca - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=oma


ethnologue - Ponka - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=oma


ethnologue - Pontic - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pnt


ethnologue - Portuguese - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=por


ethnologue - Potawatomi - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pot


ethnologue - Pottawotomi - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pot


ethnologue - Powhatan - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pim


ethnologue - Ppankka - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=oma


ethnologue - Prairie French - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=frc


ethnologue - Pribilof Aleut - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ale


ethnologue - Pujuni - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=nsz


ethnologue - Purisimeño - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=puy


ethnologue - Puyallup - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=slh


ethnologue - Quapaw - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=qua


ethnologue - Québécois - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=fra


ethnologue - Quechan - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=yum


ethnologue - Quecl - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=yum


ethnologue - Quilcene - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=twa


ethnologue - Quileute - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=qui


ethnologue - Quileute - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=qui


ethnologue - Quinault - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=qun


ethnologue - Rade - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=rad


ethnologue - Rapa Nui - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=rap


ethnologue - Red Lake Chippewa - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ciw


ethnologue - Ree - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ari


ethnologue - Restigouche - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mic


ethnologue - Ris - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ari


ethnologue - Romani English - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=rme


ethnologue - Romani, Balkan - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=rmn


ethnologue - Romani, Carpathian - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=rmc


ethnologue - Romani, Vlax - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=rmy


ethnologue - Romanian - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ron


ethnologue - Romanichal - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=rme


ethnologue - Romanis - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=rme


ethnologue - Rumsen - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=css


ethnologue - Runsien - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=css


ethnologue - Russian - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=rus


ethnologue - Russki - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=rus


ethnologue - Saanich - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=str


ethnologue - Sac - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=sac


ethnologue - Sac And Fox - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=sac


ethnologue - Saclan - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mkq


ethnologue - Saklan - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mkq


ethnologue - Salcha-Goodpaster - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=taa


ethnologue - Salinan - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=sln


ethnologue - Salish - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=fla


ethnologue - Salish, Southern Puget Sound - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=slh


ethnologue - Salish, Straits - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=str


ethnologue - Salt Pomo - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pef


ethnologue - Samish - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=str


ethnologue - Samoan - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=smo


ethnologue - San Carlos - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=apw


ethnologue - San Carlos - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=css


ethnologue - San Felipe - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kee


ethnologue - San Francisco - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cst


ethnologue - San Ildefonso - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tew


ethnologue - San Juan - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tew


ethnologue - San Juan Bautista - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=css


ethnologue - San Raphael - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=skd


ethnologue - Sandia - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tix


ethnologue - Sanpoil - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=oka


ethnologue - Santa Ana - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kee


ethnologue - Santa Clara - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cst


ethnologue - Santa Clara - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tew


ethnologue - Santa Cruz - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cst


ethnologue - Santee - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=dak


ethnologue - Santee-Sisseton - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=dak


ethnologue - Santiam - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kyl


ethnologue - Santo Domingo - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kee


ethnologue - Saponi - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tta


ethnologue - Sastean - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=sht


ethnologue - Sauk-Fox - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=sac


ethnologue - Sea Island Creole English - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=gul


ethnologue - Secumne - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mjd


ethnologue - Sekumne - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mjd


ethnologue - Seminole - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=afs


ethnologue - Seminole - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mus


ethnologue - Senaya - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=syn


ethnologue - Seneca - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=see


ethnologue - Serbian - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=srp


ethnologue - Serrano - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ser


ethnologue - Seward Peninsula Inupiatun - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=esk


ethnologue - Shasta - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=sht


ethnologue - Shastan - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=sht


ethnologue - Shawnee - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=sjw


ethnologue - Shelta - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=sth


ethnologue - Sherwood Valley - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pej


ethnologue - Shinnecock-Poosepatuck - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mof


ethnologue - Shiwi'ma - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=zun


ethnologue - Shoshone - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=shh


ethnologue - Shoshoni - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=shh


ethnologue - Sindhi - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=snd


ethnologue - Sinkiuse - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=col


ethnologue - Sioux - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=dak


ethnologue - Siuslaw - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=sis


ethnologue - Skagit - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ska


ethnologue - Skarohreh - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tus


ethnologue - Skidi - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=paw


ethnologue - Skiri - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=paw


ethnologue - S'klallam - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=clm


ethnologue - Skokomish - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=twa


ethnologue - Skokomish - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=twa


ethnologue - Slovak - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=slk


ethnologue - Slovenian - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=slv


ethnologue - Sm'algyax - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tsi


ethnologue - Smith River - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tol


ethnologue - Snohomish - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=sno


ethnologue - Snoqualmie - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=slh


ethnologue - Soledad - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cst


ethnologue - Songish - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=str


ethnologue - Sooke - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=str


ethnologue - South Alaska Eskimo - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ems


ethnologue - South Band - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=paw


ethnologue - South Carolina - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=gul


ethnologue - South Northern Paiute - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pao


ethnologue - Southern Foothill Yokuts - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=yok


ethnologue - Southern Lushootseed - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=lut


ethnologue - Southern Maidu - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=nsz


ethnologue - Southern Malimiut Inupiatun - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=esk


ethnologue - Southern Okanogan - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=oka


ethnologue - Southern Paiute - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ute


ethnologue - Southern Puget Sound Salish - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=lut


ethnologue - Southern Yana - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ynn


ethnologue - Southwestern Caribbean Creole English - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=jam


ethnologue - Southwestern Ojibwa - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ciw


ethnologue - Southwestern Pomo - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kju


ethnologue - Spanish - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=spa


ethnologue - Spokan - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=spo


ethnologue - Spokane - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=spo


ethnologue - St. Lawrence Island Eskimo - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ess


ethnologue - Stockbridge - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mof


ethnologue - Stoney River - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tfn


ethnologue - Straits - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=str


ethnologue - Sugcestun - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ems


ethnologue - Sugpiak Eskimo - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ems


ethnologue - Sugpiaq Eskimo - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ems


ethnologue - Suk - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ems


ethnologue - Suquh - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=slh


ethnologue - Susquehanna - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=sqn


ethnologue - Susquehannock - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=sqn


ethnologue - Swahili - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=swh


ethnologue - Swedish - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=swe


ethnologue - Swinomish - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ska


ethnologue - Sylheti - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=syl


ethnologue - Tactile Sign Language - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ase


ethnologue - Tagalog - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tgl


ethnologue - Tai Daeng - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tyr


ethnologue - Tai Dam - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=blt


ethnologue - Takelma - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tkm


ethnologue - Takilma - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tkm


ethnologue - Takudh - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=gwi


ethnologue - Talatui - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=skd


ethnologue - Talutui - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=skd


ethnologue - Tanacross - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tcb


ethnologue - Tanaina - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tfn


ethnologue - Tanana - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=taa


ethnologue - Tanana, Lower - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=taa


ethnologue - Tanana, Upper - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tau


ethnologue - Ta'oih, Upper - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tth


ethnologue - Taos - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=twf


ethnologue - Tatar - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tat


ethnologue - Tawakoni - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=wic


ethnologue - Tày - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tyz


ethnologue - Ten'a - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=koy


ethnologue - Tenino - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tqn


ethnologue - Tessinian - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=lmo


ethnologue - Tesuque - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tew


ethnologue - Teton - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=lkt


ethnologue - Tewa - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tew


ethnologue - Texas - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=afs


ethnologue - Thai - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tha


ethnologue - Thin - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mlf


ethnologue - Thlinget - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tli


ethnologue - Tibetan - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=bod


ethnologue - Ticinees - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=lmo


ethnologue - Ticines - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=lmo


ethnologue - Ticinese - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=lmo


ethnologue - Ticino - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=lmo


ethnologue - Tillamook - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=til


ethnologue - Tipai - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=dih


ethnologue - Tirolean - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=geh


ethnologue - Tiwa, Northern - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=twf


ethnologue - Tiwa, Southern - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tix


ethnologue - Tla Wilano - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=unm


ethnologue - Tlatsop - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=chh


ethnologue - Tlingit - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tli


ethnologue - Tlinkit - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tli


ethnologue - Tlokeang - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ktw


ethnologue - Tohono O'odam - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ood


ethnologue - Tohono O'odham - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ood


ethnologue - Tokelauan - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tkl


ethnologue - Tolowa - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tol


ethnologue - Tompiro - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pie


ethnologue - Tondano - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tdn


ethnologue - Tongan - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ton


ethnologue - Tonkawa - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tqw


ethnologue - Tonto - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=apw


ethnologue - Towa - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tow


ethnologue - Traveller Scottish - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=trl


ethnologue - Tsalagi - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=chr


ethnologue - Tsamak - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mjd


ethnologue - Tsimshean - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tsi


ethnologue - Tsimshian - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tsi


ethnologue - Tsinuk Wawa - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=chn


ethnologue - Tslagi - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=chr


ethnologue - Tübatulabal - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tub


ethnologue - Tukudh - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=gwi


ethnologue - Tümpisa Shoshoni - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=par


ethnologue - Tunica - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tun


ethnologue - Turkish - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tur


ethnologue - Turkmen - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tuk


ethnologue - Turoyo - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tru


ethnologue - Tuscarora - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tus


ethnologue - Tutelo - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tta


ethnologue - Tututni - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tuu


ethnologue - Twana - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=twa


ethnologue - Tyrolese - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=geh


ethnologue - Uchean - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=yuc


ethnologue - Ukiah - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=poo


ethnologue - Ukrainian - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ukr


ethnologue - Umanhan - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=oma


ethnologue - Umatilla - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=uma


ethnologue - Unalaskan - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ale


ethnologue - Unami - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=unm


ethnologue - Unangan - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ale


ethnologue - Unangany - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ale


ethnologue - Upland Yuman - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=yuf


ethnologue - Upper Cherokee - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=chr


ethnologue - Upper Chinook - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=wac


ethnologue - Upper Colorado River Yuman - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=yuf


ethnologue - Upper Coquille - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=coq


ethnologue - Upper Inlet - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tfn


ethnologue - Upper Michian-Wisconsin Chippewa - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ciw


ethnologue - Upper Piman - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ood


ethnologue - Ute - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ute


ethnologue - Ute-Southern Paiute - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ute


ethnologue - Uyghur - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=uig


ethnologue - Uzbek, Northern - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=uzn


ethnologue - Valley Miwok - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pmw


ethnologue - Valley Yokuts - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=yok


ethnologue - Venaambakaia - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=poo


ethnologue - Venambakaiia - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=poo


ethnologue - Ventureño - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=veo


ethnologue - Vietnamese - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=vie


ethnologue - Virginia Algonkian - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pim


ethnologue - Virginia Algonquian - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pim


ethnologue - Waco - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=wic


ethnologue - Wailaki - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=wlk


ethnologue - Walapai - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=yuf


ethnologue - Walla Walla - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=waa


ethnologue - Wampanoag - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=wam


ethnologue - Wapatu - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kyl


ethnologue - Wappo - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=wao


ethnologue - Wapumni - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=nsz


ethnologue - Warm Springs - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tqn


ethnologue - Wasco-Wishram - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=wac


ethnologue - Washo - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=was


ethnologue - Washoe - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=was


ethnologue - Wazhazhe - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=osa


ethnologue - Wenatchee - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=col


ethnologue - Wenatchi - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=col


ethnologue - Wenatchi-Columbia - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=col


ethnologue - Wendat - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=wya


ethnologue - West Arctic Inupiatun - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=esi


ethnologue - Western Aleut - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ale


ethnologue - Western Canada Gwich'in - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=gwi


ethnologue - Western Central Sierra Miwok - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=csm


ethnologue - Western Cherokee - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=chr


ethnologue - Western Cree - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=crk


ethnologue - Western Keres Pueblo - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kjq


ethnologue - Western Shoshoni - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=shh


ethnologue - Whilkut - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=hup


ethnologue - White Clay People - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ats


ethnologue - White Mountain - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=apw


ethnologue - Wichita - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=wic


ethnologue - Winnebago - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=win


ethnologue - Wintu - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=wit


ethnologue - Wintu - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=wit


ethnologue - Wintun - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=wit


ethnologue - Wisconsin - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=win


ethnologue - Wiyot - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=wiy


ethnologue - Wyandot - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=wya


ethnologue - Wyandot - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=wya


ethnologue - Wyandotte - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=wya


ethnologue - Wyendat - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=wya


ethnologue - Yahi - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ynn


ethnologue - Yakima - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=yak


ethnologue - Yakima - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=yak


ethnologue - Yakon - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=aes


ethnologue - Yakona - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=aes


ethnologue - Yakwina - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=aes


ethnologue - Yana - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ynn


ethnologue - Yankton - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=dak


ethnologue - Yankton-Yanktonais - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=dak


ethnologue - Yaqui - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=yaq


ethnologue - Yaquina - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=aes


ethnologue - Yavapai - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=yuf


ethnologue - Yerington-Schurz - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pao


ethnologue - Yevanic - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=yej


ethnologue - Yiddish, Eastern - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ydd


ethnologue - Yinglish - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=yib


ethnologue - Yokaia - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=poo


ethnologue - Yokuts - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=yok


ethnologue - Yoruba - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=yor


ethnologue - Yosemite - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=skd


ethnologue - Yuba - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mjd


ethnologue - Yuchi - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=yuc


ethnologue - Yuki - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=yuk


ethnologue - Yuma - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=yum


ethnologue - Yupik, Central - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=esu


ethnologue - Yupik, Central Siberian - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ess


ethnologue - Yupik, Pacific Gulf - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ems


ethnologue - Yurok - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=yur


ethnologue - Zapotec, Cajonos - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=zad


ethnologue - Zapotec, San Juan Guelavía - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=zab


ethnologue - Zapotec, Yalálag - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=zpu


ethnologue - Zapotec, Yatzachi - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=zav


ethnologue - Zapotec, Zoogocho - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=zpq


ethnologue - Zia - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kee


ethnologue - Zimshian - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tsi


ethnologue - Zuni - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=zun


ethnologue - Zuñi - Language of US

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=zun


F

fun-with-words (W3)

(E?)(L3) http://fun-with-words.com/
is the website dedicated to amusing quirks, peculiarities, and oddities of the English language. Our aim is to provide a site about wordplay which is both entertaining and educational. And most of all we want you to have fun with words.
In each section you will find everything you need to know, and more, including an explanation, plenty of examples, and the history of the subject.
Neben den vielen Links zu Amazon gibt es auch zu jedem sprachlichen Thema mehr oder weniger viele Beispiele. Ein Besuch lohnt sich aber auf jeden Fall.

G

H

hawaii
Language-Links

(E?)(L?) http://ling.lll.hawaii.edu/faculty/stampe
Links zu folgenden "Interests: phonology and prosody, verse and music, holistic typology and drift, computing, Austroasiatic and Indo-European languages, history of linguistics, et cetera."

huffingtonpost.com
100 Random Facts About The English Language

(E?)(L?) http://www.huffingtonpost.com/paul-anthony-jones/100-random-language-facts_b_6272224.html?&ncid=tweetlnkushpmg00000067

Posted: 12/09/2014 8:47 am EST Updated: 02/08/2015 5:59 am EST

This month, words and trivia Twitter account @HaggardHawks turns one year old. Since December 2013, we've been tweeting obscure words, surprising etymologies and bizarre linguistic facts every day, covering everything from "abature" (that's the trail of trampled grass an animal leaves behind it) and "abligurition" (spending to much money on food and drink - worth remembering that one in the run up to Christmas) to "zenzizenzizenzic" (a 16th century word for a number raised to its eighth power) and "zwischenzug" (a purely tactical move made to buy time). So, after almost 3,000 tweets, here to mark our first anniversary are 100 random facts about the English language, English words, and English etymology taken from our first year online.
...


Erstellt: 2015-07

I

infoplease
Writing & Language

(E?)(L?) http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0001599.html
A guide to grammar and common grammatical errors, spelling tips, frequently misused and mispronounced words, a glossary of foreign terms, statistics about languages and foreign language study, and Greek and Latin roots, prefixes, and suffixes.

J

K

L

Language (W3)

(E3)(L1) http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language


Language Code (W3)

(E3)(L1) http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/w/wiki.phtml?PHPSESSID=97ff51cc9e07858c2fc30dd48b4c71f2&search=language+code


linguistlist
Language Links

(E?)(L1) http://www.linguistlist.org/sp/LangAnalysis.html
Diese Seite listet viele (!) Links zu Linguistischen Seiten. Die Liste ist nach folgenden Zwischenüberschriften gegliedert: Es sind wirklich viele Sprachen angesprochen.

loc.gov
Library of Congress
Four Centuries of British-American Relations
Common Language, Separate Voices

(E?)(L?) http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/british/brit-6.html

When the seventeenth-century settlers brought the English language to America, they immediately and necessarily began to adapt it to their new environment. These changes were noted early and criticized by purists on both sides of the Atlantic. However, after the Revolution, Americans began to take pride in their own form of English. Noah Webster (1758-1843) was the major early proponent of American meanings and spellings over British ones and published the earliest American dictionary, An American Dictionary of the English Language (1806). During the years since Webster, language differences have continued to develop, demonstrating the truth of George Bernard Shaw's oft-repeated observation that the two nations are "divided by a common language."
...


M

Malecite-Passamaquoddy
Language of US (W3)

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pqm


(E?)(L?) http://www.language-museum.com/


(E?)(L1) http://www.native-languages.org/index.htm#tree


Maliseet-Passamaquoddy
Language of US (W3)

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pqm


mla
Modern Language Association

(E?)(L?) http://www.mla.org/
Founded in 1883 by teachers and scholars, the Modern Language Association promotes the study and teaching of language and literature.

mla
Language Map - US

(E?)(L?) http://www.mla.org/census_main


(E?)(L?) http://itre.cis.upenn.edu/%7Emyl/languagelog/archives/001069.html

A Map of Languages in the United States
The MLA Language Map is intended for use by students, teachers, and anyone interested in learning about the linguistic and cultural composition of the United States. The MLA Language Map uses data from the 2000 United States census to display the locations and numbers of speakers of thirty languages and seven groups of less commonly spoken languages in the United States. The census data were based on responses to the question, "Does this person speak a language other than English at home?" The Language Map illustrates the concentration of language speakers in zip codes and counties. The Data Center provides actual numbers and percentages of speakers.


N

nytimes.com

(E?)(L?) http://www.nytimes.com/2002/05/18/arts/18GEST.html?pagewanted=all&position=top
Some Language Experts Think Humans Spoke First With Gestures - By EMILY EAKIN (kostenlose Registrierung)

O

P

Passamaquoddy
Language of US (W3)

(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=pqm


pbs
Public Broadcasting Service

(E?)(L2) http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/science/jan-june03/email_1-6.html
Jesse Sheidlower was on The Newshour with Jim Lehrer last night (6 January, 2003). They did a feature on how email and electronic communications is changing the language. Jesse was one of two linguists interviewed. The other was Patricia O'Conner, who has written an email style guide.
It was an excellent piece, one of the best examples of media coverage of a linguistic issue that I've seen. A RealAudio version of the story is available at http://www.pbs.org/newshour/newshour_index.html.
(A: dawi, ADSL)

Q

R

S

Sherpa
Language of USA
Sprache von USA
Language of US
Sprache von US

(E?)(L?) http://users.elite.net/runner/jennifers/Greetings%20S.htm#Sherpa

Sherpa [xsr] (Nepal.)


(E?)(L?) http://www.ethnologue.com/country/US

Sherpa (500)


(E?)(L?) http://www.ethnologue.com/language/xsr


(E?)(L?) http://www.language-archives.org/language/xsr

OLAC resources in and about the Sherpa language


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=Sherpa
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "Sherpa" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1840 / 1880 auf.

Erstellt: 2014-08

shetter
Language Miniatures
by William Z. Shetter

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/

Mini-essays by William Z. Shetter about human language in its endless kaleidoscope of aspects, such as the social, the mental, the historical, the structural.

A new essay will appear on this page around the first of every month. Occasionally there will be an 'extra' sometime in the month.

These Miniatures are all written and illustrated especially for presentation on this website. They are the work of William Z. Shetter, a retired university professor of foreign language and linguistics.


LINKS to The eleven categories (listed by title and subtitle only)

Our English language | Our vocabulary | English in society: using the language | Some varieties of English | Things to know about many languages | Language and culture | Languages in history | How language happens | Grammar: how language works | Other things about language | April Fool!

Die Zeitangaben bei den einzelnen "Sprach-Miniaturen" lassen erkennen, dass seit Oktober 1998 monatlich (meist) zwei neue 2-seitige Artikel eingestellt wurden. (24.02.2006)

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/allmins.html
LINKS TO ALL LANGUAGE MINIATURES (2006-03-06)

(E3)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/phoneteng.htm

200. "Though the Tough Cough ..." Phonetic spelling to help but not replace (Sep 08) Anyone who has learned to read and write English knows that the spelling system is not truly phonetic. Devising a phonetic transcription to help those who learn to read and write English is simpler than you might imagine.


(E3)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/verbpinker.htm

199. Cram, Drizzle, Scatter, Twist, ... It's a very physical world we talk about (Aug 08) Concepts such as substance, space, time and force are composed in our minds in a sort of conceptual infrastructure. We get a glimpse of this when we observe the large number of verbs that describe the handling of physical objects.


(E3)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/dual.htm

198. It Takes 2 to Tango Singular, dual and plural number (Jul 08) In most languages, forms of nouns, pronouns or verbs make a clear distinction between singular and plural. Some also have special forms for when just two of something are being referred to. This is what we call the dual number.


(E3)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/budge.htm

197. This is Worth a Red Cent Those curious 'negative-only' expressions (Jun 08) That comically odd title is like a number of expressions in English that only sound right if used with a negative 'not'. Here we're taking a look at these, and also words with the negating prefix 'un-' like unwieldy that, similarly, lack a counterpart without it.


(E3)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/inversion.htm

196. A Tricky Shell Game in English Moving that verbal pea to the right spot (Jun 08) Imagine the simple English sentence My brother brings something good. We can ask a question about this in either of two ways: Who brings something good? or What does my brother bring? The verb bring has moved to a different place in the second, and that's the trick.


(E3)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/wordchamp.htm

195. A Fingertip Dictionary What's that foreign word mean? Just click on it (May 08) Today as much as a fifth of all the pages on the web are in a language other than English. There is an increasing need to be able to read this ever-expanding material, and a website called WordChamp offers some quick aids to the reader.


(E3)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/evidentialsGD.htm

194. "He knows who took it" He said that, but are you guaranteeing its truth? (May 08) The grammatical strategy of many languages obliges the speaker to specify the reliability of what is said, such as whether facts are based on personal observation or hearsay. These evidential forms may seem exotic but we also find them in the closely related German and Dutch.


(E3)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/metathesis.htm

193. Asking and Axing Speech sounds doing a dance around each other (Apr 08) Speech sounds in sequence influence each other in a variety of ways, one of which is metathesis, the seemingly random switching of the order of - usually two - consonants or vowels. There are some languages in which this process is regularized.


(E3)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/globish.htm

192. An International 'English-Lite' How Globish attempts to fill this need (Mar 08) Around the world millions of people with little or no formal education in English need to rely on it the best they can for rudimentary communication. Here we look at a simplified and standardized way their needs can be met.


(E3)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/accomplishment.htm

191. Accomplishing and Achieving Maybe these aren't as synonymous as we thought (Feb 08) For most of us speakers of English, 'to accomplish' and 'to achieve' have essentially the same meaning. By means of a number of examples, we show here that in ordinary usage we are in fact making a rather clear distinction between them.


(E3)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/origins.htm

190. The Origin Question Again Not only how, but why we acquired language (Jan 08) We consider again the age-old question of the origins of language. We take up the crucial question of what adaptive advantages the possession of language could have conferred on the human species.


(E3)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/middle.htm

189. This Essay Reads in Three Minutes But that's an odd thing to say, isn't it? (Dec 07) When we say a sentence like This shirt washes in cold water, where the grammatical subject (this shirt) is receiving rather than performing the action, we are using what is known as the middle voice. It is not the same as active or passive.


(E3)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/hangul.htm

188. A two-dimensional alphabet The elegant Korean writing system (Nov 07) In writing Korean, each 'character' in the Hangul script is a syllable block composed of two or more consonant and vowel letters. They obey prescribed arrangements, and we look at what some of the rules are.


(E3)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/well.htm

187. "Well" She Said And was communicating a lot with that word (Oct 07) We all hear and use that little introductory word well more frequently than we're aware. We ask just what it means, and suggest that it serves an important social function in a conversation.


(E3)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/wikilangs.htm

186. Multilingualism in Wikipedia A genuinely international enterprise (Sep 07) By now nearly everyone who uses the Internet hashad occasion to consult the online encyclopedia Wikipedia, currently consisting of over eight million articles. Here we take a look at the distribution of the over 250 languages in which Wikipedia artricles are written.


(E3)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/piraha.htm

185. The Concrete Present Here's a language that never leaves it (Aug 07) The Pirahã language spoken in the Amazon has recently been the subject of some notoriety. It shows some simplicities of structure that appear to set it apart from the universal design features of human language. There are possible cultural reasons for this.


(E3)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/ditransitive.htm

184. That's the Object Look what happens when you have two of them (Jul 07) We can say either 'Alice gave money to the organization' or 'Alice gave the organization money'. If this is hardly different from 'Alice donated money to the organization', then why does 'Alice donated the organization money' sound so wrong?


(E3)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/decay.htm

183. Going to the Dogs Language change perceived as decay (Jul 07) We regularly welcome new developments in science and medicine as improvements over the past, but not innovations in our language. Why IS change in a language almost invariably condemned as some kind of 'degeneration'?


(E3)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/binomials.htm

182. No Mirrors and Smoke Here Does that sound all right? (Jun 07) We all know large numbers of set expressions that consist of two words joined by and (apples and oranges, day and night, black and blue, by and large). Some of them sound just as good with the order reversed, but many do not. Why could this be?


(E3)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/typolcycle.htm

181. The Linguistic Wheel Turns Language change viewed as a cycle (May 07) The grammatical strategies of languages differ widely:while some depend on arrangements of isolated words, others rely on inflections and derivations of varying complexity.It is possible that these rough categories evolve into each other.


(E3)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/way.htm
180. Ponder your Way into this One What is that word way communicating here? (Apr 07) Suppose you say these rather ordinary sentences: He elbowed his way through the crowd She’s groping her way along the narrow city streets It was only with difficulty that I eased my way into that tight chair. and now think about that common word way. When you use it in this kind of sentence, you seem to be saying that there is movement along a path, and that there is some kind of barrier (crowd, maze of narrow streets, tight chair) to be overcome. You're using the verb to describe the means by which it is overcome (to elbow, to grope, to ease). This ‘barrier’ may be physical, but it can also be a more abstract or a social one. Suppose you say He bought his way into the exclusive country club She married her way into an upper-class family Here you seem to be saying that both of them overcame social barriers in a specific manner. A few further examples will help you see how many kinds of barrier there can be - ... to continue

(E3)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/arabnames.htm
179. Here's Mohammed And now for the rest of his name (Mar 07) In our English-speaking culture, we’re used to a person’s name being ‘First-Middle-Last’, something like Frank Lloyd Wright or - using the maiden name in the middle - Sandra Day O’Connor. So when we see a name from another culture, we naturally enough interpret it in the same familiar terms. When the president of Egypt has the name Gamal Abdul Nasser, his first name is Gamal and his last name looks like Nasser, so in our media he’s known as ‘Mr. Nasser’ from then on. The only trouble with that is that Arab names are put together on a rather different basis, and that makes misunderstandings and misinterpretations inevitable. In a system that has a great deal of variety, we can distinguish a few basic customs... to continue

(E3)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/grammaticalization.htm
178. The Language Machine It wears out words and 'recycles' them (Feb 07) All languages are undergoing change all the time. This often results in the shortening of a word or a fading of its meaning. Yet languages never 'decay away' but are constantly renewing themselves by means of a process known as grammaticalization.

(E3)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/remacadamized.htm
177. This Road is Remacadamized The impartial give-and-take of languages (Jan 07) When societies are in intensive cultural contact with each other, many aspects of the languages get borrowed back and forth. In English we find many examples of words made up of contributions from two or more other languages.

(E3)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/aymara.htm
176. Facing the Past Time and space is an inescapable topic (Jan 07) Recently there were claims in the media that the Aymara people in the Andes appear to have a 'reversed' view of the flow of time, with past extended in front and future behind. We take a critical look at these claims.

(E3)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/invented.htm
175. Language and Thought Inventing the one to shape the other (Dec 06) As a way of expolring the complex relations between language, thought and behavior, for many centuries imaginary languages have been constructed. Some of the most imaginative have appeared as science fiction.

(E3)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/sentencecpd.htm
174. A Think About it Essay Another way we put words together (Dec 06) In English we can readily form an infinite number of compounds using various parts of speech. In the colloquial language we broaden this considerably by forming compounds in which the first member is a whole phrase.

(E3)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/linguistlist.htm
173. Language Online Finding your needle in a linguistic haystack (Nov 06) Welcome (back?) to Language Miniatures. You’re reading on this website, so you probably have some interest in language matters. The question is, if you’re visiting for the first time, how you came across it. Were you just surfing? Did you Google some words like ‘essays on language’ (or maybe ‘linguistics for dummies’)? Did you find a link somewhere? How come you’re reading this one rather than some other? The number of sites on the web the theme of which is language and linguistic topics is at least well up there in five or six figures. So finding the one that offers solid information at an appropriate level for you is anything but an easy task. Given the very modest length of our Miniatures, it would be foolhardy indeed to even begin to survey something as vast and unwieldy as ‘language/linguistics on the web’. But we’re in luck: all we have to do is explore for a few minutes one single site that can serve as your source for all you will probably ever want to know about language and the field of linguistics. Click now on the site that deservedly describes itself as The world’s largest online linguistic resource: The LINGUIST List [//linguistlist.org] (unless of course you accessed the Miniatures via that route). Where do we begin? to continue

(E3)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/amerind.htm
172. The World through Other Eyes Making distinctions we might not think of (Oct 06) In English, if you want to speak correctly about several objects, you have no option but to use the plural form (one apple, some apples). But in Chinese and many other languages, there is no grammatical plural, the meaning being left to context - that word ‘some’ indicates plural well enough. Second example: in English you have no choice but to specify the gender of someone referred to (you must choose either he or she), whereas Chinese speakers with their pronoun ta for both don’t make any such distinction. The point here: In both cases, one language’s grammar is obliging speakers to recognize certain meaning distinctions by having to choose between grammatical forms (noun plurals, pronoun gender) while another imposes no such obligation. It was with grammatical obligations like this in mind that a linguist wrote recently A subtle but pervasive way in which languages differ is in the distinctions they allow speakers to express easily and those they require speakers to observe in order to speak grammatically. To find radical differences in distinctions that languages oblige their speakers to make, we can hardly find a better source than the many languages spoken for thousands of years on our own North American continent"... to continue

(E3)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/dolphins.htm
171. Animals Can’t Use Words But are some able to name themselves? (Sep 06) In nature many animal species live in social bands ... For these groups to keep the social cohesion that is vital to them, they have to be able to send and understand some kind of signals to each other. In thick forest, rugged country or under sometimes murky water, these communications most often take the form of audible signals to each other. Think of how social animals like elephants, hyenas, apes, penguins, wild geese, sea lions, whales and many others communicate with each other to keep track of where members of the band are. Their vocalizations serve to keep the group together but without singling out individuals. In many species, members do seem to recognize voices but they don’t seem to have the ability to mimic this voice in any way that would address or refer to a member of the same species as an individual. We social humans can of course do all this too ... And like many animals, we can easily identify an individual by the distinctive sound of a voice. But we do something else that animals don’t seem to: an individual has an identifiable name that can be used by anyone to address or refer to that person. So our socially-cohesive signals seem to contain an individualizing element, a label that is available to any member of the species. The name keeps its identification with a certain individual even when all voice qualities are removed - such as when the name is produced synthetically. Think about it for a minute: this is a really significant difference. We are seeing a clear distinction between the way humans use names and the absence of any true naming instinct among other animals. Now we can begin to see the significance of recent investigations into dolphin communication in the wild. to continue

(E3)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/stranding.htm
170. A Preposition Is a comfortable word to end a sentence with (Aug 06) Here are a few little sentences such as you can hear around you every day. We talk about him We ride in the car You put it on the table I open it with a knife Notice that each one of these has a preposition in it. And following right after each preposition is the person or thing affected by it, its object. As all who speak English know, in some circumstances, such as when we want to say something extra about the preposition’s object, we can move it to a position earlier in the sentence. But notice again: the preposition doesn’t come along with it but stays where it was, following the verb: He is the one we are talking about This is a comfortable car to ride in Here is the table you can put it on Hand me a knife to open it with You’ll agree, won’t you, that the sentences in the second are just as correct and normal as the first? That preposition at the end of the sentence no longer has its object standing immediately to the right of it, but the preposition’s object is clearly there, just switched to a position earlier in the sentence. This common operation is called preposition stranding, which we can define as ‘the syntactic construction in which a preposition appears without an object.’ Note that word ‘appears’ or ‘appears to be’, because the object has not disappeared. to continue

(E3)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/suffixy.htm
169. This is a Suffixy Essay A popular way of deriving an adjective (July 06) Miniature No. 167 seemed to be exhibiting the rather ‘prefixy’ grammar of Indonesian, No. 86 suggested that the Bantu languages Zulu and Xhosa have a tendency to be ‘clicky’, No. 20 that Navajo is notably ‘verby’, and that No. 9 shows Georgian with its gnd-, brjg-, mtsvrtn- etc. to be famously ‘clustery’. All four of those words in quotes may well be new to you, and yet you probably had no trouble understanding what they’re saying. We can add the suffix -y to just about any other word and communicate the meaning “having a quantity of,” “some of the quality of” or “reminds one of.” But -y hasn’t always been so widely applicable (productive is the term), and that’s an interesting story... to continue

(E3)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/worldenglish.htm
168. The World Speaks English So are other languages destined to disappear? (June 06) If English is your mother tongue, you might be curious as to how many of us there are. English is the native language of something like 380 million people, and that is between six and six and a half percent of the world population. If it isn’t your first language, the fact that you’re reading this means that you have learned English - you probably use it somewhere between ‘hesitantly’ and ‘fluently’, possibly even with little trace of an accent. And you have a lot more company than native speakers, by several orders of magnitude: the number of people around the world who speak at least serviceable English is now estimated at closing in on two billion, which is around a third of the total world population. This ability to communicate in one single language around the globe is unique in world history. You’ll hardly need a reminder of how English is used in international communication: computers and e-mail, internal correspondence in corporations, international conferences, airline traffic control and flight attendants - and this is only the beginning. The question we’re leading up to here is: What kind of English? to continue

(E3)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/indonesian.htm
167. The Orangutan Makes Batik Looking deeper than words into another language (May 06) Indonesian verb forms make a sharp distinction between whether a person or thing is affected by the action (transitive) or not (intransitive). Pairs of verbs sometimes reveal distinctions we might not have thought of.

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/animate.htm
165. A Rock, a Fish, and Lee Grammar and degrees of consciousness (Mar 06) Often in English we unconsciously observe grammatical distinctions depending on whether what we are talking about is animate or inanimate. This distinction is found in the grammars of languages throughout the world.

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/doublemodal.htm
164. You Might Could Read This Some expressiveness in regional speech (Feb 06) In standard English we normally use one modal auxiliary at a time, but in many forms of regional speech, combinations of them are used, resulting in a large variety of subtle shades of meaning.

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/camelcase.htm
163. CamelCase Or, a case of recent spelling inventiveness (Feb 06) Upper case or CAPITAL letters have long had many uses, such as beginning a proper name or a sentence. A spelling convention that has been developing in recent time is the use of a capital in the middle of a word.

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/euphemisms.htm
162. Language has its Powers There are some words we often avoid saying (Jan 06) A common feature of the way all of us speak is the use of euphemisms, words that deliberately avoid some less pleasant or 'stronger' word. We ask what impels us to use euphemisms, and look at examples from the area of religion.

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/subjunc.htm
161. We Ask that YOU BE Alert Imagining what we think should happen (Dec 05) Most verbs have the function of describing something ('I was there'). But on the occasions when we want to express a wish or imagined happening ('If I were there'), we use the subjunctive.

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/tlingit.htm
160. Talking about Beliefs The Alaskan Tlingit language today (Nov 05) Since November is Native American Heritage Month, we might pause a moment to consider a language spoken in the Alaska 'panhandle' by a shrinking number of people. What is the future of Tlingit language and their traditional culture?

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/phoneconv.htm
159. Ear-only Conversations The telephone and social interaction (Nov 05) A telephone conversation between two people is divorced from most of the normal complexities of social interaction. So it is about as basic as spoken communication can get. In the opening seconds the partners quickly establish their interaction.

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/loanpron.htm
158. A hotto doggu or a hanbaaga? English words clothed in foreign sounds (Oct 05) When English words are borrowed into another language, normally we expect pronunciation to be modified. Just in what ways depends on pronunciation habits in the borrowing language. Japanese provides some striking examples.

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/timespace.htm
157. Some Weighty Arguments But how can something abstract be heavy? (Sep 05) We find it hard to talk about time without reaching for space metaphors. The way we think of time as stretched out in a long line can conceal some tricks in interpretation.

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/irishgaelic.htm
156. From Gaeilge to English The Irish language in Ireland (Aug 05) Irish Gaelic has recently been recognized as one of the official languages of the European Union. The language is the vehicle of an ancient culture rish in story and song. How is Irish Gaelic faring under the current pressure from English?

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/folketym.htm
155. A Chaise Longue is for lounging, right? (July 05) Some words, often from another language, seem to have no connection to any familiar words. Occasionally we - largely unconsciously - reshape their pronunciation or spelling to make them seem to relate to words we already know.

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/nountense.htm
154. My Wife-to-be, Ex-husband But calling a person past or future?? (July 05) In most languages, an expression of time (past, present or future) is the function of the verb using the grammatical mechanism of tense. But in some languages the noun or pronoun functions as the bearer of tense indication.

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/ideogram.htm
153. Rx: Words worth a lb of Au or, Prescription: words worth a pound of gold (June 05) Most letters suggest the pronunciation of a word, but occasionally letters stand for a word without indicating its pronunciation. Examples are the italicized words in the title. Like the numerals, they ease international communication.

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/interrogsign.htm
152. Going to Read this? Sign languages and that rise in the voice (June 05) Signed languages are not mutually intelligible across languages. Yet they show a few surprising similarities around the world. The most striking example is the ways questions are asked.

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/deferred.htm
151. "I'm parked out back" Things are not always what they seem (May 05) We have a somewhat amusing way of occasionally referring to someone or something by means of an expression that relates to rather than directly denoting. Like saying "I'm parked" when we're really referring to "my car".

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/isolates.htm
150. Orphans with no Families Languages missing genetic relationships (Apr 05) Nearly all the 6000 languages around the world can be grouped into language families (such as our own Indo-European family), but there are a few dozen languages that cannot be related to any family.

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/numeral.htm
149. A Fivesome of Numerals Evidence for counting in the distant past (Apr 05) The names of the numbers we use every day give a few suggestive insights into some stages in which our early ancestors may have started counting objects.

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/we.htm
148. Do WE Agree with This? We find a world of possibilities in that 'we' (Mar 05) The pronoun 'we' is another of those little words like 'the', 'and', 'here', 'now' where the meaning we understand is almost entirely dependent on the context.

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/enrollments.htm
147. 200 Now Learning Samoan Americans and foreign languages (Mar 05) A national survey of U.S. enrollments in foreign languages in 2002 showed a dramatic increase when compared to the results of a 1998 survey. What this might mean in the 2005 'Year of Language Study'.

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/uniquedes.htm
146. CA's LAX Gets an A The alphabet and unique designation (Feb 05) Today we more and more have need to assign unique labels, often using 2 or 3 letters of the alphabet. But they are usually not random, taking account of our human need to recognize and remember what is being labeled.

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/become.htm
145. Getting interested How we talk about becoming some way (Feb 05) In English we commonly say things like become aware or get well when we want to indicate the beginning of some condition we're describing. The interesting side of this is that not any verb can be used with any adjective.

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/spanishusa.htm
144. An Hacienda in Colorado Spanish is still alive (and well?) in the U.S. (Jan 05) We take a look at Spanish in the U.S., not from a geographical or numerical point of view but asking the question: how is the language faring embedded in an English-language environment?

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/reduplication.htm
143. No Hocus-Pocus Here! Repeating a word or syllable (Dec 04) That process of repeating (for example so-so or heebie-jeebies) is called reduplication, and it is very common in languages throughout the world to convey a variety of meanings.

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/infinite.htm
142. Breaking New Ground A sentence nobody has ever said before! (Nov 04) The subconscious rules and patterns we use in forming sentences allow us to routinely create an infinite number of sentences. Any sentence we hear or see may in fact have never been used before.

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/errors.htm
141. Slips of the Tongue What errors in speech reveal (Nov 04) Errors we all make in speech are usually promptly corrected or go entirely unnoticed. But a look at some typical ones can tell us a great deal about how we go about processing language in our minds.

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/childsign.htm
140. Reinventing Language? Deaf children gesturing do it routinely (Oct 04) Those who are born without hearing into families in which sign language is not used will invent their own gesturing systems. Remarkably, these are not just gestures to make wishes known but systems with all the main characteristics of true language.

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/definitart.htm
139. The Case for THE The definite article around the world (Sept 04) We compare our English the with the ways the definite article behaves in several other languages, and find similarities but also some striking differences. We also ask the question whether all languages have something like a definite article, and give some examples.

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/datverb.htm
138. Explaining an Idea TO you Acts like Telling an idea TO you. Or does it? (Aug 04) Verbs like give, show, tell, hand, send imply giving (etc.) something TO somebody. We say I tell the story to you and also I tell you the story. But other verbs that look similar can't do this: we can say I explain the story to you, so why not I explain you the story?

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/mlamap.htm
137. Armenian in Montana The colorful new interactive language map (July 04) The Modern Language Association now has on their website a map displaying - for the country as a whole down to a particular county - where 37 of the languages most commonly used in the U.S. are spoken. The number of speakers of each of these can be seen in colors on the map or in the census figures.

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/thspell.htm
136. THink THese THings THrough The TH-spelling, sound and symbol (July 04) This spelling is ambiguous in more than one way: two letters spell a single sound, but at the same time there are two distinctly different th-sounds, the voiceless one in think and bath, and the voiced one in these and bathe.

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/dogmap.htm
135. How Humans Learn Words Can apes, dolphins, even dogs do it too? (June 04) A recent article in Science magazine described a dog learning words in a way that resembled the 'fast-mapping' that a human child does, and this was widely featured in the press. A critical look at what is behind it.

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/disambig.htm
134. The Orange Juice Seat Or, the role of context in making sense (June 04) A phrase like the title or a whole sentence may be grammatically correct and yet sound like nonsense. But as users of the language, we're very skilled at finding ways of endowing it with sense.

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/vowelharm.htm
133. A Little Close Harmony Sounds of a language 'echoing' each other (May 04) 'Echoing' of neighboring consonants or vowels is something that occurs in all languages. In Turkish we find a particularly striking system in which vowels influence each other's color all through the word.

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/preserve.htm
132. Talking and the Mists of Time Future generations hearing how we sound (Apr 04) Digital technology offers increasingly diverse technologies for preserving records of our languages and what they sound like. But they are only as good as their continued accessibility. Some things that are being done about this

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/into.htm
131. Tempt you Into Pausing? Persuasion leading 'into' its results (Mar 04) The word into has meanings beyond the concrete 'to the inside of something'. It sometimes links two verbs together in interesting and very specific ways

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/finnswede.htm
130. My Language is my Identity But just what is "my language"? (15 Feb 04) A look at what it might feel like when you're a citizen of Finland but your native language is Swedish

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/IEorigin.htm
129. Our Indo-European Ancestors The peoples who migrated from somewhere else (1 Feb 04) A brief analysis of the article in Nature proposing that our IE-speaking ancestors migrated westward from Anatolia

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/langmuseum.htm
128. Hands-on Language A museum for the very young (15 Jan 04) Today we have many kinds of 'hands-on' museums for children. What would a museum like this devoted to language look like?

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/mutual.htm
127. Languages Without Subtitles Understanding speakers 'not from here' (1 Jan 04) The 'mutual intelligibility' of any two languages is a measure of how well speakers of each can understand each other without special study. But it is an inexact measure.

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/complem.htm
126. STOP TO SMELL the Roses But don't STOP SMELLING the roses (15 Dec 03) When a verb is introduced by another verb, as in They ordered me to go and They appreciated working with me, how do we know whether to use to - or -ing?

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/webtrans.htm
125. A Tough Nut to Crack Machine translation on the Web (1 Dec 03) Instant mechanical translation is easily available to everyone via the Web, and it does an intelligible but still rather crude job

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/yall.htm
124. Are Y'all Enjoying this One? A 'southernism' we all know (15 Nov 03) The most famous 'southernism' by far is y'all for you (plural), and today its use is speading far beyond the South.

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/definition.htm
123. Language is Human Behavior Using sounds and grammar to communicate (1 Nov 03) How a precise and useful dictionary definition is put together

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/possessive.htm
122. This Miniature's Interest The ways we use the possessive (15 Oct 03) The 'possessive' 's in English has quite a few meanings beyond simple possession

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/aspect.htm
121. Are you Reading This? Imperfective and Perfective Aspect (1 Oct 03) Many languages emphasize not only when an action takes place (tense) but how it is done (aspect). A look at the interaction of the two aspects of Russian

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/pragmatics.htm
120. The Words and the Message Do you always mean just what you say? (15 Sep 03) A brief exploration of what we mean by pragmatics in the study of language: the relation between what we mean and what we actually say

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/romance.htm
119. Latin and its Children Language change creating many from one (1 Sep 03) The Romance languages of today, all descended from Latin, offer a unique opportunity to observe how languages diverge over time

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/particle.htm
118. THROWING OUT a New Idea But without throwing the new idea out (15 Aug 03) In English many verbs have another little word associated with them, such as turn off or give up. Some meaning differences depending on where that little adverb belongs

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/iceman.htm
117. Mummified Language Concreteness in evaporated speech (1 Aug 03) A great deal has been learned about the life of that mummified body found frozen in the Alps a few years ago. But is there any way to guess what language he spoke?

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/ambig.htm
116. A Good Essay if not the Best Maybe the best? Clearly not the best? (15 Jul 03) All languages have a measure of ambiguity built into them, and it may be of a number of different types

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/flusa.htm
115. Our Language Symphony Many Americans speak not only English (1 Jul 03) A quick survey of the many languages spoken by U.S. citizens. Nearly all these speakers are bilingual and this is a national resource that should be treasured

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/turkestan.htm
114. Hidden Treasures Languages in (East) Central Asia (15 Jun 03) Several major language families exist side by side in this vast region

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/lexicon.htm
113. Language, Grammar, Verb, Noun Word meanings do a lot of networking (1 Jun 03) The vocabulary of any language forms complex, fine-grained networks relating the words of related meanings in a variety of ways. One of them is known as the lexical field.

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/finnish.htm
112. IN the Woods, ON the Lakes Expressing motion in location (15 May 03) The case system of the Finnish language makes many elaborate distinctions in talking about movement as it relates to space

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/handmt.htm
111. Point-and-Click English Translation in the palm of your hand (1 May 03) The recently developed (but still expensive) hand-held pocket PC contains a camera coupled to a translation device that offers instantaneous translation of signs

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/false.htm
110. False Friends Looking the same isn't always meaning the same (15 Apr 03) Words in any two languages that look alike but mean different things are called false friends and they easily betray the learner

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/future.htm
109. A Visionary Language Where the sole reality lies in the future (1 Apr 03) This tongue-in-cheek Miniature imagines a language that has only future tense and what some results of that might be

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/garden.htm
108. As You Read this Essay will slip in some new thoughts (15 Mar 03) Sentences that momentarily mislead the reader by implying a certain construction and then ending up differently (like the title and subtitle) are called garden path sentences

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/scripts.htm
107. Speech Made Visible The writing palette of the world's languages (1 Mar 03) The many scripts the languages of the world are written in derive from a very small number of writing systems

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/anysome.htm
106. It Takes Two to Tango The delicate balance between some and any (15 Feb 03) We use these two words all the time, for instance in the same sentence whether positive or negative, but our internalized knowledge that allows such effortless use is complex

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/illiterate.htm
105. Speech and Written Image Visualizing the first but without the second (1 Feb 03) There is evidence that illiterate persons perceive the relationship between ideas in a strikingly different way. Some questions about how writing guides our thinking

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/hittite.htm
104. A Far-Removed Relative The Indo-European family tree revisited (15 Jan 03) Hittite was an IE language spoken long ago in what is now central Turkey. Thousands of cuneiform tablets have been deciphered

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/accent.htm
103. "Pippil widda Eksent" People with an Accent, but how come? (1 Jan 03) What does a 'foreign accent' actually consist of? Some analysis of its various components

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/literally.htm
102. "That Literally Killed me" The elusiveness of word meanings (15 Dec 02) In many people's usage, the word literally is shifting its meaning from 'not figuratively' to 'I really mean it'. Some reflections on how words mean

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/2and1.htm
101. TWO for the Price of ONE Do some languages make superfluous distinctions? (1 Dec 02) Other languages will often make a distinction not familiar to us, having two words where we have one. But the opposite also happens

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/lingsci.htm
100. A Reflective Interlude What is 'the study of language' anyway? (15 Nov 02) A survey of the wide variety of ways to study language, all of which we group in the field we call linguistics. A look at how many of these have been the subject of the first 99 Miniatures

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/borrow.htm
99. Borrowers and Lenders Languages enriching each other (1 Nov 02) The ways languages are constantly borrowing from each other is illuatrated by the way for many centuries English has borrowed extensively from Latin and French

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/gername.htm
98. Herr Weissgerber meets Ms. Wisecarver German names in America (15 Oct 02) The four main ways in which German surnames are derived. Families brought these names fo America, where many of them have been anglicized

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/interrog.htm
97. Ask a Simple Question... Though how you ask it is anything but (1 Oct 02) The many complexities we subconsciously follow in asking various types of questions in English

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/Qvalue.htm
96. Harmony or Cacophony The Global Language System (15 Sep 02) Some commentary on the Dutch sociologist Abram de Swaan's book Words of the World: The Global Language System

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/onomato.htm
95. Your Mouse Just Went "CLICK" Speech sounds imitating natural ones (1 Sep 02) How languages around the world hear and imitate common sounds by means of speech sounds. A cross-linguistic exploration of onomatopoeia

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/caucasus.htm
94. A Linguistic Jigsaw Puzzle Languages in the Caucasus (15 Aug 02) The Caucasus is home to a complex mix of languages belonging to three major language families. The Caucasian family is a dense network of related languages in a small area

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/dialgeog.htm
93. What Part of the U.S. Are you From? Your speech is giving that away (1 Aug 02) The geographical distribution of dialect speech in the U.S. - especially the East and South - has been intensively studied for many years

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/exocen.htm
92. Hot Coffee and Hot Air "The coffee is hot", so why not " ... ? (15 Jul 02) The combination adjective plus noun can be either endocentric (hot coffee) or exocentric (hot air). An explanation of what we mean by this important distinction

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/machtrans.htm
91. Machines and Human Language Why do they still translate so clumsily? (1 Jul 02) Mechanical or machine translation (MT) has been intensively developed for years, but in spite of advances and the many practical applications today, it remains inexact. Do we know why?

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/frisian.htm
90. Brea en Griene Tsiis English really does have a "kissin' cousin" (15 Jun 02) The closest relative of the English language is Frisian, spoken mainly along the North Sea coast. Though many similarities are familiar-looking, a text in Frisian can look unintelligible to us

(E?)(L1) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/demonstr.htm
89. A Chat about THIS and THAT What people around the world point to (1 Jun 02) Demonstratives (this-that, these-those) exist in every language, but the distinctions made in pointing things out varyt widely

(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/cliche.htm

88. Read this with Bated --- The cons and pros of clichés (15 May 02) It is good advice to avoid clichés, at least the more shopworn of them. But although cliches have a rather bad press, they are indispensable and have their place in our usage


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/word.htm

87. YOULLMIXUPEVERYDAYWORDS How many words in the title? (1 May 02) Here we tackle one of the most elusive questions in linguistics: what is a word? Does what we write between spaces have a connection to what we know of its meaning?


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/click.htm

86. Eddies in the Speech Stream Exotic language sounds (15 Apr 02) Many languages have speech sounds that strike our ear as very unfamiliar. Among the most exotic are the click sounds in some of the Bantu languages in Africa. A new words about how they are produced


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/recover.htm

85. A Verbal Time Machine Listening in to the echoes of the past (1 Apr 02) Another tongue-in-cheek one: Analyzing long-dissipated sound waves to recover speech from the distant past


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/longcpd.htm

84. Web Site Language Miniature Thoughts Understanding long noun compounds (15 Mar 02) We have explored two-member compounds (Miniature No. 1), and now we go on to noun compounds made up of three to six members


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/standard.htm

83. That 'American English' Sound What we're doing with our pronunciation (1 Mar 02) Even though there is no official 'standard American English', we all follow a surprisingly similar standard of pronunciation usage. How does it originate and how is it propagated? What changes are going on now?


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/infer.htm

82. Voices from the Past Inferring pronunciations of long ago (15 Feb 02) There are no recordings of speech of more than a century ago, yet through a series of inferences from written sources we can get a reasonably good idea what it sounded like


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/zug.htm

81. Pull Enough to Pull it off The 'core meaning' we sense in a word (1 Feb 02) How a word can have a wide variety of meanings that are all somehow related is illustrated by the many meanings of the German word Zug


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/stresshift.htm

80. Does This Contrast Contrast? It matters which syllable gets the punch (15 Jan 02) Many 2-syllable words in English that can be either a noun or a verb have a predictable stress pattern: stress on the first syllable if noun, stress on second syllable if verb


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/parad.htm

79. The Language of Paradise Myths of the confusion of tongues (1 Jan 02) Myths around the world, of which the Tower of Babel myth is one, attempt to account for how come there are so many different languages


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/gene.htm

78. "My Genes Made me Do it!" Genetic pathways in language (15 Dec 01) A severe language disorder running genetically through a family has led investigators closer to identifying a gene that seems to play an important role in language


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/youpol.htm

77. Distance versus Solidarity The word 'you' and society's status lines (1 Dec 01) Many language, including most of the European languages except English, have two different words for you depending on some form of a 'polite' vs. 'familiar' distinction


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/aphasia.htm

76. Your Language Escapes Aphasia and what it reveals (15 Nov 01) Different types of aphasia resulting from injury or medical malfunction reveal two clearly distinct language centers in the brain, and two main types of language impairment result


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/chinese.htm

75. Chinese Writing What they see in those characters (1 Nov 01) Chinese characters may look like random scratches to us, but they are based on an ingenious system. Some analysis of how they are composed


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/light.htm

74. TAKE a Look Here Lightweights in the verbal world (15 Oct 01) A small number of verbs function as what is known as light verbs, having little specific meaning of their own but mainly serving to support a neighboring noun or other verb


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/major.htm

73. From CHINESE to IQUITO Giant languages (and tiny ones too) (1 Oct 01) The languages of the world are of vastly differing size, from Mandarin Chinese with many millions of speakers down to those spoken by fewer than a hundred people


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/eviden.htm

72. All of This is True But you'll have to take my word for it (15 Sep 01) Evidentials are grammatical devices in many languages by which the speaker is obliged to specify the source and reliability of something said. Some examples from Native American languages


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/colloq.htm

71. "Jeet Jet?" How we think we talk and how we really talk (1 Sep 01) When we write, we normally spell out individual words fully and clearly, but when we speak, if we don't want to sound artificial the result is often quite different


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/compar.htm

70. Odder, maybe the Oddest The many ways languages compare things (15 Aug 01) All languages have ways of comparing, but the ways they do it and the distinctions they choose to make vary widely


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/texting.htm

69. W8, dont UC? The 'Text Messaging' script (1 Aug 01) Among many cell phone users, a new form of written English is emerging: the 'text messaging' code. A few examples


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/state.htm

68. This Might Back you Down Those tricky 'change of state' verbs (15 July 01) There are some verbs in English that are often used in ways that seem to 'push the envelope'. Are we making grammatical mistakes or broadening the resources of the language?


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/beech.htm

67. Reading and Writing Books The ancient beech tree in our lives (1 July 01) Some exploration of the words for book, read, write shows that the beech tree once played an important role in the development of this aspect of the culture


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/india.htm

66. Speech, Script, State The colorful language garden of India (15 Jun 01) In India it is constitutionally provided that each constituent state is to declare its own official language. There are 18 of these, and mopst of them use a script unique to that language


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/deacon.htm

65. Human Language as a Virus Are we infected with the need to symbolize? (1 June 01) A discussion of Terence Deacon's book The Symbolic Species: The Co-evolution of Language and the Brain


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/welsh.htm

64. Appearances can be Deceiving Why we call two languages 'related' (15 May 01) The important concept of relatedness of languages is illustrated with some examples from Welsh, an Indo-European language related to English but unintelligible to us


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/eulangs.htm

63. EU Language Year 2001 Celebrating diversity but with a hangover (1 May 01) As the number of languages of the countries accepted into the European Union increases rapidly, the problems of translating between all these languages expand explosively


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/notions.htm

62. Notions about Language A quick quiz on your thoughts (15 Apr 01) The reader is asked what the answer would be to seven questions on common assumptions about language. Widespread responses to all seven are called into question


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/babel.htm

61. The Tower of Babel Is there a reality behind the story? (1 Apr 01) Another tongue-in-cheek one: archeological finds show that the Tower of Babel myth about the diversity of languages in the world is based on reality, an early form of computer technology


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/prim.htm

60. Me Tarzan, you Jane Are there primitive languages around? (15 Mar 01) The assumption one occasionally hears to the effect that somewhere there still exist languages in a primitive state of development is based on a confusion of "primitive linguistic structure" and "pre-technological/pre-literate culture"


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/transl.htm

59. At a Loss for Words The bilingual dictionary: which meaning? (1 Mar 01) Pitfalls in using a bilingual dictionary in translating from one language into another. How do we tell which of several equivalent meanings to choose?


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/case.htm

58. Signposts in Languages Showing us what's where in the sentence (15 Feb 01) The Japanese language has an elegant and 'learner-friendly' system of particles that act as signposts signaling which is the subject, which the object, and others


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/beat.htm

57. "X Beats Y" Synonyms on the sports pages (1 Feb 01) Newspaper stories about sports competitions offer an astonishing variety of ways of reporting that a given team beat another, showing once again the expressive resources our language offers us


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/rhythm.htm

56. This is Where it's At But it's not that big of a deal (15 Jan 01) Why do so many people so regularly throw in extra words such as that 'at' and 'of' in the title and subtitle? Some insight into this is gained when we consider the rhythms of speech


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/empty.htm

55. Want to Read This? Things there and yet not there (1 Jan 01) Sometimes as we speak an important word is omitted and merely implied, and often there are grammatical circumstances where a word must necessarily be omitted


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/cloth.htm

54. From Denim to Gauze Words from everywhere on our tongues (15 Dec 00) Thanks to millennia of trade, our words for many kinds of cloth have come to us along with the product from all corners of the globe


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/topic.htm

53. As to this Topic, All that follows is comment (1 Dec 00) A grammatical device in many languages called topic and comment labels the topic about to be said something about. Some examples from Chinese


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/dutch.htm

52. A POX on Them All! Diseases can make good cursing (15 Nov 00) Cursing someone by wishing some disease or disorder on them (as in "a plague on them all!") used to be common in European languages, but today the Dutch are the only ones who still do this on a significant scale


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/verb.htm

51. "In the Beginning was the VERB" Actors and their roles in the sentence (1 Nov 00) In a real sense, the verb is the nucleus of the sentence, and each one requires its own set of other parts of speech along with it to form a grammatical sentence


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/metaphor.htm

50. Input for your Database The human mind as just another computer (15 Oct 00) For a very long time, metaphors have helped us grasp some of the complexity of the human mind. In recent time it is the computer that has been providing most of the metaphors.


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/redund.htm

49. This Essay is Redundant The predictability in all languages (1 Oct 00) Redundancy plays a very important role in language. Stylistic redundancy should no doubt be avoided, but all languages necessarily employ a high degree of grammatical redundancy.


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/give.htm

48. Just GIVE me a Minute Expressing 'giving' in human societies (15 Sep 00) The word give is particularly interesting, since languages around the world treat the fundamental 3-way concept of someone giving something to someone in so many different ways.


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/arabic.htm

47. Cold Cuts Crowd in Deli Presenting grammatical personalities (1 Sep 00) The Arabic language provides some particularly clear examples of how a given grammatical function can be expressed unambiguously in the forms of words.


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/brain.htm

46. Bilinguals and the Brain Storing our language knowledge (15 Aug 00) Present-day scanning technology has made it increasingly clearer that one’s native language is stored in a different area of the brain than any language learned after the age of 8 or so.


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/syntax.htm

45. Visible and Invisible Words and what gives them life (1 Aug 00) When we think about language, the first thing in our thoughts are words. The grammar that ties them together is invisible to us, but it is there in all its marvelous complexity.


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/ethical.htm

44. My Dog Died on me Pronouns of 'caring' (15 Jul 00) A regular feature of many languages is the ethical dative, a pronoun indicating that someone - most often the speaker - is directly affected by what is said.


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/dangling.htm

43. Driving Along, the House Appeared Participles that 'dangle' (1 Jul 00) Here we take a look at the infamous dangling participle and a bit about why we so easily fall into them. Are some worse than others?


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/latin.htm

42. The Riot Mushrooms Is "The Mushrooms Riot" the same thing? (15 Jun 00) Latin is used as an example of a language that expresses grammatical relations with a rich set of inflections, doing the same job we do in modern English with many more words.


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/lojban.htm

41. Do you Speak Logic? An invented language with an attitude (1 Jun 00) Any natural language such as English often underspecifies or overspecifies the ‘logic’ of a situation, which for centuries has led to the invention of logical languages. A recent example is the one called Lojban.


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/herenow.htm

40. The HERE and the NOW But when is 'now', and where is 'here'? (15 May 00) The words here and now reflect a very primitive level of human understanding. Their reference depends entirely on context, what is being talked about.


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/women.htm

39. Female Grammar Men's speech and women's speech (1 May 00) In some languages, the style of speaking and even the grammar (that is, not just vocabulary) is distinctly different for women than for men.


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/family.htm

38. Siblings, Cousins, Ancestors ... Language families and the mists of time (15 Apr 00) The concept of a family of languages is illustrated by comparing some words in related Indo-European languages. Other well-investigated language families are also listed.


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/cats.htm

37. Catty Remarks New evidence for animal speech (1 Apr 00) This spoof elaborates on the ‘claim’ that cats - especially black ones - are more able to understand human speech than we were aware of.


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/voice.htm

36. "Computer: Go do it!" Speech recognition by machine (15 Mar 00) Computer speech recognition programs are constantly improving in reliability, but that last few percent of reliability is elusive, being dependant on social understanding that is uniquely human.


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/rless.htm

35. So Fah, Dahling, it's a Boah! What we communicate with(out) R after vowel (1 Mar 00) A recent study shows that the dropping of r after vowel - which most of us associate with coastal New England - can have a whole series of social implications.


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/whorf.htm

34. Language as a 'Lens' A kaleidoscope of different worlds? (15 Feb 00) One of the oldest philosophical questions about language, debated at least since the time of Plato, is whether the structure of a person’s language constrains or influences how that person thinks.


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/do.htm

33. Understand You Not These Words? What 400 years can do in a language (1 Feb 00) Today we have to use the auxiliary verb do in negative and interrogative sentences (She walks the dog but She does not walk the dog and Does she walk the dog?) but it was not always this way.


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/langs.htm

32. A Tower of Babel How many languages are there in the world? (15 Jan 00) The subtitle reports one of the most frequently asked questions about language. Though defining ‘a language’ is not as straightforward as it may seem, some totals are given.


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/cyber.htm

31. Do you Like this Cyberessay? New words for the new century (1 Jan 00) Just as any other language - especially those of advanced technological societies - English is constant expanding the meanings of words and inventing new ones. Some examples.


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/eskimo.htm

30. The Eskimos' 100 Words for Snow Why everybody seems to know this 'fact' (15 Dec 99) The assurance that “The Eskimos have 100 words for snow” has become an ineradicable part of the English language. Few are troubled by the fact that it is not based on any factual reality.


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/convers.htm

29. A Verbal Seesaw Our daily socialization in conversations (1 Dec 99) Probably the most common use of the language is the many casual one-on-one exchanges that we all participate in every day. Some analysis and a few details about this unique form of collaboration.


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/negation.htm

28. Nothing is Indispensable Why all languages have their way of saying 'not' (15 Nov 99) Some provision, in whatever grammatical form, for being able to say that something is NOT the case (negation) is fundamental to all languages, and is an essential human attribute.


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/kines.htm

27. Speaking is 'Body Language' Punctuating sentences with the eyebrows (1 Nov 99) Speaking is not just the articulation of a series of vowels and consonants, but is accompanied by an elaborate set of gestures and facial expressions.


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/writing.htm

26. Let me Write that Down A technological marvel we take for granted (15 Oct 99) We are scarcely to conceive of ‘language’ without its written form being in the forefront of our consciousness. Yet in the history of spoken language, writing is a relatively recent invention.


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/child.htm

25. Why, That's Child's Play Learning a language without even trying (1 Oct 99) Children perform the feat of learning their native language in an astonishingly short time. This acquisition proceeds everywhere, in all languages, according to a definite and predictable sequence.


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/causat.htm

24. 'Lie' and 'Lay' are Fraternal Twins The causative relation between pairs of words (15 Sep 99) English has a number of pairs of verbs related along a causative dimension (lie and lay=’cause to lie’), and many languages have a highly developed system of forming causatives. An example is Arabic.


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/the.htm

23. The Commonest Word in the Language The social role of the word "the" (1 Sep 99) The word "the" is so ubiquitous that we hardly notice it. But it has some surprisingly expressive syntactic and even social functions.


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/univ.htm

22. Chinese, English, Navajo, Zulu ... Is there anything they have in common? (15 Aug 99) Languages around the globe seem to differ from each other in an almost infinite number of ways. This looks at some things that all languages everywhere have in common.


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/rules.htm

21. There are Rules and 'Rules' An idea to always fix your sights on (1 Aug 99) Here we are dealing with a question about which many people hold strong opinions. What do we mean by ‘rules’ of language? A distinction is made between grammatical rules and social ones that happen to be about language.


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/navajo.htm

20. How Different can Languages be? The grammatical mosaic of Navajo (15 Jul 99) Some languages see the world in terms of categories that are totally different from English. This is illustrated by means of the Navajo verbs for handling objects of various consistencies.


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/headline.htm

19. British Left Waffles on Falklands Why do some headlines sound so funny? (1 Jul 99) In headlines, in the interest of brevity many key function words (prepositions, articles, pronouns) are left out. Occasionally this results in an unintended comical ambiguity.


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/alice.htm

18. Curiouser and Curiouser The language world Alice blunders into (15 Jun 99) In Alice in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass, Lewis Carroll created a dream world partly by using the English language in ways that are weirdly at odds with our ‘logical’ everyday English.


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/tense.htm

17. It Really IS Time you Thought Of the present, the past and the future (1 Jun 99) We explore what we mean by the tense forms of a verb (such as past, present, and future), and demonstrate that there is little match between these tense forms and the time meanings they supposedly convey.


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/@name.htm

16. "We Call that Symbol '@' ", She Said What do you think she called it? (15 May 99) We take a tour through the names by which the familiar symbol @ is known around the world. Its shape suggests a variety of names in different languages.


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/black.htm

15. "It ain't no cat can't get in no coop" The rich language of the inner city (1 May 99) The special language spoken by many African Americans, particularly in urban areas, is not ‘poor English’ but an expressive language with grammatical rules of its own.


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/ee.htm

14. When he Gazes at her, is she the Gazee? A simple suffix, but we communicate a lot with it (15 Apr 99) At first sight it looks as if the common and increasingly popular suffix -ee as in amputee, muggee means something like ‘the recipient of an action’, but we find that it has many more dimensions than this.


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/asl.htm

12. Silent Eloquence The sophistication of American Sign Language (15 Mar 99) ASL is a fully expressive language with a grammar of its own. By ingenious use of complex expressions and gestures in space, it is able to do many things beyond the capabilities of standard spoken English.


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/and.htm

11. And What's All This? 'What a word means' is not all that simple (1 Mar 99) The function of the word and is to couple two 'somethings' together, but it has many meanings well beyond that. In what sense does a word ‘mean’ something?


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/extinct.htm

10. The Dodo's Fate How languages become extinct (15 Feb 99) When a language is no longer spoken by anyone, we might say that it has ‘become extinct’. Today many of the world’s languages are ‘endangered’ and will disappear by the end of this century. A look at how this happens.


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/clusters.htm

9. Unpronounceable Sounds Every language has them - except English of course (1 Feb 99) Nearly all languages have speech sounds that are unfamiliar to us as English speakers. A look at some consonant combinations that seem oddly unpronounceable to us.


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/progress.htm

8. Is Silence Being Golden? Our English progressive is difficult (15 Jan 99) We use the progressive (as in You’re reading now) effortlessly practically any time we speak, and we are unaware of the many subtle distinctions that make it very difficult for learners of English to catch on to.


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/joyce.htm

7. Finnegans Wake English James Joyce's double focus (1 Jan 99) In his long novel Finnegans Wake, James Joyce plays with the English language in seemingly endless ways. He is constantly creating puns that awaken unexpected associations.


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/perform.htm

6. I Hereby Warn you ... Or, doing things with words (15 Dec 98) Sometimes when we use language we don’t only describe something (as in I hear you’re the winner) but intend the sentence itself as performing an action (as in I declare you the winner). We do this in multiple ways.


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/evolve.htm

5. The Evolution of Language From communicating to imagining (1 Dec 98) No one knows how or when language first evolved because past language did not leave us any evidence to trace. But we can make some surmises about how this might have proceeded.


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/they.htm

4. If someone wants to disagree, they can Can we really all be using wrong grammar? (15 Nov 98) Many people object to the use of a plural pronoun to refer to a singular, as in the title. But they fail to recognize that English has evolved here a useful non-specific - and therefore also gender-free - pronoun.


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/whistle.htm

3. Whistling a Language Communication by speech melody alone (1 Nov 98) There are languages in the world in which speech melody plays such an important role (tone languages) that a significant proportion of a message can be communicated merely by whistling sentences. Some examples.


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/pidgin.htm

2. Is 'Pidgin English' Just a Makeshift? A sophisticated bridge between languages (15 Oct 98) A pidgin is a modified form of a language used for communication by speakers of other languages who could otherwise not understand each other. Many languages have served as the basis for a pidgin.


(E?)(L?) http://mypage.iu.edu/~shetter/miniatures/cpd4.htm

1. A Bonehead's Headbone Noun compounds give a lot of bang for the buck (1 Oct. 98) Two-member noun compounds (as in race car, cat food) are a very common feature of English. Normally the first member limits the scope of the second, but the two members may stand in any of a variety of relations to each other.


T

U

ucr.edu
University of California, Riverside
Human Migrations and Language

(E?)(L?) http://www.faculty.ucr.edu/~legneref/endorse.htm

Discoveries in Natural History & Exploration

Dedication

The University of California engaged Dr. E. Fred Legner as Foreign Explorer in the Department of Biological Control, to search worldwide for beneficial organisms to combat invaded pests of medical and agricultural importance. In order to locate the place of origin of a particular pest species and its natural enemies he was required to consider many aspects of their history such as how did they arrive and how long had they been in the invaded territory. This naturally led to investigations of human migrations to the Americas, which ultimately led to a consideration of Pre-Columbian visitors from Europe and Asia. Numerous inscriptions on petroglyphs that occur all over North America provided leads to where the migrants came from, and provided clews to what pests they might have carried with them (VITA: E. F. Legner).
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.faculty.ucr.edu/~legneref/bronze/humanmig.htm

It is often possible to gain some insight into human migrations from ancient place names in a particular area and the languages spoken there. In addition, some of our languages are being regarded as “Invented” or “formulated” by linquists and clergy (see Invented). Following are links to some of the research being performed with languages that may indicate prehistoric travels of people around the world and their origins. However, recent research has revealed that the earliest known language was the West African or Igbo Language: see Catherine Acholonu]

Other Subjects = Basque Place Names in America, Africa & The Pacific


(E?)(L?) http://www.faculty.ucr.edu/~legneref/bronze/lingsubj.htm

HUMAN MIGRATIONS
Subject Index

Dr. Barry Fell’s translations of Petroglyph inscriptions in America have made us aware of Pre-Columbian visitors from Europe as long ago as the Bronze Age. Edo Nyland has expounded on a kind of Universal Language, which he has named The Saharan Language. Various dialects of it apparently were used over a large portion of the earth in Pre-Christian times. The study of linguistics may reveal events and migrations of humans over the millennia. This index provides links to the many interesting puzzles in human history that are now beginning to unravel.




Erstellt: 2013-06

Uni Illinois
The Web of Language - WOL

(E?)(L?) http://illinois.edu/blog/view/25

Dennis Baron's go-to site for language and technology in the news - bookmark Web of Language


Erstellt: 2014-12

Uni Michigan

(E?)(L?) http://www-personal.umich.edu/~jlawler/wow
A World of Words - Professor John Lawler's page for his freshman Etymology class contains an amazing number of language-related links. Why, there's even a link to the Dakota Language Home Page here!

Uni Pennsylvenia - Phonological Atlas

(E?)(L?) http://www.ling.upenn.edu/phono_atlas
Labov's Phonological Atlas of North America
home page of the TELSUR PROJECT at the Linguistics Laboratory, University of Pennsylvania
the Atlas of North American English [ANAE], (formerly, the Phonological Atlas of North America);

Uni Wuppertal

(E?)(L?) http://ntopac1.bib.uni-wuppertal.de/bibliothek.html/wup/ghb/node124.html
DPA-DQW Amerikanisches Englisch

useit
American English vs. British English for Web Content

(E?)(L?) http://www.useit.com/alertbox/american-british-english.html

Jakob Nielsen's Alertbox, December 1, 2008:
Summary:
Users pay attention to details in a site's writing style, and they'll notice if you use the wrong variant of the English language.
There are many differences between American and British English, including:
...


utep
Lurline Coltharp Collection of Onomastics

(E?)(L?) http://libraryweb.utep.edu/onomastics.html


V

verbatimmag
The Language Quarterly

(E?)(L?) http://www.verbatimmag.com/

Verbatim magazine, edited by Erin McKeen:
Verbatim is the only magazine of language and linguistics for the layperson. We write about words and their uses with verve and humor, concentrating on English in all its variety and all the fun parts of other languages. Names, puns and proverbs are also topics of interest. Puzzles, book reviews, SIC! SIC! SIC! and more round out each issue.


Das Angebot ist im Wesentlichen kostenpflichtig. Aber es gibt auch einige frei zugängliche Seiten (09.11.2004):

We're hoping to soon have the complete run of VERBATIM back issues available online, and searchable, too. Until then, this is what we have, in varying formats.

(E?)(L?) http://www.verbatimmag.com/all_toc.html


SIC! SIC! SIC! is a regular feature of every issue, in which we rely on readers to send us funny errors made in (thank goodness) other publications. (And those on signs, in form letters, etc., etc. We're capable of finding the funny errors in our own publication without help!) If you find a howler that you'd like to share, send it to either mailing address below or click here. (75 (kostenlose) Seiten)

Unter den (kostenpflichtigen) Beiträgen, die der Index "Authors and Articles" enthält, sind sicherlich auch einige interessante etymologische Abhandlungen:
Volume Number Author Title

vergil.clarku
Vergilian Society

(E?)(L?) http://www.vergil.clarku.edu/

Homepage der „Vergilian Society“ in Amerika. Auf der englischsprachigen Site finden Sie alle Informationen zur Organisation und ihren Veranstaltungen im Sommer 2006 – die Vergilian Society besitzt eine Villa am Golf von Neapel – und u.a. Links zu den „Classical Associations“ in Amerika.


Erstellt: 2012-05

visualthesaurus.com
McWhorter, John
Language Articles

(E1)(L1) http://www.visualthesaurus.com/cm/blogexcerpts/?page=35

Zimmer and McWhorter on Bloggingheads
September 17, 2010
On Bloggingheads, Visual Thesaurus executive producer Ben Zimmer joins fellow linguist John McWhorter to talk about a wide range of language issues, from new approaches to the teaching of English to the language of "Mad Men."
Watch the conversation here.
Article Topics: Linguistics, Blogs, Linguists, Language


(E?)(L?) http://bloggingheads.tv/videos/2714

John McWhorter (Time, Columbia University) and Benjamin Zimmer (The Visual Thesaurus, Language Log, On Language)


(E1)(L1) http://www.visualthesaurus.com/cm/blogexcerpts/?page=45

How Did People Sound in 1963?
September 4, 2009
The anachronistic dictionary that showed up recently on "Mad Men" was just the tip of the iceberg. Linguist John McWhorter argues that the supposedly authentic TV drama doesn't really capture how Americans spoke in the early '60s. Read all about it on his New Republic blog.
Article Topics: Media, Blogs, Language


(E?)(L?) http://www.slate.com/search.html#search=McWhorter

Lexicon Valley: McWhorter


Erstellt: 2016-12

voanews
Special English
Wordmaster
A Weekly Analysis of American English

"VOA" steht für "Voice Of America".

(E?)(L?) http://www.voanews.com/english/about/index.cfm

The Voice of America, which first went on the air in 1942, is a multimedia international broadcasting service funded by the U.S. Government through the Broadcasting Board of Governors. VOA broadcasts approximately 1,500 hours of news, information, educational, and cultural programming every week to an estimated worldwide audience of 134 million people.


(E4)(L2) http://www.voanews.com/specialenglish/about_special_english.cfm

Helping People Understand Their World
The Roots of Special English
On October 19, 1959, the Voice of America broadcast the first Special English program. It was an experiment. The goal was to communicate by radio in clear and simple English with people whose native language was not English. Special English programs quickly became some of the most popular on VOA. They still are. Special English continues to communicate with people who are not fluent in English. Over the years, its role has expanded. It helps people learn American English while they learn about American life and stay informed about world news and developments in science. It provides listeners with information they cannot find elsewhere.
...



(E?)(L?) http://media.voanews.com/documents/2009Edition_WordBook.pdf
VOA Special English Word Book

Der "Wordmaster" läßt einiges erhoffen, aber es handelt sich eher um eine Seite, die - mit interessanten Artikeln - an die englische Sprache heranführen soll.

(E6)(L2) http://www.voanews.com/specialenglish/wordbook-a.cfm

Search Results 1-10 of 576 for: "Wordmaster"


(E?)(L?) http://www.voanews.com/specialenglish/Wordmaster/2007-Archive.cfm

2007 Archives




(E?)(L?) http://www.voanews.com/specialenglish/Wordmaster/2006-Archive.cfm

2006 Archives




(E?)(L?) http://www.voanews.com/specialenglish/Wordmaster/2005-Archive.cfm
2005 Archives

(E?)(L?) http://www.voanews.com/specialenglish/Wordmaster/2004-Archive.cfm
2004 Archives

(E?)(L?) http://www.voanews.com/specialenglish/Wordmaster/2003-Archive.cfm
2003 Archives

(E?)(L?) http://www.voanews.com/specialenglish/Wordmaster/2002-Archive.cfm
2002 Archives

(E?)(L?) http://www.voanews.com/specialenglish/Wordmaster/2001-Archive.cfm
2001 Archives

(E?)(L?) http://www.voanews.com/specialenglish/Wordmaster/2000-Archive.cfm
2000 Archives

(E?)(L?) http://www.voanews.com/specialenglish/Wordmaster/1999-Archive.cfm
1999 Archives

(E?)(L?) http://www.voanews.com/specialenglish/Wordmaster/1998-Archive.cfm

1998 Archives


W

Windisch Language of US
Sprache in US

(E?)(L?) http://www.ethnologue.com/


(E3)(L1) http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=slv

...
Separated by the Karawanken Mountains from the larger group of Slovenes in Slovenia. Formerly called “Windisch” pejoratively, an archaic form of Slovene, heavily influenced by German. Some use dialects; others are losing dialect knowledge. Many speakers go to church, where they hear Standard Slovene.
...


wolframalpha
Languages

(E?)(L1) http://www.wolframalpha.com/examples/WordsAndLinguistics.html

Languages


Erstellt: 2011-10

wordexplorations

(E?)(L?) http://www.wordexplorations.info
Latin-Greek Cross References
Experience the wonder of words by focusing on the Latin and Greek references used in English.
Leider: The unabridged Latin-Greek Cross-Reference search area is available to paying subscribers only.

X

Y

yourdictionary
Archive of Language Articles

(E?)(L?) http://www.yourdictionary.com/library/archive-language.html
24.03.2008:





Z

Bücher zur Kategorie:

Etymologie, Etimología, Étymologie, Etimologia, Etymology
US Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika, Estados Unidos de América, États-Unis d'Amérique, Stati Uniti d'America, United States of America
Sprache, Lengua, Langue, Lingua, Language

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

McWhorter, John - WLI
What Language Is
And What It Isn’t and What It Could Be

(E?)(L?) http://www.penguinrandomhouse.com/books/308126/what-language-is-by-john-mcwhorter/9781592407200

A love letter to languages, celebrating their curiosities and smashing assumptions about correct grammar

An eye-opening tour for all language lovers, "What Language Is" offers a fascinating new perspective on the way humans communicate. From vanishing languages spoken by a few hundred people to major tongues like Chinese, and with copious revelations about the hodgepodge nature of English, John McWhorter shows readers how to see and hear languages as a linguist does.

Packed with big ideas about language alongside wonderful trivia, "What Language Is" explains how languages across the globe (the Queen’s English and Suriname creoles alike) originate, evolve, multiply, and divide. Raising provocative questions about what qualifies as a language (so-called slang does have structured grammar), McWhorter takes readers on a marvelous journey through time and place—from Persia to the languages of Sri Lanka—to deliver a feast of facts about the wonders of human linguistic expression.

John McWhorter is the author of the bestseller Losing the Race: Self-Sabotage in Black America, The Power of Babel: A Natural History of Language, and four other books. He is associate professor of linguistics at the University of California at… More about John McWhorter

Paperback
Published by Avery
Aug 07, 2012 | 240 Pages | 6 x 9 | ISBN 9781592407200


(E1)(L1) http://www.visualthesaurus.com/cm/evasive/

"What Language Is": How Bad is Our English?
August 18, 2011
Earlier this week we featured an excerpt from the linguist John McWhorter's new book, "What Language Is", in which he explains how the English language is essentially "disheveled." Here, in a second excerpt, McWhorter considers some questions that the chaotic history of English raises.
Continue reading...
Article Topics: Linguistics, Books, Language, Usage


(E1)(L1) http://www.visualthesaurus.com/cm/evasive/

"What Language Is": Language is Disheveled
August 16, 2011
In his new book, What Language Is, the linguist John McWhorter takes the reader on a guided tour of language as it really is, not how we might assume it to be. One of his keys to understanding language the way a linguist does is to appreciate that it is inherently messy, or "disheveled," as he puts it. In this excerpt, McWhorter uses the history of English as his example of just how disheveled language can be.
Continue reading...
Article Topics: Linguistics, Books, Language, Usage


Erstellt: 2016-12

N

Noll, Volker
Das amerikanische Spanisch
Ein regionaler und historischer Überblick

(E?)(L?) http://www.degruyter.com/view/product/246201

Reihe: Romanistische Arbeitshefte 46
DE GRUYTER MOUTON
überarbeitete und erweiterte Auflage
kleine Länder- und Namenkunde
eigenes Kapitel zum Spanischen in den USA
zahlreiche Übungsaufgaben

Produktinfo

Das vorliegende romanistische Arbeitsheft bietet Studierenden der Romanistik, Hispanistik und vergleichenden Sprachwissenschaft einen aktuellen Überblick zum amerikanischen Spanisch. Es unternimmt eine detaillierte, sowohl regional als auch historisch ausgerichtete, sprachliche Beschreibung im kontrastiven Vergleich mit der kastilischen Norm.

Aus dem Inhalt: der spanische Sprachraum, kleine Länder- und Namenkunde, ausgewählte Hilfsmittel zum amerikanischen Spanisch, Besonderheiten des amerikanischen Spanisch (Phonetik, Morphosyntax, Lexik) in länderübergreifender Darstellung, diatopische Gliederung, die koloniale Expansion mit Ausführungen zu indigenen Völkern und Sprachen, die Hispanisierung Amerikas, Thesen der sprachlichen Differenzierung, die Ausbildung hispanoamerikanischer Merkmale, das Spanische in den USA.

Neben einem aktualisierten Literaturverzeichnis enthält der Band auch einen praktischen Übungsteil.


(E?)(L?) http://www.degruyter.com/view/supplement/9783110340396_Contents.pdf

Inhalt


Erstellt: 2014-06

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Read, Allen Walker
Milestones in the History of English in America

(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/082236526X/etymologporta-20


(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.de/exec/obidos/ASIN/082236526X/etymologety0f-21


(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.fr/exec/obidos/ASIN/082236526X/etymologetymo-21


(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/082236526X/etymologety0d-21


(E?)(L?) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/082236526X/etymologpor09-20
Pads 86 Milestones in the Hist (Publication of the American Dialect Society)
Bibliothekseinband: 144 Seiten
Verlag: Duke University Press (Juni 2002)
Sprache: Englisch


Synopsis
A collection of essays by one of the premier historians of American English, "Milestones in the History of English in America" is a remarkable introduction to Allen Walker Read's work and the ways in which archival materials can illuminate linguistic history. This volume is divided into four sections: the emergence of American English as a distinct form and the attitudes of both Britons and Americans toward its development; the history of the most distinctive and widespread American coinage, "O.K."; euphemism and obscenity; and an autobiographical section that provides a fascinating portrait of a remarkable American scholar.


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